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Volume XXII. 


No. 1334 Chestnut Street, 




475 fiirerside ^TTiewl^IlT? 

■ion, .299 C"mar,Gfm^Cmik,fL I. 

Accepting the Reduction, 

Additions to Church, 

Affiliated Schools, 

Africa, Advance on Shores of Lake Ny 


Africa, Dr. Bennett's Arrival, 

Africa, Hope for, .... 

Africa, Liberia's Jubilee, 

Africa, Maibo Robbed, . 

Africa, Marriage and Divorce in, . 

Africa, Missionary Life in Zulu Land, 

African Colonial Enterprise, . 

Africa, Training of Boys, 

Africa, Transforming Power of Gospel 

Africa, Tribal Wars, 

Africa, Unique Bible, 

Alaska, A Good Investment, . 

Alaska, Dr. and Mrs. Marsh at Point 


Alaska, Letter from, 
Along; the Grand Canal, . 

American Board 

American Schools in Brazil, . 
Andrews, President E. B., 
Angell, President, .... 
Ancient City of Santa Fe, 
Appreciation of S. S. Work, 
Appreciative Words, 
Arizona, Letter from, 

Artesian Wells, 

Asheville Farm, .... 
Assembly Herald, .... 

Backing the Book, .... 
Barber Memorial Seminary to be Re 


Bible Examination, .... 

Bible for an Emperor, 

Bible Translation in Nineteenth Cen 

tury ... 25 

Book Notices, ..'.'. 150, 424, 510 
Brady, Governor John G., 498 

Brainard, David, . . . . . 421 
Brazil, American Schools, . . . 198 
Brazil, a Mother Converted, . , .189 

Bright Boy, 360 

Buddhists Welcoming the Gospel, . . 384 
Business, 83 

California, Letter from, . 

Chester, S. H., D.D 

China, Additions to Church, . 
China, a Fact, a Factor and a Factory, 
China, Anglo-Chinese College, Hang 


China, Backing the Book, 

China, Chinaman's Gift, . 

China, Country Work near Paoting-fu, 

China, Death of Mrs. Charles Lewis, 

China, Dr. Niles' Visit to, 

China, Female Education, 
























. 390 

China, Letters from, . . 124, 203, 286 
China, Light and Contentment in Lone- 
some Darkness, 188 

China, Li Hung Chang Again, . . 3 

China, Li Hung Chang and the Bible, . 82 
China, Medical Work, . . . .276 
China, Mr. Speer's Visit, . . . .110 
China, Rev. Gilbert Reid, . . 257, 445 
China, School at Nodoa, Hainan, . 17, 109 

China, Shanghai Press 29 

China, Tungchow College, . . . 190 

China, Typewriter in, .... 3 

Chinese Art, 376 

Chinese in Philadelphia, 6S 

Chinese Slavery in America, . . . 401 

Choy and Her Rescuer, .... 68 
Christian Education of Women in the 

Nineteenth Century, .... 5 

Christian Endeavor, A Possible Danger, 496 

Christian Endeavor, What Pastors Think, 496 

Christian Endeavor, Presbyterian, . . 412 
Christian Endeavor, Young; People's, 63, 

141, 217, 315, 409, 493 

Christian Literature in Persia, . . 65 
Christian Training Course, 222, 256, 322, 

418, 504 

Christian Story and Chinese Art, . . 376 

Christianity as a Civilizing Force, . . 387 

Christus Consolator, 354 

Church at Home and Abroad, Eleven 

Years in, 443 

Church at Home and Abroad, Report, . 10 

Church Erection, 4 

Church Erection, Assembly and Board, . 98 

Church Erection, As to Insurance, . . 36 
Church Erection, Presbyteries and the 

Board, 397 

Church Erection, Should Appropriations 

be Returned ? 455 

Church Erection, Value of, . . . 456 

Church Finance, 365 

Churches and Cities, .... 356 

Churches, Too Many ? 365 

City Population, 49 

Civilizing Force, Christianity as a, . 387 
Colleges and Academies, from Annual 

Report, 42 

Colleges and Academies, General Assem- 
bly's Action, 180 

Colleges and Academies, The Story, . 482 
Colleges and Academies, Treasurer of 

Board, 161 

Colleges of the New West, ... 92 
Commercial Influence of Foreign Mis- 
sions, no 

Common Sense in Church Beneficence, . 207 

Comparative Summary, Six Years, . 172 

Concert of Prayer, 448 

Continuing the Schools, . . . 299 

Country College, 94 



Country Work near Paoting-fu, . . 13 

Cover, Our New, . . 83 

Critical Situation, . ... 294 

Ciowther, Bishop, 506 

Cruelty to Prisoners, .... 349 

Culbertson, Miss, Death of, . . . 275 
Current Events and the Kingdom, 3, 81, 

159, 255, 349 

Cyclone in Michigan, .... 204 

Danger, A Possible, 496 

Dayton Academy, 185 

Death of a Home Missionary Family, . 360 

Delakoff, Pastor Jacob, .... 457 

Discovery of North America, ... 81 

Divine Power to Heal, .... 164 

Earnest Indian Inquirers, ... 50 
Education, Board of, before General As- 
sembly, 33 

Education, Important Action of Board, 101 

Education, Institutions Visited, . . 480 

Education in the United States, . . 349 

Educational Work, Missionary, . . 193 
Eliot, John, . . . . . .420 

Encouragement to Liberality, . . 107 

Fact, A, a Factor and a Factory, . . 20 
Famine Relief in India, . . . .221 

Feminine Side of Home Mission Life, . 206 

Fidelia Fiske, 323 

Fiji, Help from, 159 

Foreigners, 134 

Foreign Missions, Commercial Value, . 116 
Foreign Missions, Current Topics at the 

Board's Rooms, . 109, 187, 269, 375, 457 

Foreign Missions, Hopeful Features, . 15 
Foreign Missions in Pulpit and Prayer 

Meeting, 462 

Foreign Missions in Sunday-school, . 188 
Foreign Missions in the General Assem- 
bly, 15 

Foreign Missions, Measure of our In- 
terest, 461 

Foreign Mission Medical Work, . . 285 
Foreign Missions, Movements to Raise 

the Debt, 187 

Foreign Missions, Outlook for New Fis- 
cal Year, 15 

Foreign Missions, Theological Semina- 
ries and, 467 

Freed men, Consecrated Talents, . . 400 
Freedmen, Meeting Among the Lowly, . 399 
Freedmen, Report of Standing Com- 
mittee, 45 

Freedmen's Board, Agent for, . . 298 

Freedmen, Esler Memorial Chapel, . 486 

Freedmen, in Tennessee, .... 487 

Freedmen, Self-support, .... 4 

From Generation to Generation, . . 163 

Frontier Experience, .... 301 

Generous Gift, 16 

Giving, Methods of, 465 

Gleanings at Home and Abroad, . . 332 

Gleanings from Home Mission Letters, . 60 

God Has Provided, 174 

God Keeps and Guides, . . . .317 


Good Counsel, .... 
Gospel, Buddhists Welcoming the, 
Gospel, Purifying Power of, . 
Great Blow to Christian Education 
Great Commission, . 
Great Gain from S. S. Work, . 
Great Stone Face, 
Greece and Turkey, . 

Harrison, Ex- President, . 
Hausaland, .... 
Hireling Ministry, . 
Home Mission Appointments, . 
Home Mission Conference, 
Home Mission Debt Reduced, . 
Home Mission Contributions, . 
Home Mission Privations, 
Home Mission Reminiscences, . 
Home Missions, Proportions, . 
Home Missions, Results of the Year, 
Home Mission Topics for 1898, 
Hot Springs, Arkansas, . 
How One Pastor Sees It, . 
How to Help, .... 
How to Make a Missionary Church 
Hunan Yielding at Last, . 

Idaho, Denver, .... 
Idaho, Letter from, . 
Ignorance in Our Own Country, 
Immigration, Decrease of, 
India, British Rule Secure, 
India, Church in Furrukhabad, 
India, Death of Mrs. Chas. B. New 
India, From Western, 
India, Funerals in, . 
India, Marvels of Grace, . 
India, Medical Work, 
India, Rains in, . 
India, The Unrest in, 
India, Through Plague and Famine 
Indian Church, South Dakota, 
Indians, Education of, 
Indians, Theological School, . 
Indian Territory, Letter from, 
Indian Work in Arizonia, 
Ingleside Seminary, . 
Iowa, Letter from, . 
Islam Resuscitating, . 


Japanese Student, 

Japan, Inquirers at Hiroshima, 

Japan, Letter from, . 

Japan, Our First Medical Missionary, 

Japan, Reaping Time, 

Japan, Unity among Churches, 

Kansas, Letter from, 

Kind Deeds Gratefully Remembered 

Kind of Men Needed, 

Klondyke Climate, . 

Klondyke Missionaries, . 

Klondyke, The, 

Korea, .... 

Korea, Communion Sunday 

Yang, . 
Korea, Letter from, . 
Korean Liberality, . 


. 107 

. 384 

. 379 

. 264 

. 190 

. 107 

. 484 

. 349 

. 83 

. 349 

. 287 

215, 312 

. 361 

. 49 

. 205 

. 142 

. 205 

. 56 

305, 449 

. 179 

. 178 

. 69 

. 12 

. 349 





at Pyeng 



















Korea, Near Yiew of, 
Korea, Prince Eui Wha, . 
Korea, Pyeng Yang Field, 
Korea, Schools in, . 
Kurdish Convert, . . 

Lamp of Truth, 

Lao Country, New Opening in, '. 
Laos, A Christian Woman's Death, 
Laos, Chieug Hai, .... 
Laos, Chieng Mai Press, . 
Laos, Christian Endeavor Society, . 

Laos, Letter from 

Laos, Location of Chieng Mai, 

Laos, Mitcbell Memorial Fund, 

Law-abiding Citizens, 

Lean Hard, .... 

Leper Island of Molokai, . '. 

Let Us Have Peace, 

Let Your Light Shine, . . [ 

Liberal Education, .... 

Lichtenstein, Rabbi, Conversion of' 

Li Hung Chang, .... 

Little Letter in Rhyme, . 

Look Into This, 

Lord's Day, Observance of, .' ! 

Last Opportunity, . 

Lyman, Rev. F. I., Death of, . 

MacKay, George L., D.D., . 69 

McFarland, Rev. S. G., D.D., Death of! 16 

Manchuria, Encouragement in, 255 

Manchuria, Progress of Christianity in, ' 459 

Manse, What it did, . . . 456 

Marcus Whitman, ... 1 ' 494 

Marriage and Divorce in Africa, .' 386 

Marsh, Dr. and Mrs., . . ' 451 

Martha of Bethany, ..." 355 

Medical Missionary Itinerating, ' 283 

Medical Missionary on the Field, 279 
Medical Missionary Work, . . 278 285 

Medical Missionary Work in Persia, ' 281 

Medical Work, Pictures from, . ' 276 

Mercer Home for Disabled Ministers, ' 176 
Melungeons, Second Visit to the, .403 

Mexico, Itinerating, .... 272 

Mexicans, Romanists and, . ' 333 

Mexico, Press of Mexico City, . 30 

Michigan, Traverse City, . . 127 128 

Mills, Samuel John, . . 59 
Ministerial Necrology, 74, 152, 228^ 229,' 

Ministerial Relief, . . 332,512 

Ministerial Relief, Official Extract 'from 

Minutes of General Assembly, . 
Ministerial Relief, Only a Plate of Ice 

Ministerial Relief, Pressing Needs ' 
Ministerial Tenderness, . 
Minnesota, Letter from, . 
Missionary Advance on Shores of Lake 

Nyassa, .... 
Missionary Anniversary, . 
Missionary Calendar, 17, 115,' 190," 275^ 

Missionary Colleges. . . 378 '200 

Missionary Congress at Poughkeeps'ie, '. 109 
Missionary Life in Zulu Land, . . 143 





Missionary Sermon, The, 
Missionary Spirit in the Sabbath-schools' 
Mission Building, New York, 
Mission Newspapers, 
Missions and Social Evolution, 
Missions, Awakening an Interest ii 
Missions, Fresh Literature on, 
Missions, Historical Sketches of, 
Missions in the Seminaries, 
Missions, Reflex Influence, 
Missouri, Letter from, 
Moderator of General Assembly, 
Moderator Sheldon Jackson, .* 
Monod, Theodore, . 
Montana, Dedication in, . 
Montana, Items, 
Montana, Letter from, . 
Montana, Presbyterian Church in, 
Monuments to Heroes, . 
Moody, Mr., and Missionary Board 
Moral Element Lacking, . 
Mormon Church in Politics, . 
Mormon Priesthood, 
Moslem Call to Prayer, . 
Mott, Mr. J. R., on Missionary Educa- 
tional Work, 
Munising, Mich., 
Murray, Rev. John, . 

. 143 

138, 309 
. 128 

Nearest Cross, .... 
Nebraska, Letters from, . 
Nebraska, Missionary Conference, 
Nebraska, Notes on, .... 361 

Nebraska, Religious Work and Revival,' 51 
Nevada, Letter from, . . .309 
New Arithmetic, ... 43 

New Arithmetic for the Times, .' '. 318 
New England, Presbyterianism in, . 368 

New Mexico, Letters from, . . 138 309 
New York, Letters from, . . 137' 213 
North Carolina, Letter from, . . '137 

Northfield Appeal, .... 97] 

Northfield Training School, . .' .' 159 

Obligation of Science to Missionaries, . 145 
Oklahoma, Letter from, . . . .310 
Old Fort Dearborn, ..." 301 

Oregon, Letter from, . . ' 311 

Organ Wanted, 298 

Our Mission Presses, . . . ° 27 
Our Sixtieth Anniversary, . ', ' 273 
Our Young People and Home Missions! 220 
Outlook, The, .211 

Persia, Affairs in, . . . . 271 

Persia, Boys' School in Teheran, .' .' 272 

Persia, Christian Literature in, . 65 

Persia, Fidelia Fiske, . . 393 

Persia. Letter from, . . . 123 

Persia, Medical Work, . . .' 27*7 281 

Persia, Moslem Demonstration. . .'17 

Persia, Moslem Persecution of Jews, 269 272 

Persian Missions, Mr. Speer on, . 272 
Persia, Oroomiah Press, .... 28 

Persia, Revivals in Oroomiah Field, ! 17 

Persia, Russia's New Move, . . 187 

Pictures from Our Medical Work, . ' 276 

Poet of Galilee, . . . 262 




. 24 

. 381 

. 413 

. 376 

. 457 


118, 120 

. 138 

. 166 

. 50 

. 82 

. 361 

. 127 

. 310 

. 208 

. 110 

. 269 

. 94 

. 127 

. 49 






Polygamous Converts, .... 49 

Poor, Dr., Death of 481 

Presbyterian Church, .... 4 

Presbyterian Christian Endeavor, . . 412 
Presbyterian Endeavorers, 70, 146, 223, 

325, 416, 502 

Presbyterian Historical Society, . . 257 

Presbyterian S. S. Missions, ... 4 
Presbyterian Standards, Anniversary of 

Adoption, 4 

Presbyterianism in New England, . . 368 
Presbyteries and the Young People, 412, 504 
Presbyteries, From the, .... 450 
Prairie Sabbath School, .... 175 
Prayer for Foreign Missionaries, . . 189 
Presbyterian Missionary Educational In- 
stitutions 202 

Publication and S". S. Work, Summary 

of Year's Work, 38 

Pueblo, Colorado, 205 

Pure Water and Mineral Waters, . . 258 

Puyallup Indians, 128 

Queen's Jubilee, 3 

Questions for Missionary Meetings, 72, 

151, 226, 328,423,509 

Kallying Day— 1897, 173 

Rallying Day a Permanent Institution, . 173 
Receipts of the Boards, 75, 153, 231, 334, 

428, 512 
Receipts of Church Boards, . . . 162 
Recent Testimonies to Missionary Char- 
acter, 123 

Reducing Salaries 298 

Reflex Influence of Missions, . 118,120 
Religious Work and Revival in Ne- 
braska, 51 





Romance of Bible Work, . 
Romanists and Mexicans, 
Rome's Prohibited Books, 
Russia, Progress in, . 

Sabbath-school Brevities, . 291, 402, 475 

Sabbath-school Convention, . . . 477 

Sabbath-school Missions in Cities, . . 106 
San Francisco Presbytery and Dr. Min- 

ton, 257 

Sayings of Christ, 160 

Schools in Korea, 320 

Scientists, Distinguished, . . . 349 

Semi-Centennial of Siam Mission, . . Ill 

Shorter Catechism, 415 

Shorter Catechism, Fac-simile of Early 

Edition, 426 

Siam, Bangkok Press, .... 30 

Siamese Buddhist, 275 

Siam, Semi-Centennial, .... Ill 

Six Years of Labor, 360 

Sixty Years of Educational Work, . . 196 
Social Evolution, Christian Missions 

and, 381 

Society Birthdays, 145 

Soldiers at the Front, 
South, Colored People of the, . 
South, Our Work in the, . 
South Dakota, Letter from, 
Southern Student Conference, 
Spalding, Rev, and Mrs. H. H., 
Spanish Presbyterian Church, . 
Speech in House of Representatives 
Speer, Robert E., Journey, 
Speer, Robert E., Letter from, 
Speer, Mr., on the Persian Missions 
Student Life, .... 
Sunday Labor, .... 
Sunday-school Committee, 
Synodical Appointments of Home 

sion Secretaries. . 


Syria, A Generous Layman, . 
Syria, Beirut Press, ... 
Syria, Death of Irish Presbyterian 

sionary, ..." 
Syria, Shadows in, . 
Syrian Village Life, . 
Systematic Beneficence, Aim of Commit 


Temperance in General Assembly, 
Temperance Instruction, . 
Translation of Bible, . 
Trans- Mississippi, 


Tusculum, Tennessee, 
Twentieth Century Movement, 















Twenty Questions, 

73, 152, 227, 329, 424 

Unguarded Gates, 205 

United States Among the Nations, . . 255 
Utah, Letters from, .... 137, 214 

Vatican, Current Events at, . . . 255 
Venezuela, Openings in, . . . . 375 

Washington, Letter from, . . . 312 

Way Home, The, 266 

West and East 360 

Westminster College, Cambridge, . 81,182 
West Virginia, Letter from, . . . 138 
What One Church Oilicer Can Do, . . 297 
What is Worth While ? . . . .263 
Where are These Pews Needed ? . . 179 

Winning Souls, 107 

Wisconsin, Letter from, . . . .137 
Witherspoon Building, . . . .351 
With the Magazines, . . 148, 225, 327 
Womanhood in Eloquence, . . .86 
Woman's Board of Home Missions, . 4 
Word in Season, 161 

Year's Retrospect, Red River Presbytery, 108 
Toung People, The Presbyteries and the, 

412, 504 
Young People's Christian Endeavor, 63, 

141,217, 315,409,493 




Agnew, Anna E., . . . 43,206,484 

Allen, Rev. D.D., 138 

Ambler, Rev. T. A., 214 

Atterbury, Boudinot C., M.D., . 13,279 

Ayres, Rev. J. B., 126 

Austin. Rev. E. A., 309 

Baer, John Willis 412 

Baird, Rev. W. M., 125 

Barton, Rev. J. G., 52 

Bell, Rev. Allen, D.D 496 

Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird, . . .278 
Brouilette, Rev. Chas. H., . . .309 
Butler, Rev. Henry S., . . . .190 
Chalfant, Rev. F. H., . . . . 124 

Coan, Rev. F. G., 123 

Cobb, Eben B.,D.D., . . . .463 
Cook, Rev. Charles H., . . . . 137 

Cory, Rev. Harlan P 205 

Craig, Willis G., D.D, . . . .467 
Cromaz, Rev. Jean S., 138 

Currens, Rev. J. B , 175 

Denman, Rev. C. II 204 

Dennis, James S., D.D. , . . . .381 
Dillon. Rev. Robert M., . . . .12 
Donaldson, Rev. J. M., . . . . 309 

Eakiu, Rev. J A., Ill 

Eddy, Mary, M.D., 283 

Ellinvvood, Rev. F. F., . . . . 318 

Ely, Rev. J. B., 221 

Enuis, Rev. Robert, 311 

Erdman, Albeit, D.D., . . . .463 

Ewing, J. C.R., D.D 387 

Fisher, Rev. Charles M., . . . .310 
Fleming, Rev. S. B., .... 137 

Fox, Rev. Frank, M 137 

Fowler, Bishop Charles H., . . .120 

Gait, Rev. W. A., 139 

Gregory, Rev. W. J., .... 413 

Grilli, Rev. Filippo, 138 

Grosscup, Rev. Daniel P., . . . 214 

Hamilton, Rev. E., 310 

H. A. N., . . . 86, 160, 164, 258, 262 
Hendry, Rev. W. W., . . . . 137 
Hepburn, Rev. James C, M.D., . . 18 
Hickman, Rev. Frank D. P., . . . 386 

Hoffmeister, Rev. C. C 214 

Holmes, Richard S., D.D., . . .465 
Horton, Rev. Francis A., ... 89 

Houston, Miss E. P 50,138 

Humble, Rev. C, M.D., . . . .403 

Jessup, Dr. Samuel, 472 

Johnson, Rev. A. F., . . . .311 
Johnson, Rev. George, .... 474 
Johnston, Rev. Howard Agnew, . . 116 

Johnston, Rev. James, 
Jones, Miss M. Katharine, 
Kellogg, Rev S. H., . 
Kelly, William A., . 
Kennedy, Miss Kate, 
Labaree, Rev. Benjamin, 
Lane, H. M., M.D. . 
Lawrence, Rev. Thomas, 
Lindsey, Rev. Edwin J., 
Lucas, Rev. J. J., 
McGaw, Rev. A. G., 
McGilvary, Rev. Daniel, 
Mcintosh, Gilbert, . 
McKinney, Henry Nelson 
Markus, Rev. F. E , . 
Martin, G. E , D.D., 
Mateer, Rev. C. W.,. 
Melrose, Rev. J. C, . 
Merwin, Rev. A. Moss, 
Mordy, Rev. John, . 
Moore, Prof. John, . 
Moore, Rev. 8. F., . 
Moore, Rev. T. V., . 
Mott, J. R., 
Nelson, Rev. Henry A., 
Nelson, Rev. W. S., . 
Osborne, Miss Delora B., 
Payne, H. N., . 
Purves, Rev. George F., 
Rankin, Rev. H. W., 
Rankin, Rev. Arthur T., 
Rankin, William, 
Ratz, Rev. Jacob, 
Ray, E. C, D.D., . 
Robinson, C. E., D.D., 
Robinson, Jenks B., . 
Robinson, Mrs. Albert B 
Rogers, Rev. Joseph, 
Selwyn, Henry F., . 
Sexton, Rev. Thomas L., 
Shedd, Rev. W. A., . 
Simcox, Rev. F. E , . 
Sinclair, Rev. John, . 
Speer, Robert E., . 31, 
Trippe, Rev. Morton F., 
Tuttle, Ervilla Goodrich, 
V. F. P., . 

Walker, Rev. George F,, 
Weeks, Mrs. Marguerite, 
Weeks, Rev. Thomas J., 
Whitlock, Rev. John M., 
Williamson, Rev. John P 
Wishard, Rev. S. E., 
"Worden, Rev. James A., 

. 170 

. 412 

. 25 

. 309 

. 138 

. 65 

. 198 

. 45 

. 310 

. 379 

389, 471 

. 384 

. 20 

. 143 

. 214 

. 464 

. 200 

. 286 

. 310 

310, 365 

. 368 

. 320 

. 208 

. 193 
5, 443 


. 138 

. 400 

. 118 

. 205 

. 214 

. 273 

. 309 

. 482 

. 462 

. 142 
>2, 323, 506 

. 311 

. 311 

. 51 

. 196 

. 204 

. 220 
272, 281, 390, 470 

. 213 

. 143 

. 27 

. 137 

. 206 

. 312 

. 309 

. 179 

. 137 

. 291 


African, Taming and Beautifying the, . 374 
American College for Girls, Constantino- 
ple, Graduating Class, . . . 411 

Andrews, Elisha B., 405 

Angell, President, 100 

Amanzimtote Church, .... 143 

Beirut, Syria, 442 

Blind Pupils in Mission School, Canton, 

China, 67 

Boys' School, Lakawn, Laos, . 
Brady, Governor John G., 
Calvin, John, .... 
Chapel of Mission at North Cabanne 

Louis, Mo., .... 
Chinese Theological Class, 
Chinese Type Case, . 
Chinese Type Foundry, . 
Church at Ibl, Syria, 










Colleges and Universities of United 
States — Map, 

College of Emporia, . 

Corbett, Rev. Hunter, D.D., 

Cottonwood Presbyterian Church, Ne- 

Dayton Academy, .... 

Deems, Rev. C. F., D.D., 

Delakoff, Pastor Jacob, . 

District Sabbath School Convention 
Marshall, Minn., 

" Doctor " Gold Mine, Cripple Creek, 

Ellinwood, Rev. P. F., D.D., . 

Eton College, England, from the Thames 

Famine Sufferers at Jhansi, India, . 

Forman Christian College, Lahore, 

Funerals in India, 

George Fox, 

Girls' School, Shanghai, . 

Good, Rev. A. C, Ph.D.,. 

Hand, Charles W., . 

Harriet House School, Bangkok, . 

Harrison, General Benjamin, . 

Hepburn, J. C, M.D., LL.D , 

Hospital at Miraj, Western India, . 

Hospital in Oroomiah, Persia, . 

House, Rev. S. R., M.D., . 

Interior Portion of Girls' School, 

Jackson, Rev. Sheldon, D.D., . 

Janeway, Rev. Thomas L., 

Korean Mother and Children, . 

Korean Nobleman in Court Dress, . 

Korean Rice Shop, .... 

Korean Village, .... 

Laffin, Mrs. G. A., . . . 

MacKay, Rev. G. L., D.D., . 



Mammoth Cedars, 501 

92 Marling, Rev. A. W., . . . .110 

479 Marsh, Dr. and Mrs., . . . .451 

219 Mary Louise Esler Memorial Chapel, . 487 
Mattoon, Dr. Stephen, . . . .111 

175 Medical Missionaries, .... 314 

185 Mercer Home, 176 

220 Mercer Home from Distance, . . .177 
457 Mexican Girls, New Era of Education, . 408 

Mission Newspapers, .... 24 

290 Missionary Children, . . . .501 

402 Mohammedan Muezzin, .... 459 

317 Oroomiah College, 158 

33 Poole, Rev. Frederic, .... 68 

221 Presbyterian Press, Beirut, Syria, . . 27 
158 Presbyterian S. S. Convention, . . 476 
390 Prodigal Son in Chinese Art, . . .376 
287 Protestant College at Sao Paulo, Brazil, 199 

194 Shanghai Press, 22 

110 S. S. Institute at Owen's Glen, Wis., . 39 

15 Swain, Dr. Clara, 499 

194 Syrian Pastor and Family, ... 65 

80 Syrian Protestant College, Beirut, . . 321 

270 Tara, the Child Widow, .... 318 

7, 278 Tara, the Christian, 318 

254 Thatched House, Syria, . . . .500 

112 Theological Class, Batanga, . . . 195 
Victor, Colorado, 403 

158 Village Carpenter, Syria, .... 500 

2 Westminster Theological College, Cam- 

48 bridge, England, . . . .182 

114 Whitman, Marcus, 495 

115 Winona, Main Entrance Auditorium, . 145 

113 Wisconsin Lumber District, ... 40 

114 Woman's College, Lucknow, . . . 499 
110 Wong Kong, 69 

69 Woonsocket, South Dakota, . . .611 


1334 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 
JOHN S. MACINTOSH, D.D., Chairman, 

Charles A. Dickey, D.D., 
Warnek Van Norden, Esq., 
Hon. Robert N. Willson, 

John H. Dey, Esq., Secretary, 
Stealy B. Rossitek, D.D., 
Henry T. McEwen, D.D., 
Stephen W. Dana, D.D., 

Charles L. Thompson, D D , 
Frank F. Ellinwood, D.D., 
William C Roberts, D.D. 


D. J. McMillan, D.D, 
Arthur J. Brown, D.D., 
Edward B Hodge, D.D., 
Elijah R. Craven, D D , 

Erskine N. White, D.D., 
Benj. L. Agnew, D.D., 
Edward P. Cowan, D.D., 
Edward C. Ray, D.D. 

[Each of these Editorial Correspondents is appointed by the Board of which he is a Secretary, and is responsible 
for what is found in the pages representing the work of that Board. See Hit of Otticers and Agencies of the General 
Assembly on the last two pages of each Dumber.] 


Current Events and the Kingdom, . . 3 

Editorial Notes, 4 

Christian Education of Women, H. A.Nelson, 

D.D 5 

Report on The Church at Home and 

Abroad, 10 

How to Make a Missionary Church, Rev. 

Robert M. Dillon 12 

Country Work near Paoting Fu, B. C. Alter- 

bury, M.D , 13 

FOREIGN MISSIONS.— Notes— Fresh Facts, 15 
Concert of Prayer— The Translation of the 

Bible, Dr. James C. Hepburn, . .18 

Rome's Prohibited Books— A Fact, A Fac- 
tor, and A Factory, Gilbert Mcintosh, . 20 

Mission Newspapers 24 

Bible Translation in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, 8. H. Kellogg, D.D. 25 

Our Mission Presses, V. F. P., . . 27 

Letter from Robert E. Speer, . . .31 

EDUCATION.— The Board of Education be- 
fore the General Assembly, . . 33 

CHURCH ERECTION.— As to Insurance- 
Indian Work in Arizona, .... 36 

WORK.— Summary of a Year's Work, . 38 


Annual Report, 42 

metic, A. E. A., 43 

FREEDMEN— Report of the Standing Com- 
mittee to the General Assembly, Thomas 

Lawrence, D.D.,. 45 

HOME MISSIONS —Thomas L. Janeway, 
D D , Corresponding Secretary, 1*62-68, . 48 
Notes— Earnest Indian Inquirers, E. P. 

Houston, 49 

Work and Revival in Nebraska, Thomas L. 

Sexton, D.D., 52 

Asheville Farm, Bev. J. O. Barton, . . 52 
Samuel John Mills, Mrs. Albert B. Robinson, 52 
Concert of Prayer— Results of the Year, . 56 
Gleanings from Home Mission Letters, . 62 
DEAVOR — Notes — Look into This — 
Christian Literature in Persia, Benjamin 
Labaree, D.D. — Romance of Bible Work 
—The Chinese in Philadelphia— Backing 
the Book— Dr. Mackay— Presbyterian En- 
deavorers— Questions for the Missionary 
Meeting— Twenty Questions, . . 63-73 

Ministerial Necrology, 74 

Summary of Receipts 75, 76 

Officers and Agencies, . . . . 77, 78 

Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D.D. 

Moderator of the General Assembly. 



July, 1897. 


Li Hung Chang Again. — On the re- 
turn voyage to China of this distinguished 
statesman, he sought the acquaintance of a 
Christian young lady of his own nation, on 
the same steamer, who had been attending 
school in our country, the daughter of a 
Chinaman of high degree. Several most 
interesting interviews followed between the 
modest young woman and the grand vice- 
roy, which resulted in his appointing her to 
represent China at the World's Congress of 
Representative Women at Edinburgh in 
1898, under the patronage of Lady Aber- 
deen. As a companion delegate, the vice- 
roy designated Dr. Hu King Eng, the first 
Chinese woman to study medicine in this 
country, and practice it in China. She is the 
daughter of an eloquent and efficient native 
minister of the Foreign Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Such inci- 
dents shed fresh light on the great states- 
man's nobility of character, but are most 
significant as pointing to the commanding 
position which Christian Chinese women 
are sure to occupy in the eyes of their own 
and other nations in the coming years. 

The Queen's Jubilee. — On the twenty- 
fourth of May, at the General Assembly, 
the Hon. John Wanamaker offered the 
following, which was unanimously adopted 
by a rising vote: 

"This being the seventy-eighth anniversary 
of the birth and the sixtieth anniversary 
of the coronation of her most gracious 
majesty, Queen Victoria, whose reign has 
lasted longer than that of any other mon- 
arch in the last thousand years, this General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America deems it 
fitting and does hereby send most cordial 

Christian greetings to both the illustrious 
Christian sovereign and the subjects of her 
gentle, generous and righteous rule over 
the destinies of the empire upon which the 
sun never sets. ' ' 

Subsequently the following was received 
from Queen Victoria's Secretary, Balmoral, 
Scotland: " Accept the Queen's thanks for 
the kind telegram." 

The Typewriter in China. — The gos- 
pel is not the only benefit conferred upon 
heathen nations by Christian missionaries. 
They have been the heralds of commerce, 
the advisers of rulers, the compilers of dic- 
tionaries, the founders of schools. The death 
of the Baptist missionary who invented the 
jinrikisha, the most popular vehicle of 
Japan, was only recently announced. Now 
a Presbyterian missionary in China has in- 
vented a typewriter for the Chinese language 
which is sure, if it proves successful, to be 
of great practical benefit. There are some- 
thing like 18,000 characters in the Chinese 
language. About 4000 of these characters 
which are in common use have been placed 
upon the wheels of the typewriter. The 
saving of time and patience, not to mention 
ink and pens, such a machine will effect, 
may be easily imagined. The readily 
imitating, educated Chinese will speedily 
adopt it for business purposes. — The 

Missions in the Seminaries. — The 

desire to emphasize the missionary idea in 
our theological seminaries, and to exalt in 
the minds of young men the apostolic con- 
ception and spirit of missions, recently 
brought together in conference nine profes- 




sors from eight seminaries, representing five 
denominations. After an earnest discussion 
of the place, scope and methods of mission- 
ary instruction in the seminary, as well as 
the special instruction of missionary candi- 
dates, the conference adopted a resolution of 
which this is the substance: That in order 
to the awakening and maintaining of the 
true spirit of missions, we recognize the 
preeminent importance of promoting in our 
theological seminaries such influences as shall 
develop and enrich the spiritual life of the 

students, and shall nurture in them habits 
of devotion and of personal consecration; 
that earnest efforts should be made to secure 
more time on the seminary curricula for 
instruction in the whole subject of missions, 
that the affections of the students may be 
roused and their minds educated to broad 
and thorough knowledge of the missionary 
spirit of Christianity, the development of 
missions in the past, and the present claims 
of missions upon the ministry and upon all 
the churches of our Lord. 


There were 56,000 additions to our 
churches last year on confession of faith. 

During the past year 13,300 persons 
were received into the Church by Presby- 
terian home missionaries. 

Through the courtesy of The Presbyte- 
rian Banner, the face of Moderator Sheldon 
Jackson appears as our frontispiece this 

The churches under the care of the 
Freedmen's Board have contributed for 
self-support during the past year more than 
$80,000, which is an increase of $1900 
over the preceding year. 

The Assembly decided to leave to the 
Boards of Home and Foreign Missions, as 
agents of the Church, the disposition of the 
two properties, 56 Fifth avenue and 156 
Fifth avenue, New York. 

A business man in Cleveland, O., en- 
closing $1 to renew his subscription for The 
Church at Home and Abroad, writes: 
" I get more for this dollar than for any 
other dollar investment I make." 

As a result of Presbyterian Sabbath - 
school missions, eighty Sabbath-schools a 
month have been organized, more than 980 
a year for the last nine years, or a total of 
8900 schools with a membership of 

The Board of Church Erection has aided 
during the year 194 churches, appropriating 
$111,982. There were reported to the 

Board as completed through its aid and 
without debt, 174 churches and manses, 
the aggregate value of which is estimated at 

The two hundred and fiftieth anniversary 
of the adoption of the Presbyterian Stand- 
ards is to be celebrated on the second Thurs- 
day of the General Assembly of 1898. It 
ia recommended that synods, presbyteries 
and sessions celebrate the anniversary at 
some convenient time in 1898. 

The General Assembly reaffirmed its deep 
interest in all legislation by which the 
causes of temperance and morality are wise- 
ly furthered, and commended the efforts of 
Christian men in our State and legislative 
assemblies to safeguard social purity, and 
to prevent the maintenance of liquor 
saloons in any Government building. 

The Woman's Executive Committee of 
Home Missions, which is to be known here- 
after as the Woman's Board of Home Mis- 
sions, reports $333,899 as total receipts for 
last year, a gain of $18,000 over the pre- 
ceding year. The debt of $105,000 with 
which they began the year has been reduced 
to $9649. The entire cost of administra- 
tion was less than five per cent. 

In his salutation to the Assembly from 
the Alliance of the Reformed Churches 
Throughout the World, Dr. W. S. P. Bryan 
stated the fact that our Church enrolls one- 
fifth of all the Presbyterians in the world, 
and gives more than one-third of all the 
money given by Presbyterians for the evan- 
gelization of the world. 



To secure a contribution from every 
church for every Board, to influence every 
member of every church to contribute to 
every Board, to lead God's people to give 
to him a generous percentage of their 
income in recognition of his just claim upon 
all, and to recognize giving as an act of 
worship, are the objects of the Special 
Committee on Systematic Beneficence. 

The Permanent Committee on Publica- 
tion and Sabbath -school Work in the Synod 
of Missouri said in its report last year : 
' ' We rejoice in the growing excellency of 
The Church at Home and Abroad. 
It should be the pride of every Presby- 
terian to support this periodical, that has 
been pronounced by influential members of 
other denominations as the best magazine of 
its kind in the world." 

The Board of Ministerial Relief has had 
under its care during the past year 835 
families, forty more than in any previous 
year. The receipts from all sources for 
current use were $160,856. In addition 
to this the Ladies' Aid Societies have sent 
to families on the roll of the Board boxes 
valued at $4168. The Board reports an 
indebtedness of $20,911, which sum is due 
to its Permanent Fund. 

The General Assembly called upon all 
members of our churches, members of 
Young People's Societies and Sabbath- 
schools, to use their personal influence for 
the Biblical observance of the Lord's Day 
by abstaining from the purchase and read- 
ing of Sunday newspapers, from all riding 

of the bicycle for pleasure or recreation on 
that day, from all forms of amusement, 
from unnecessary visiting and from all 
things that are unproductive of holiness in 
men; and to be faithful to religious duty and 
life on this holy day. 

The Rev. T. J. Weeks, whose " Home 
Mission Reminiscences ' ' appeared in our 
issue for May, writes that the bell furnished 
for one of the San Juan mission churches 
he was instrumental in building, was the 
gift of the family of the Rev. Dr. Jennings, 
of the Sharon Church, Allegheny county, 
Pa. The missionary's heart was often 
cheered by the loving counsel and sympa- 
thetic interest of this family. Not a few 
notorious Sabbath-breakers were led by the 
rich and solemn tones of this bell — the first 
ever heard in that far-away region — to Jay 
aside their guns and hunting on the Lord's 
day, and go to the sanctuary. 

A pastor in Minnesota wrote us recently 
as follows: " The pastor and session of 
this church desire to cooperate with you 
in the effort to disseminate missionary facts 
through the agency of The Church at 
Home and Abroad. We cannot make 
the monthly concert of missions helpful 
and interesting to Presbyterians without it. 
Send sample copies and I will solicit sub- 
scriptions." Four weeks later this pastor 
sent a check to pay for nineteen new subscrip- 
tions and two renewals. This Minnesota 
church numbers 102 communicants. If 
every church will take as deep an interest 
in circulating the magazine authorized by 
the General Assembly, we shall have a sub- 
scription list of more than 190,000. 



[An Address delivered at the twenty-fifth anniversary of Kansas City Ladies' College, 
Independence, Mo., June i, 1897.] 

Ladies and Gentlemen — Pupils, Teachers, 
Custodians and Friends of Kansas City 
Ladies' College : — Rarely have I received 
an invitation which gave me such grateful 
pleasure as that, which came most unexpect- 
edly to me, to address you on this occasion. 
My residence here in 1885-6 was with some 

official connection with this college and in 
pastoral charge of the church with which its 
pupils and teachers worshiped. Those four- 
teen months are retained in my memory 
with as grateful recollection of kindness 
from all to whom I held any relation, and 
quite as free from everything which one 




might prefer to forget as any equal period 
of my life. Since your recollections of that 
brief sojourn seem to have been such as 
gave you the desire to have me with you 
again after ten years of absence, and to hear 
my voice again on so interesting an occasion, 
I am encouraged to believe that you are 
willing to have me feel very much at home, 
and speak to you with friendly familiarity 
on the subject which has occurred to me as 
an appropriate one: Christian Education of 
Women in the Nineteenth Century. 

If this strikes you as too extensive a 
theme to be adequately treated in a single 
address, be assured that I do not attempt to 
treat it exhaustively nor profoundly, but 
somewhat cursorily and familiarly; if you 
please, experimentally. I desire to tell you, 
in a plain, frank way, some things which I 
have witnessed; in a few of which I have 
had some part; perhaps also some of the 
thoughts which I have had about them; 
but chiefly leaving you to do the thinking 
upon the things which I shall tell you, 
being myself a witness concerning things of 
which you are to be judges. 

Perhaps you will not think it preposterous 
for me to talk thus to you about the century 
which is now nearly finished, if I remind 
you that my own life has continued through 
more than three- fourths of it, and that 
during more than half of it I have had 
serious responsibility in Christian education 
either as a teacher or as a minister of the 
gospel. And I am quite sure that none who 
care enough for Christian education to be 
here to-day would regard that as a truly 
Christian ministry which did not concern 
itself with Christian education, and make 
itself an effective agency in it. 


The first school I ever went to was a girls' 
school. I was the only boy in it, and I 
was too small a boy to be easily distinguished 
from a girl except by my dress. I believe 
I had begun to wear something that I sup- 
posed to be trousers. I do not remember 
whether I had any lessons from books: 
probably I had learned A, B, C, at home. 
I do remember that I sat on a stool near 
the seat of the teacher, who gave me some 
attention and help in learning to sew small 
pieces of calico together into squares, to be 
united by more competent hands into a 


It was not a kindergarten. I doubt 
whether my teacher would have known what 
that word meant, if she had heard it. I 
am sure that I never did hear it until I was 
the father of children older than I was at 
that time. But I have never forgotten that 
school, to which my older sister led me up 
a hill which to my short legs seemed quite a 
mountain, nor how she and one of her 
mates,* of her own size, led me down that 
hill between them, pushing me a little for- 
ward and bringing their skirts together behind 
me when some bigger boys of the neighbor- 
hood followed after us, trying, or pretending 
to try, to whip me with switches. What 
do little boys do in this rude world, who 
have no sisters to take care of them ? And 
what would become of big boys, if they 
did not soon come to covet the favor of the 
very girls whom they had always thought 
it good fun to tease and worry ? 

I now regard tbat beginning of my school 
life as a propitious one; and I am not quite 
sure but some beliefs of mine, which I am 
going to avow to you to-day, had their 
germs in that almost infantile experience. 


My experience as a pupil in public schools 
was in the country, with a man for a 
teacher in the winter term, and a woman in 
the summer, the larger boys being expected 
to work on their fathers' farms in summer 
time, and the larger girls with their mothers 
in the housekeeping. I was favored with 
some excellent teachers in those rustic 
schools — both men and women. One of 
those to whom I was most indebted for 
excellent teaching, in the schoolhouse and 
at home — my own dear sister — may be 
remembered by some of you, for she spent 
the last months of her earthly life in yonder 
house when it was my home, and died there 
after I had gone away, leaving her there 
with my daughters and brother. 

The Lord deal kindly with you, as ye 
dealt with my dead, and with my living, 
and with me. 


From my twelfth to my eighteenth year 
I was pursuing studies preparatory for col- 

* A daughter of Rev. Heman Humphrey, at 
that time President of Amherst College. 



lege in an excellent academy, but spending 
part of each summer in work on the farm, 
where horses and horned cattle, sheep, 
fowls and squirrels were both my playmates 
and my teachers; and where plows and 
hoes and axes did for my muscles in a 
plain, practical way, what is now done more 
scientifically by dumbbells and foot-ball. 

In all those schools and in all that home 
life, my deliberate opinion now is, that for 
fully half of the teaching and influence that 
have done me good and not evil all the days 
of my life, I am indebted to my feminine 
playmates, schoolmates and teachers. That 
academy, at Homer, N. Y., was a thor- 
oughly Christian school, about as much an 
adjunct of the Church, in fact though not 
in form, as the Sabbath -school. All its 
instruction was as available to young women 
as to young men. It was quite practicable 
to pursue there effectively the studies of 
the Freshman and Sophomore years, and to 
go from it well prepared to enter the 
Junior class in college. There were young 
ladies there who could read Virgil and 
Cicero, and Xenophon and Homer as well 
as any of their brothers. After the close 
of my college course, I was employed two 
years in that same academy, teaching Latin 
and Greek to pupils of both sexes. My 
opinion was and is, that young ladies learned 
those languages and translated those classic 
writings as well as the young men. I also 
thought that in a class in which there were 
both gentlemen and ladies the meaning of 
the author was often brought out with more 
complete justice to all its phases and shades 
of meaning than it ordinarily would be by 
either sex alone. 


I was very happy in my college course 
and in the theological seminary, but those 
were the only parts of my school life in 
which I had only masculine schoolmates; 
and the very last occasion on which it was 
my duty to deliver an essay before my 
fellow-students and teachers, I improved the 
opportunity with a very frank and earnest 
protest against that monastic feature of our 
educational system inconsistently retained 
by Protestant Christians after abolishing 
religious monasticism. That was of course 
the utterance of an immature young theo- 
logue. But I confess that I am not yet 
mature enough to have outgrown it. 

My youthful protest against what I called 
literary monasticism was made from the 
masculine side. I was not then discussing 
the question whether young women needed 
the companionship of young men in their 
studies in all stages of their education. I 
was convinced that young men needed the 
companionship of young women in their 
schools as much as in their homes. When 
I uttered that protest, there was not a col- 
lege for women in our country, nor in the 
world, so far as I know ; and the colleges 
to which young women could be admitted 
with young men were very few and were 
looked upon very much as were the very 
few women who wore the " Bloomer cos- 
tume. ' ' 


Now, Elmira, Vassar, Wellesley, Smith, 
Bryn Mawr, and I know not how many 
more colleges for women are peers of the 
colleges for men in their courses of study 
and in the honorable significance of their 
diplomas. It would have required more 
time than I could give in preparing this 
address, to make and verify a list of the col- 
leges and uuiversities whose instructions and 
whose degrees are accessible both to women 
and to men. 

I do not censure the institutions which 
adhere to the older plan. There may be 
good reasons for continuing in a course 
which has been successful, until longer trial 
has been made of a newer method. I can- 
not think it the least important or honorable 
distinction in the history of the nineteenth 
century that in it, it has become settled that 
— either in schools by themselves or in the 
same schools with their brothers — women 
shall have as good and as large opportunity 
for high, higher, highest education as men. 
Institutions providing means and facilities 
for such education, either for women alone 
or for women and men together, are to be 
so provided and endowed and administered 
that youth of both sexes shall have equal 
opportunity for all the education by which 
they are capable of profiting. 


Heartily do I congratulate you who are 
young enough to have expectations extend- 
ing into the twentieth century, that you are 
to enter it with such opportunity. 

To have won an opportunity by our own 




struggles, or to have inherited it from a 
brave generation who have won it for us, 
lays upon us the grave responsibility of 
considering and deciding whether and how 
we will improve it. 

Girls, women of the twentieth century: 
what are you going to do with the great 
opportunity which the nineteenth century 
bequeaths to you ? Yon, perhaps, have 
heard some vehement outcries for " the 
emancipation of women," as if in this 
Christian land and in the Christian Church, 
women had ever been slaves — as if you or 
your mothers had ever known a time when 
the men with whom you had to do did not 
find their strongest and most constant incen- 
tive to toil in their desire to provide for you 
the best they could, or when they were not 
ready, in any peril, to give their lives in 
defense of their women, their children and 
their homes. Whatever, of this sort, you 
have heard, I am not willing to believe 
that you have been beguiled into so false 
belief. You know your fathers and your 
brothers too well. You know that neither 
yourselves nor your mothers are more hear- 
tily glad and thankful than they for 
whatever these Christian centuries have 
brought to you of opportunity to be and to 
enjoy all that unselfish love of sons, of 
brothers, of fathers and of God can desire for 
you. You know, in your true hearts, that 
there is nothiug on earth more valuable to 
you than true manly love. 

" Some feelings are to mortals given 
With less of earth in them than Heaven ; 
And if there is a human tear 
From passion's dross refined and clear— 
A tear so limpid and so meek, 
It would not stain an angel's cheek — 
'Tis that which pious fathers shed 
Upon a duteous daughter's head." 

We are here to-day — fathers, mothers, 
brothers — rejoicing in all that the times we 
live in are giving us opportunity to do and 
to provide for the advancement of our 
daughters and sisters in all that can be for 
their happiness and their ability to promote 
the welfare of others. In the most unselfish 
planning there may be mistakes. " Pa- 
tience worketh experience and experience 
hope." Human experience is largely an 
experience of mistakes, and the best human 
wisdom utilizes its own mistakes, making 
each experiment that fails a reconnoissance 
for finding the way toward success; but true 

wisdom learns caution by its past mistakes. 
The boldness which experience gives is not 
rashness. When it has learned its mistake 
in going too near the ditch on one side of 
the path of progress, it does not forthwith 
rush into the ditch on the other side. 
" Wisdom is profitable to direct," 

We agree, I am sure, that human mistakes 
are to be always expected. But there is 
no other human mistake more fatal to all 
human endeavor than the assumption that 
God ever makes mistakes. 

"And God created man in his own image, 
in the image of God created he him ; male 
and female created he them." 

The man without the woman was not the 
image of God; neither was the woman apart 
from the man that image. The image of 
God was man male and female — unity of 
being in duality of person and sex — as deep 
a mystery as the unity of divine being in 
trinity of divine persons. Without this 
distinction of sex humanity would be no 
image of God. Education, which should 
aim or tend to obliterate that distinction or 
which should ignore it, would be a disas- 
trous mistake. 

Unchristianized men everywhere have 
used their superior bodily strength to op- 
press and enslave women. Unchristianized 
women everywhere have used their superior 
bodily charms to ensnare and enfeeble and 
debase men. Christian men and women 
have been slow to appreciate the advantage 
to both sexes of giving to both equal oppor- 
tunities for such education as would develop 
the strength peculiar to each in harmony 
with that which is common to both. Slow- 
ly and steadily the teaching of Christ and 
his apostles has been educating masculine 
human nature out of its coarse fondness for 
brutal strength and into more just apprecia- 
tion of the finer elements of power in woman- 
hood. More rapidly of late men and 
women together are learning that the best 
development in both of all the powers which 
are alike in both, and in each of all the 
powers and qualities in which each excels the 
other, enables them to become in the highest 
degree helps meet for each other. In such 
education it becomes evident that the beauty 
of woman in person and in mind is not only 
consistent with strength, but greatly depen- 
dent upon it. That idea of womanly grace 
and refinement which identified them with 
languor and helplessness, nurtured by in- 



dolence, was a false and pernicious idea. 
The women of the nineteenth century have 
learned that not by being merely dependent 
upon men, but by being helpers of men — 
helpers not merely of their pleasure, but of 
their work — do they fulfill their mission — 
fulfill God's purpose in making them women 
— become indeed helps meet for men. Thus 
only do they attain the highest beauty of 
person and character. 


It has been a mistake of much female 
education that it has aimed first to make 
women polished, and not first to make them 
strong — to cultivate that which is superfi- 
cial, and which can only be permanently 
beautiful as it is the surface of a substance 
that is strong and solid. The mistake is 
like that of trying to put upon a block of 
soft wood a polish like that which is seen 
upon blocks of granite. Wiser methods 
and more intelligent public sentiment are 
making it practicable for girls to accpuire the 
solid basis of womanly character which is 
capable of glorious and enduring polish, 
a beauty which age does not dim, but 
which will delight us in the light of the 
setting sun with even a deeper pleasure 
than that with which it charmed us in the 
morning or dazzled us at noon-day. Thus 
is it that " our daughters shall be as corner- 
stones polished after the similitude of a 


As to methods of education — whether of 
youth of both sexes together or in separate 
schools — there is, no doubt, much to be 
learned, which can only be learned by 
experience — that is, by the true method of 
inductive science. The experiment of 
coeducation has thus far been conducted for 
the most part with prudence, under the 
guidance of wise educators — most of them 
women and men wise with that wisdom 
which begins and continues in the fear and 
the love of God. 


But education of either sex is not confined 
to the schools and colleges. Such education 
as has now for many years been attainable 
for girls as well as for boys has made many 
young women of the present time compe- 
tent for useful employments which formerly 
were given exclusively to men. One finds 
now in many business places, men and 

women working together, and notices that 
such places are more like well-kept homes 
than those in which only men are found. 
Places in which ladies are expected to be, 
gentlemen are careful to make fit for the 
presence of ladies; the ladies know how to 
keep them so; and the men are glad and 
thankful for this. They like this in their 
shops and offices as well as in their homes. 
The old practice illustrated the truth that 
it is not good for man to be alone; the new 
practice is proving that, in business life, as 
truly as in domestic life, woman is a help 
meet for man. 


" Dangers in this " — does some one sug- 
gest ? "Limits and safeguards needed?" 
Certainly. Can we get them in any other 
way than by frank consultation of women 
and men — thus combining the best femi- 
nine and the best masculine wisdom for 
continued experiment and study, " prov- 
ing all things, and holding fast that which 
is good "? Meanwhile both sexe3 are expe- 
riencing a coeducation advantageous to both, 
improving their intellects, increasing their 
mutual respect, refining the sensibilities and 
manners of both, making them more sincere 
and frank towards each other. 


Nowhere are these good effects more 
evident than in Church work. Nowhere is 
female education progressing more safely or 
more steadily than in the feminine organiza- 
tions for Church work and benevolent work 
of all kinds, which are so notable a develop- 
ment in the latter half of this century. I 
would not try to hasten this development 
nor to hinder it. I believe that God is in 
it and will guide it. 

My only fear is, lest worldly policies, mis- 
named " business principles," shall allure 
our women from the simplicity of their 
godliness. My hope is that women coming 
more into business, will bring more godli- 
ness into it; that the companionship of 
women will make men more conscientious. 
Let us men accept the cooperation and com- 
panionship of women to refine us — to refine 
not our manners only, but our consciences. 

Let us beware lest we exert the opposite 
influence upon them. 

Rather than that — I will speak only for 
myself — rather than that let the heaviest 
millstone be fastened to my neck and be 
flung into the deepest sea. 





To the General Assembly of 1897, in ses- 
sion at Winona, Ind., the Committee on 
The Church at Home and Abroad 
respectfully presents its eleventh annual 

Your committee has continued its efforts to 
conduct the magazine in accordance with 
previous instructions of the General Assem- 
bly, and to increase its usefulness, its attrac- 
tiveness and the number of its readers. The 
means and methods which we have employed 
for this purpose are not different from those 
hitherto reported except as experience has, 
we hope, enabled us steadily to improve 
them, with no sudden or radical changes. 

That we have thus been able steadily to 
increase the usefulness and helpfulness of 
the magazine to all who read it, we have the 
emphatic testimony of many. These grati- 
fying testimonials, coming unsolicited from 
subscribers, from other publications of our 
own and other Churches, and from corre- 
spondents in this and in other lands, have 
been more frequent and emphatic than ever 

Witness to this improvement and adapta- 
tion to realized necessities has come to us 
from two specially gratifying and important 


No class of readers has shown more ap- 
preciative and affectionate regard for The 
Church at Home and Abroad, in all 
the years of its existence, than the foreign 
missionaries, who find their own work regu- 
larly reported and advocated in it. This 
soul-stirring work is presented in its normal 
close connection with all departments of the 
Church's work at home. By this method our 
brethren declare that we strengthen their 
hands and comfort their hearts, enabling 
them to realize and enjoy the healthy unity 
of the Church's work, at home and abroad, 
and assuring them that no Americans 
working for Christ anywhere are looked 
upon as alien and foreign, and no work less 
so than that which, simply from its location, 
is, more conveniently than properly, desig- 
nated Foreign Missions. We are happy in 
the belief that the reading of this magazine 
has had some influence in both satisfying 
and cultivating that sentiment which is 
manifested by these two significant facts, 
viz., (1) that no members of the Church 

take a more lively and intelligent interest 
in all our home work than the foreign mis- 
sionaries, and (2) that there is no better 
recruiting ground for foreign missions than 
home mission churches and homes. 

And the second special source of cheering 
testimony we find in 


Prominent leaders of young people's 
work have during the year expressed hearty 
commendation of the educational features of 
the magazine. While many have testified 
to the helpfulness of the young people's de- 
partment, especial mention has been made of 
the following items: 1. The missionary 
biography every month. 2. The question 
page, which is intended to arouse interest in 
the whole work of the Church through each 
of the agencies employed. The Sunday 
School Times has recently suggested the use 
of these questions as supplemental lessons in 
the Sunday-school. 3. The suggestive 
reports, usually from the pastors' point of 
view, of the activities of Presbyterian young 
people. 4. The Christian Training Course. 

From the beginning it has been the con- 
stant endeavor of your committee and the 
editor to conduct the magazine in such a 
manner and in such a spirit as to win the 
cordial approval of all our brethren, and to 
enable them all to reach their people with 
the needed information and instruction con- 
cerning the respective departments of the one 
sacred work effectively, and so as to make 
evident the unity of that work in all its vast- 
ness and variety. The happy success of this 
constant endeavor is signalized by the recep- 
tion of the following from the honored and 
beloved secretaries of our Church's Boards, 
which, by their request, was published in 
our February issue : 


' ' The New Year offers to our Church new 
opportunities for mission work at home and 
abroad. But opportunity implies obligation. 
That the Church may discharge her obliga- 
tions, there is needed among her members a 
wider diffusion of knowledge than at present 
exists concerning the doors open before her 
and the agencies by which those doors may 
be entered. We, therefore, would now call 
your attention to the magazine established 
and maintained by the General Assembly to 


promote the great work of our Church ad- That the consummation so earnestly in- 

miuistered by its Boards and Permanent voked by our brethren — the domesticating 

Committees, viz. : The Church at Home of this magazine in every household of our 

and Abroad. Church — has not been reached, is not, in our 

" It is now ten years since the consolidation judgment, the fault of either editors or com- 

of several papers into that magazine. By mittee. Every legitimate effort has been put 

some the consolidation was regarded with forth by us. ' Constant pressure has been 

misgiving; by all, even the most hopeful, it used to secure a wider reception and recog- 

was felt to be an experiment. In quality, nition. But we know from many letters 

the magazine has grown better year by year, received that the hard times have told 

As an organ for presenting to the Church against our circulation. Circumstances over 

the work and needs of the Boards, it has which we have had no control have been 

been increasingly effective. To-day, it singularly adverse. It is the unanimous 

stands in the front rank of missionary peri- opinion of our committee that we have 

odicals. We, therefore, as secretaries of the deserved larger success. We have done our 

Boards, commend it most earnestly to the best and have no apology to make, 

friends of the vast and varied work of our Nor would we make the slightest conceal- 

Church. ment of the fact that our roll of subscribers 

" The magazine, however, that it may do and our pecuniary income have been affected 

for that work what it is capable of doing, by the continued financial depression, as all 

and what it ought to do, should have many treasuries and all enterprises have been, 

times its present circulation. That would We believe by examination and after 

mean fuller knowledge, deeper sympathy and inquiries widely made that proportionately we 

larger contributions. It should have a place have lost less than similar publications, 

in every household of our Church. But we have lost; and so, faithfully and 

"Will not every minister, every elder, frankly, as brethren with brethren, we desire 

every thoughtful Christian, strive to bring to invite the attention of this Assembly to 

about this most beneficent result? this matter somewhat more distinctly and 

William C. Koberts, ful, y- 

„ . , „ . , „ „. . abstract of account. 

Secretary of Board of Home Missions. 

T> T MnMiT taw Balance due Board of Publication, 

U. J . MCMILLAN, ^ ^ Q3 

Secretary of Board of Home Missions. Expenses for the year 17,650 36 

F. F. ELLINWOOD, Amount due subscribers 1,119 24 

Secretary of Board of Foreign Missions. 

$24,962 63 
John Gillespie, Receipts $17,655 75 

Secretary of Board of Foreign Missions. Assets 6,682 58 

. T tj 24,338 33 

Arthur J. Brown, '_ 

Secretary of Board of Foreign Missions. Deficiency $624 30 

EDWARD B. Hodge, Average monthly circulation, 14,922. 

Secretary of Board of Education. , „ . _ _ 


E. R. Craven, 

Secretary of Board of Publication and s. s. Work. The Christian Training Course, which the 

Erskine N. White, Assembly of 1896 approved and commended 

Secretary of Board of church Erection. ' ' to the favorabl e consideration of pastors and 

W. C. Cattell, other instructors of the young," has been 

Secretary of Board of Ministerial Relief continued during the nine months, October to 

Edward P. Cowan, June, inclusive. It has consisted of (1) a 

Secretary of Board for Freedmen. brief doctrinal study of questions in the 

E. C. Ray, Shorter Catechism; (2) a Biblical study 

Secretary of Board of Aid for Colleges and Academies. following Mr. Speer's "The Man Christ 

"Although not a Secretary at the time it Je ™ s '> ',' ( 3 > historical study, using Smith's 

was resolved to send out this circular, I "Development of the Missionary Idea;" 

cheerfully give it my endorsement. ( J) a missionary study, based^ upon a series 

B L Agnew sketches of modern missionary heroes 

Secretary of Board' of Ministerial Belief." prepared especially for this course and pub- 




lished monthly in The Church at Home 
and Abroad, and the other fresh material 
in the pages of the magazine. 


At the last meeting of our Committee, the 
following communication was received from 
Rev. H. A. Nelson, D.D., Editor of our 

It is after much conscientious consideration of 
the interests and obligations involved, that I have 
reached the conviction that I ought not to retain 
the editorship of The Church at Home and 
Abroad longer than during the current year, 1897. 

Your meeting to-morrow seems to me a suitable 
occasion for communicating this decision to you, 
and I hereby place in your hands my resignation of 
the office to which you called me, and in which you 
have sustained me so loyally, so generously and so 
long, to take effect at such time as you may judge 
best for the magazine and all that it represents — not 
later than the date above indicated, the end of this 
year, 1897. 

For this decision, I am sure, you will agree with 
me, that I need not mention any other reason than 
this comprehensive one, viz. : that before that time 
I shall have passed the seventy-seventh anniver- 
sary of my birth. 
206 St. Mark's Square, Philadelphia, May 6, 1897. 

It was resolved to receive and accept this 
resignation of Dr. Nelson in the terms of 
his own letter. The Committee expressed 
very high appreciation of Dr. Nelson and 
his work, and instructed the Chairman to 

convey to him in the warmest and most em- 
phatic terms their great regret at the loss of 
his valuable services, their continued and 
ever-increasing confidence, their cordial 
recognition of the faithful and efficient 
labors of the past eleven years, and their 
earnest prayers that although Dr. Nelson 
regards the approachiug period a suggestion 
of needed rest, he may yet enjoy many happy 
years of usefulness as well as of honor. 


1. That the Assembly commends to all 
the youth in our congregations the diligent 
use of this Christian Training Course as a 
convenient and efficient help in the study of 
the Bible, Presbyterian history and doctrine, 
and allied topics; and the devotion of one 
of their regular meetings each month to this 

2. That the Committee be reappointed 
with the same powers, and directed to 
report to the Assembly of 1898. 

The report was received and referred for con- 
sideration to the Committee on Bills and Overtures, 
who subsequently recommended that the report be 
approved and the recommendations adopted. This 
was passed by the Assembly, and a special com- 
mittee was appointed to consider all matters relat- 
ing to the Church at Home and Abroad and 
the Assembly Herald. 



A church should not have a missionary 
society, but should be a missionary society. 
To talk of a missionary society in a church 
is like talking of a " Bible class " in Sun- 
day-school. All classes in a Sunday-school 
should be Bible classes; and the school 
should be the church studying the Bible. 
All church societies should be missionary in 
spirit; and the missionary society should 
be the church engaged in mission work. 
This idea has enabled the writer to more 
than double past contributions to missions 
with but comparatively little effort on the 
part of both pastor and people. 

To accomplish this object, three things 
are necessary, namely, intelligence, interest 
and action. 

1. No church can possibly be a missionary 
church until it has been enlightened in the 
duty, progress and prospects of evangelizing 

the world. Therefore, let each pastor show 
in a charming way what ought to be done, 
what has been done, and what may be done 
in this greatest work on earth. A thorough 
understanding of our missionary machinery 
is of more vital importance to greater work 
than the most encouraging news from mis- 
sion fields. For it is astonishing how little 
the average layman knows about our mis- 
sionary machine. When I came to my 
present field, one of my el ders soon gave me 
to understand that he would not give to 
certain Boards of our Church because he 
" did not believe in them." I resolved that 
he should be my first convert. So at an 
early date I described fully our missionary 
machine, and the way Presbyterian mission- 
aries are made by means of our several 
Boards, from the College Board to the 
Board of Relief, showing that one is just 




as important as another, though the relative 
needs are different. When I was through 
I had many converts, and among them was 
the elder who did not believe in some of 
the Boards. Since that time my people are 
careful to give to the lesser as well as the 
larger Boards, desiring that each should 
have its due proportion. 

2. A church cannot be interested in this 
work until it is enlightened on the subject. 
Interest follows enlightenment as the day's 
programme follows the dawn. When the sun 
comes up, all people will at least think about 
getting up. But so long as it is night, 
many will sleep on even though their neigh- 
bor's house be on fire. So sure as there is 
enlightenment in missions, interest in the 
work will follow. 

For example, not long since, after I had 
explained one morning the Presbyterian 
machine for making missionaries and the 
economy of its workings, a member of the 
church declared that he had listened to 
many missionary sermons, but never before 
did the work have sufficient interest to call 
forth his aid, because he had not under- 
stood the machine. " But now," said he, 
" I am deeply interested." Then proving 
his words by his actions, he handed me a 
handsome sum, more, I thought, than he 
could afford, saying as he did so, "I wish 
I could make it ten times that." Several 
others on the same occasion gave liberally, 
among whom was a young lady of but little 
means, whom I urged to take back half 
the gift, but who positively refused. 

When women are received into our 

church, they are invited to attend the 
woman's monthly missionary meeting, and 
I have never known one to come away 
without being interested. This society gets 
the women interested and the pastor gets 
the men. 

3. As interest follows enlightenment, 
action follows interest. But with these two 
prerequisites the missionary activity of a 
church may be atrophied unless there be 
harmony and concentration of forces. The 
mission forces of a church should all work 
together on some general plan. If not, they 
may depend upon each other, or what is 
worse, may work against each other unin- 
tentionally. As a rule, the best contribu- 
tors to missions are the men of a church, 
because they are the most able; and the 
best workers for missions are the women, 
because they have the most time. But these 
two forces working separately will not 
accomplish as much as they will working 
together. My plan has been not only to 
unite these two, but to combine the Young 
People's Societies also, having but the one 
mission fund, into which all money raised 
for missions during the year shall be placed. 
At the end of the year this fund is divided 
equally between the women and the session. 
The one portion is sent through the 
Woman's Missionary Society, and the other 
goes to the Boards of the Church according 
to their relative needs. This plan concen- 
trates our forces, and it leads all to give, 
and each to give to all. The result is that 
instead of a missionary society we now have 
a missionary church. 



To the west of Paoting-fu about fifteen 
miles lies the small walled city of Man- 
Ching. Situated at the foot of the chain of 
mountains which forms the western boun- 
dary of this great plain of Chih-li, for its 
size it is a busy place, especially on fair 
days, when the people from all the surround- 
ing villages, as well as those living among 
the mountains, come in to buy and sell vari- 
ous commodities. At such times the prin- 
cipal street is crowded with sellers of cotton, 
cloth, peanuts, tobacco, sweet potatoes, 
cabbages and other products indigenous to 
the region, while from the hills around are 

brought huge bundles of firwood, charcoal 
and grass. Foreign countries are also 
represented by peddlers with matches, kero- 
sene, needles, buttons, which are purchased 
chiefly from German firms in Tientsin. 

Into this scene of activity has recently 
been introduced new merchandise in the 
form of Christian literature, the " mer- 
chants " being our native helpers, who, 
usually in company with one of us foreign- 
ers, can often be seen on market days 
standing in the centre of a crowd of more 
or less interested bystanders, selling his 
tracts. A word is said about each book as 




one after another they are held up to view. 
' ' Here is a Catechism telling of the way of 
salvation, price three cash — who wishes to 
see it and learn about the true God ?' ' 
" This is a Dialogue between two friends, one 
of whom, a Christian, explains to his neigh- 
bors the religion from the West — price five 
cash." Thus the running commentary is 
kept up till the setting sun tells us that it is 
time to return to the inn. 

There may be more trying work in the 
Lord's vineyard than this standing, sur- 
rounded by these too often unsympathetic 
Chinese, trying to induce them to part with 
some of their much-loved money in ex- 
change for a little book, but I have not yet 
found it. One man remarks: " What is 
the foreign devil and his apprentice talking 
about ?" Another takes a tract, but the 
smell of the printer's ink confirms his sus- 
picions that some medicine intended to 
deceive the mind of the reader has been 
poured on the leaves, and he hastily returns 
it; while a third cries out, " These teach- 
ings are not spoken of in our classics, hence 
cannot be good. " It is indeed refreshing to 
meet at such times some simple country 
fellow who, after listening awhile, pro- 
duce a few cash and buys a book, ex- 
pressing his belief that the foreigner's 
words are true. 

This method of seed sowing at the country 
fairs involves economy of time and labor. 
It is impossible to visit all the villages 
around us, but at these centres of Chinese 
rural life every one will at some time or 
another hear of Christianity. 

Near Man-Ching are two villages. Pei- 
chuang and Chia Chuang, which at present 
are foci for our country work. At the former 
place resides the, to us, famous family of 
Bi. The old man with his five sons and 
their numerous offspring live in some mud- 
brick houses built around the usual Chinese 
yard. All the members of the house have 
belonged to various religious secret societies, 
but their adherence to these has not brought 
the peace of mind and assurance of salva- 
tion of soul sought for. On the contrary, 
as the leaders of the organizations grew 
richer from the gifts of their devoted fol- 
lowers, the disciples themselves became 
poorer in both body and soul. About two 
years ago the grandfather, hearing from a 
neighbor of Christianity, invited our helpers 
to his house, thus beginning an acquaintance 

which has opened for us a door into this 
whole region. There, in cheerless rooms, 
with dirt floors and walls, members of our 
station have spent much time instructing all 
wishing to listen. 

Fortunately for the success of the meet- 
ings held, a number of bright little boys 
have taken a fancy to learn to sing, much to 
the pride of their relatives who listen to 
their efforts with undisguised admiration. 
The presence of a foreigner is also a ' ' draw- 
ing card," which, with the singing, is suffi- 
cient to fill the room with villagers coming 
often from a distance to learn what is 
going on. 

In spite of many adversaries seeking to 
hinder us, the friendliness of the people 
makes us feel that the next few years will 
witness solid growth in the work thus provi- 
dentially commenced. Opposition from the 
evil hearts of the Chinese is to be expected, 
but it is very trying to hear other foreigners 
who also call themselves Christians seek to 
neutralize our efforts. The Catholics, fol- 
lowing their usual tactics, have come after 
us, and by giving a comfortable sum of 
money during the winter months to any 
attending their own services, divert the 
interest of the natives, who cannot under- 
stand, as we are all foreigners, why a house 
should- be divided against itself. 

Thus it is that little church organizations 
spring up in this great empire. Beginning 
in the household of some one interested, the 
grain of mustard seed, if faithfully looked 
after, grows by attracting neighbors and 
friends till it becomes a fair-sized tree. 
Progress must be made slowly, foreign 
moneys scattered very sparingly, and only 
the best material used, if lasting results are 
to be looked for. Genuine inquirers are to 
be sifted from those hoping to benefit 
themselves by connection with the for- 
eigner. Like attracts like, and while these 
sincere ones will draw in others like-minded, 
to encourage the false will be like building 
on sand. 

As it is now drawing close to the Chinese 
New Year, we are especially anxious that 
the Christian inquirers may witness a good 
profession before their heathen neighbors and 
not yield to the idolatrous customs of the 
season. This will require much firmness 
on their part, but will show more forcibly 
than any words just what the new religion 
they profess to follow really is. 



The Outlook for the New Fiscal Year. 

The Board of Foreign Missions started 
on the new year with an indebtedness of 
197,454.47. After a severe reduction on 
the estimates sent from the missions, they 
have appropriated for the entire work ot 
the year $830,000, which is $67,311.45 
less than the sum appropriated at the begin- 
ning of 1896-7. The total obligation for 
the Board, therefore, for the year amounts 
to $927,454.47. The receipts from the 
living and the dead last year were $808,- 
928.52. From this it appears that the 
Board must receive in the current year 
$118,525.95 above what it received the 
past year, in order to meet its full fiscal 
obligations. This certainly is a large under- 
taking, but not an impossible one for such 
a Church as ours. The very magnitude of 
the work challenges the zeal and pride of a 
Church that stands foremost before the 
world for its liberality and energy. It 
appeals to the high devotion of every in- 
dividual church, and every single member 
thereof who has a true sense of responsibility 
to the Saviour who died for the whole 
world's redemption. To accomplish the 
task demands the immediate attention of 
every pastor and elder and church member 
throughout our bounds. 

Hopeful Features in the Situation. 

In reviewing the finances of the past 
year it should be borne in mind that the 
Board started in the year with a debt of 
$46,235.14, which was reduced by receipts 
from the Memorial Fund and other gifts to 
$31,351.50, and further that during the year 
the receipts from legacies fell behind those 
of the previous year $57,091.92. But the 
contributions from living contributors in 
the same period came short of those in 
1895-1896 by an amount less than $14,000. 
This certainly is not a large drop in a 
year of such unusual financial stringency. 
It is clearly an indication that the Church 
is not faltering in its foreign missionary 
purpose. This conclusion is confirmed by 
the response of the churches to the special 

Charles TV. Hand, Treasurer. 

appeal sent out in April. The increase of 
contributions from churches, Sabbath- 
schools and Women's Boards and Young 
People's Societies over those from the same 
sources in April, 1895-96, amounted to 
$23,731.32. Such a sum plainly reveals 
an undercurrent of devotion to the cause 
of missions, which, with the return of 
better commercial and industrial conditions 
in the country, may confidently be ex- 
pected to rise to high tide again. Let every 
one be hopeful, prayerful, unstinted in 
effort, and our Church will soon recover 
the tone of its benevolences. 

The General Assembly. 

The sympathetic interest of the Winona 
Assembly for the Foreign Mission service of 
the Church was most gratifying as well as 
significant. The profound attention paid 
to all presentations of the cause, the cordial 
hand of fellowship given to the missionaries, 
and the hearty approval of the Board's 
transactions for the year, augur well for the 
devotion of the Church to this grand enter- 
prise. Now let this enthusiasm express it- 
self in prompt and noble action which shall 
fill the Board's treasury. 





A Generous Gift. 

The managers of Woman's Work for 
Woman have made that magazine such a 
splendid success that out of a surplus in its 
treasury they have been able recently to 
contribute to the Assembly's Board more 
than $3000, of which $578.50 was to pay for 
the type for the Bangkok Press, and $2500 
was to reduce the deficit in the year's re- 
ceipts. The Board, in acknowledging this 
gift, very properly congratulated the 
Women's Boards and Societies, and espe- 
cially those in charge of Woman's Work for 
Woman on their success in its management 
both financially and as a missionary maga- 

The Rev. S. G. McFarland, D.D. 

In the death of Dr. McFarland, which 
took place at his home in Canonsburg, Pa., 
on April 25, there passed away one who 
has occupied an eminent place in the moral 
and religious regeneration of Siam. Mr. 
William Rankin, so many years acquainted 
with his successful career, writes of him: 

" Dr. McFarland was a member of the 
Siam Presbytery, and for eighteen years a 
missionary of the Presbyterian Board, 
having resigned the same in 1878 on accept- 
ing the presidency of a college under the 
auspices of the king. In this responsible 
position he exerted a commanding influence 
upon the youth of Siam, and in harmony 
with the principles of the gospel. He was 
especially useful in translations into Sia- 
mese, including the Pentateuch and some of 
the epistles, the Confession of Faith and 
Shorter Catechism, and preparing other 
books for the people. As a missionary, 
Dr. McFarland held a high rank among 
his brethren, and lost none of the spirit 
which made him such by his more promi- 
nent position in the Siamese kingdom. 

"Dr. McFarland leaves a widow and 
two children, who will have the prayers and 
sympathy of thousands both in Siam and 
the United States." 

Islam Resuscitating. 

It cannot be but with deep solicitude that 
the Christian Church marks the present in- 
crease of vitality in the Mohammedan 
world. It seems to be resuscitating from 
its once apparently moribund state. The 
cruel triumph of the Turks over the 
Creeks, with all the coincident manifesta- 

tions of aggressive purpose, arouses the 
attention to a general movement in the 
Moslem world, which looks to the rehabili- 
tation of the political power of Islam, pro- 
pelling it into ambitious antagonism with 
Christianity. It is its haughty temper 
revivified that has led to the malignant 
effort in Turkey to exterminate the Arme- 
nians, and would, if possible, expel the 
Greeks from its territory. Internally the 
revival of religious zeal is apparent in the 
increasing vigor with which such rites as 
the fast of Ramazan is observed. In 
Persia, too, the ecclesiastics whom the civil 
powers have sought to keep in check are 
regaining influence, especially under the 
new Shah. New orders have been issued 
likely to fetter the distribution of Christian 
literature. Outbreaks of fanaticism in 
Tabriz and Ispahan against the Christians 
accentuate the situation, and mark the grow- 
ing boldness and rejuvenescent aims of the 
Moslem Church. The Mussulmans of India, 
too, are in a state of angry tension over the 
changed attitude of England towards the 
Sultan of Turkey. Shall these new condi- 
tions be met by a corresponding revival of 
devotion in the Christian Church, of loyalty 
to the last great command of her ascending 
Lord, and of prodigal self-sacrifice to effect 
its accomplishment ? If there is approach- 
ing a new struggle between Islam and Chris- 
tianity, it is full time that the latter hasten 
to gird itself with its most potent weapons, 
those which are not carnal, but spiritual, 
" mighty to the pulling down strongholds." 

dr. Speer. 

April was spent by Mr. Speer in southern 
China and Hainan, making Canton his 
headquarters. From there he moved north 
to Shanghai as a new centre of operations. 
The Board has extended the time of his 
absence a month, which will bring him home 
the last of October. His voluminous 
letters written by the way, which have 
appeared in many papers besides The 
Church at Home and Abroad, show 
what a vast amount of rich and useful 
information he is amassing in this tour; 
knowledge which will be of permanent 
value to himself and to the Board. 

It is interesting to notice in this connec- 
tion that at this same time the eminent 
secretary of the London Missionary Society, 
R. Wardlaw Thompson, is on a visitation 




of the principal missions of that society, 
and the Missionary Society of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church is about sending 
one of its secretaries, Dr. Baldwin, to 
visit its missions in China. All societies 
feel the urgent need that its officers should 
be in closer touch with the living facts of 
their missionary work. 


Rev. A. A. Fulton, of Canton, writes: 
" Yesterday a Chinaman gave me money to 
rent, equip and fully fit out a chapel, and 
he will pay salary of preacher largely him- 
self. It will not cost the mission a cent." 

The missionaries at Elatte, West Africa, 
train their boys to do garden work to pay 
for their cloths, thread, needles and 
Bibles. It takes them fifty hours of work 
to get a whole cloth or a Bible, six hours 
for a spool of thread and one for two 

Explorations on the part of the mission- 
aries, as also of Euglish and French officials, 
in the northern Lao country, reveal the 
fact that Chieng Mai, the central mission 
station, is situated in just a corner of the 
large territory inhabited by the people 
speaking the Chieng Mai dialect. Not half 
the population can be reached from stations 
now occupied. 

The tribes around the mission station 
Elatte are in constant war with one an- 
other, to the great discomfort of the mission- 
aries, in spite of their earnest efforts to 
persuade them to come to terms. They had 
the two greatest chiefs to dinner one day 
and preached peace to them. Mrs. John- 
ston had her hands full in caring for the 
wounded and sick. 

The school in Nodoa, Hainan, opened with 
bright prospects at the Chinese new year. 
Spiritual earnestness among the older boys, 
a cordial response to the new rule that each 
scholar should contribute something to meet 
his expense for boarding, and applicants 
on this basis almost more than can be ac- 
commodated, are facts that count for much 
joy in missionary experience. 

the Armenian Christians on the part of the 
fanatical Moslems. All the Christian resi- 
dents of the city were in anxiety some days 
as to how the riotous manifestations would 
issue. The vigorous remonstrances and 
threats of the Russian consul finally 
brought the Persian officials and ecclesias- 
tics to their senses. 

The reports of revivals in the Oroomiah 
field during the last Spring months are of 
thrilling interest. It is many a year since 
those churches were visited from on high by 
such an outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Mr. 
Coan writes : ' ' Never before has there been 
so deep a thirst for the Word of God, such 
a desire to hear it preached, and such a 
ready response to its claims." It is esti- 
mated that more than eight thousand differ- 
ent persons have been in attendance on the 
special services of missionaries and evangel- 
ists, and that the aggregate attendance had 
been as high as 40,000. There had been 
personal interviews with more than eight 
hundred souls, and there was reason to hope 
that several hundred would unite with the 
churches as the fruits of this revival. All 
praise is given to our wonder working God. 

In the early part of April there were 
serious demonstrations in Tabriz against 



May 11 — From New York, returning to the East 
Japan Mission, the Rev. and Mrs. H. M. Landis 
and family. 

May 20 — From New York, returning to the Can- 
ton Mission, Mrs. A. A. Fulton ; from San Fran- 
cisco, returning to the Siam Mission, the Rev. J. A. 
Eakin and Miss Eakin. 


March 31 — At San Francisco, from the Laos 
Mission, Miss Nellie McGilvary. 

April 21— At New York, from the Siam Mission, 
the Rev. and Mrs. Charles E. Eckels. 

April 22 — At New York, from the Chile Mis- 
sion, the Rev. and Mrs. W. B. Boomer. 

May 1 — At New York, from the Laos Mission, 
the Rev. Jonathan Wilson and Miss Margaret 

May 13 — At New Wilmington, Pa. , from the 
East Japan Mission, Mrs. J. M. McCauley ; at 
Maryville, Tenn., from the East Japan Mission, 
Mrs. T. T. Alexander. 


March 23 — At Kolhapur, India, Mary Anna- 
bella, daughter of the Rev. and Mrs. W. H. Han- 




Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

July — Mission Printing Presses. 

(a) Native languages and literature. 

(b) Creation of Christian literature. 

(c) The vernacular Bible. 

(d) The mission presses — location, history, output. 

(e) Our Church papers and magazines at home. 

"The Ely Volume ; or, Missions and Science." 
Thos. Laurie, D.D. American Board Com. For. 
Miss., Boston. $1.50. See chapters on "Philol- 
ogy," "General Literature" and "Periodical 
Literature. ' ' 

"Report London Missionary Conference, 1888." 
Foreign Missions Library, 156 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. 2 vol., postpaid, $1.50. See in Volume 2 
"The Missionary in Relation to Literature." 

" Foreign Missions After a Century." Jas. S. 
Dennis. Foreign Missions Library, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. $1.15. See chapter "The 
Present-day Summary of Success." 

Information may also be found in the ' ' Encyclo- 
pedia of Missions," by E. M. Bliss, and in the An- 
nual Report of the American Bible Society, An- 
nual Report of the British and Foreign Bible Soci- 
ety and the Report of the American Tract Society. 
Especial attention is called to a leaflet, "The Hand 
of God in the Circulation of the Bible." E. W. 
Gilman, D.D., American Tract Society. Price, 
with postage, 20 copies 27 cents. 



The Bible is God's message to the world. 
It is a loving Father's instruction to his dis- 
obedient children, who had lost their way. 
It is God's advertisement to man of the 
remedy provided for all their ills ; a remedy 
of wonderful efficacy, operating not only 
upon the whole nature of man — body, soul 
and spirit — with cleansing, reviving and 
regenerating power, but also most powerful 
to reform all his external relations — social, 
political and national — and raising him to 
a higher plane of life, happiness and civil- 

To make known this message, and to 
translate it into the languages of the nations 
and peoples that have not known it, and 
for whom it was also intended, is the chief 
object of the foreign missionary. 

For this purpose the missionary makes 
his home among a strange and uncongenial 
people, with whom, at first, he cannot con- 
verse except by signs, and who may regard 
him with hostile feelings as an intruder, or, 
at most, with civil curiosity. 

The first thing to do is to learn the lan- 

guage, so as to talk and hold converse with 
the people. He soon obtains a key which 
serves him effectively in opening all the 
secrets and mysteries of the language, 
which was at first to him only a jargon of 
confused and unmeaning sounds. This 
useful key is — to translate the native phrase 
—simply"' ' What do you call this ?' ' With 
this key he gradually unlocks the language, 
and comes to know the names of everything 
to which he points, and writes it down in 
the little blank book he always carries with 
him. At first he learns the nouns — the 
names of things ; then the qualifying adjec- 
tives, then the verbs to express their action 
or passion, then the modifying adverbs, 
and the connecting particles. Thus he col- 
lects gradually a full vocabulary of the 
words of the language, their signification, 
and use; constructs a grammar, and lays the 
foundation for a dictionary. As he ad- 
vances he notes the idiom and peculiarities 
of the language, and learns to construct 
sentences, to talk correctly and to write 
freely. He also acquaints himself with the 
literature, if there should be any, with the 
manners and customs, religion, and worship 
of the people. He mingles with the peo- 
ple as a friend and brother, sympathizes 
with them in their troubles, perhaps pre- 
scribes for their sicknesses, and gains their 
friendship and good- will, gaining at the 
same time a deeper insight into their spir- 
itual and religious condition, as well as a 
more intimate acquaintance with the pecu- 
liarities of the language. All this may 
require several years before the missionary 
may undertake to translate the word of God 
into the language of the people. But while 
preparing for this, he endeavors to make 
use of what he has attained to deliver God's 
message; though it may be in broken lan- 
guage and with a stammering tongue. 

Many of the peoples and tribes to which 
the missionary goes at first, as in Africa and 
the islands of the Pacific, have no written 
language, and their spoken language is 
extremely rude and barren of terms with 
which to express moral or abstract ideas. 
He has accordingly to reduce the language 
to writing; he must form an alphabet or 
syllabary with which to express the sounds 
of the native tongue. For this he finds the 
Roman letters and alphabet, with perhaps 
some diacritical marks or combination of 
letters, to express peculiar sounds, generally 




sufficient; and seldom finds it necessary to 
invent a new character. Thus even the 
tones and accents of the various dialects of 
the Chinese spoken language can be denoted 
and written with the Roman letter. Of the 
381 languages and dialects into which the 
Bible has been translated in whole or in 
part, 187 have been written and published in 
the Roman letter, even languages that have 
a native character, as the Arabic, Hindu, 
Japanese and many others, have been trans- 
literated, for greater convenience, into the 

Another difficulty which the translator of 
the Bible has sometimes to encounter in the 
languages of pagan peoples is the want of 
a satisfactory term to express the name of 
the Divine Being. It may appear strange 
that, even in the language of that ancient 
and cultivated people of China, no single 
term has yet been found satisfactory to all 
the Protestant missionaries laboring in that 
country, upon which they can unite. Three 
different terms are now in use. The adop- 
tion of either the Hebrew or Greek term 
for God would be a happy solution in such 
cases. Besides the above-mentioned, the 
flora and fauna of the different countries 
vary with their location and climate. Those 
of Syria may be quite unknown, and no words 
found in the language of another nation to 
express them. These, with terms to express 
the names of the precious stones mentioned 
in the Bible, and which are wholly unknown 
to barbarous peoples, cause no small per- 
plexity to the translator of the Bible. 
Although the rendering of these in exact 
terms, true to the original, may not be 
important, nor affect the clear understand- 
ing of the essential part of the message, 
yet the conscientious trauslator endeavors to 
be faithful in the least. More important 
are the obscurities occasionally to be met 
with in the text of the original, from various 
readings, and from allusions to manners and 
events well understood at the time by those 
to whom the message was first addressed, 
but which cannot now be appreciated or 
conveyed into another language. As an 
illustration, it may be mentioned that the 
word for Mas, which is often mentioned in 
the original Scriptures, is not found in the 
Japanese language; and that many of the 
terms to express the sins and immoralities 
of mankind, in the last five verses of the 
first chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, 

were not found in the Japanese vernacular, 
but had to be coined from the Chinese 
(which is to the Japanese what the Latin 
or Greek is to the Anglo-Saxon), the Jap- 
anese assistants declaring that the reason 
of the absence of such terms in their ver- 
nacular was that such immoralities were 
unknown in Japan! 

The missionary, then, having a useful 
knowledge of the original languages, and 
having acquired a fair knowledge of the 
native tongue, with the assistance of as 
many of the best ancient and modern ver- 
sions as possible, as well as with the best 
critical works on the original text he can 
command, sets himself to the work of trans- 
lation; but not without the assistance of the 
best native scholarship he can find. The 
work progresses slowly, as every word has 
to be weighed, every sentence to be studied, 
its connection settled, and its meaning 
reproduced with conscientious care; which 
drives him often for light to the Spirit and 
Author of the book. 

It is seldom that any one person, how- 
ever scholarly and expert in the language 
he may be, has been able to translate the 
whole Bible, or is willing to take it upon 
himself, when the cooperation of others can 
be obtained. When there are other mis- 
sionaries in the same field, the translation is 
generally done in committee of three or 
more, and of different Christian denomina- 

As an example of the method usually 
adopted, the Bible was translated into the 
Japanese at first in portions by different 
persons. These portions were then care- 
fully revised and corrected by a committee 
of three and at times of four persons ap- 
pointed to the work, and assisted by three 
native scholars. This committee met three 
hours daily four days in a week, and spent 
nearly six years in the 'revision of the 
translation of the New Testament. After- 
wards, in the Old Testament the members 
of a committee of three worked separately ; 
but the work of each was revised by all 
the other members, the committee meeting 
only by appointment in case of any pecu- 
liar difficulty, and was completed in about 
the same time of six years. 

The sacred Scriptures cannot be trans- 
lated with the same freedom and liberty as 
is allowable in human compositions. A 
most important and essential theological 




doctrine may depend on the rendering of 
a word, even a preposition. Besides adher- 
ing as closely as possible to the native idiom, 
a simple, easy style, free from vulgarism and 
commanding the respect of the people, 
should be the aim of the translator. He 
thus not only honors the word of God, but 
does much to preserve the purity of the 
native language. 

Although the translation of the Bible into 
the languages of the various heathen peo- 
ples in modern times has been done by the 
missionaries, the printing, publishing and 
distribution of the Bible has been done by 
and at the expense of the different Bible 
societies, especially by those of Great 
Britain and America. The plan of these 
societies has been to establish agencies and 
depositories for the sale and distribution of 
the Bible, in the capitals or principal cities 
of every country, under the superinten- 
dence and direction of capable Christian 
men, who divide the country into districts, 
and employ a corps of colporteurs to go 
about to sell, if possible, or give the Bible 
or portions of it, to every family and indi- 
vidual that will receive it. In some coun- 
tries, especially in those where women are 
secluded, as in most Asiatic countries, 
"Bible women" are employed to visit 
every house and family, to read, explain and 
distribute the Scriptures. This plan has 
been extensively adopted, and has been 
found a most useful method. During the 
past year in these various ways the British 
and Foreign and American Bible Societies 
alone have distributed more than 5,720,000 
Bibles or portions thereof. 

The work of translating the Holy Scrip- 
tures in modern times among heathen 
peoples has been the work of Protestant 
missionaries. It is only within a year that 
the Roman Catholic missionaries in Japan 
have translated from the Latin version the 
gospels of Matthew and Mark, and pub- 
lished them with explanatory notes, asserting 
the divine appointment of the Apostle Peter 
to supremacy in the Church of Christ, and 
the Popes of Rome to be his successors. 

As the missionary finds his way into new 
countries and among new tribes of people, 
the work of translation must still go on, 
nor cease until the message of redeeming 
love has been published in all the languages 
of man and made known to the whole 


In contrast with the tireless efforts of our 
great missionary societies to translate and 
circulate the word of God in all languages, 
it will be interesting to note the contrary 
spirit of the Church of Rome. In the 
revision of the index of Prohibited Books 
recently officially published, the following 
rules are given among others: 

" Rule 7. — All translations of the Bible 
into the vernacular, including those that 
have been published by Catholics, are ab- 
solutely prohibited, unless they have been 
approved by the apostolic sees, or have been 
issued under the supervision of the bishops, 
with annotations from the writings of the 
Church fathers or learned Catholic writers. 

" Rule 8. — Further are forbidden all 
translations of the Scriptures in any living 
languages, especially those of the Bible 
societies, which have been forbidden more 
than once by the Popes; for these editions 
are prepared without any regard to ecclesi- 
astical authority whatever. These transla- 
tions, however, are permitted those who 
are engaged in theological and Bible 
studies. ' ' 



The Presbyterian Mission Press — what it 
is, what it has done and can do, and how 
it is doing it, is our threefold topic. To 
add another phase by asking, " Why is it 
doing it?" is unnecessary, as a moment's 
reflection will indicate the place and power 
of the press in a land noted for old learning 
and great conceit. 

I. The Presbyterian Mission Press, Sliang- 
hai, a Fact. We begin thus because we 
are anxious to awaken an interest in the 
work of the Press in the breasts of all good 
Presbyterians, many of whom have not 
been sufficiently cognizant of, and therefore 
not adequately thankful for, or interested 
in, this important part of their possessions. 
The fact is a well-established one. The 
founding of the Press bears testimony to the 
prescience of the officials at home and the 
wide-awakeness of the workers on the field, 
whilst its history is a record of arduous 
labor, wise enterprise and ingenious adap- 




tation on the part of the various workers 
who have helpei in the building up and 
development of the Press. In the manner 
of casting Chinese type, and in the method 
of arranging them in the business-like man- 
ner in which stock is manipulated, and all 
financial transactions recorded, in all that 
makes work easy and successful, and con- 
tinuity possible (not to speak of the build- 
ings we live and work in), we are reaping 
the benefit of our predecessors' scheming 
and working.* 

II. The Presbyterian Mission Press a 
Factor. — A characteristic feature of mission 
work in China is the economy effected in 
literary and publishing effort. In the 
Bible, tract, vernacular, educational and 
other societies we find the best qualified 
men are procured and set apart for literary 
work along these various lines; funds are 
procured from workers on the field and 
parent or associated societies at home ; and 
judicious arrangements made for distribution 
of the printed page. As much of the 
printing for these societies is done bv the 
Presbyterian Mission Press, and as it acts 
as depository for some of them, it is evident 
what an important factor the Press is — how, 
in some respects, it acts as the ' ' executive. ' ' 
Of Ihe 46,300,925 pages printed for the 
year ending June 30, 1896, 17,797,200 
pages come under the heading of Scripture 
printing; religious books and tracts com- 
prised 12,738,800, in addition to which 
5,466,750 sheet tracts and calendars were 
printed ; whilst of educational and such 
like works, 3,601,080 pages were printed; 
the balance being made up of periodicals, 
tune- books, reports, and a large variety of 
printing for all departments of missionary 

As the Bible and Tract Societies publish 
regularly reports of their work, it is unnec- 
essary for us to give illustrations of the 
reception accorded to Christian books and 
the effect produced by their perusal. One 
incident, however, I might mention as 
showing how different departments of Chris- 
tian effort are interlinked— the one assisting 
or preparing for the other. Four or five 

* Whilst the Presbyterian Mission Press is the largest of 
its kind in China, we would not obscure or minimize (from 
the emphasis with which we speak of our own press) the 
work done by the other mission presses in this empire. 
Full particulars regarding these may be found in Tlie Mis- 
sion Press in China, which, whilst being a jubilee retrospect 
of the American Presbyterian Mission Press, gives historical 
accounts of the other mission presses. 





'Hi 1 


■ I V 


Chinese Type Foundry. 

years ago an old countryman bought a 
Scripture portion from a colporteur of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. Being 
unable to read, he got a friend to read it to 
him, and many nights were spent by him 
and his fellow-villagers listening to the 
account of the wonderful doings of Jesus. 
It was remarkable and encouraging to hear 
how much the old man could remember of 
what he had heard. Among other things 
he said: " There was a country called 
Naphtali, which was very dark, and all the 
people dwelt in darkness, until one day 
Jesus went there, and it was light." Of 
course he only understood it in a literal 
sense, and it only remained for the evange- 
list to come along and explain the spiritual 
meaning of " darkness " and " light." 

III. And now we will speak of The Pres- 
byterian 3Iis*io)) Pre*$ as a Factory — under- 
standing by a factory a place where goods 
are manufactured. There may seem to be 
a straining of the definition, but without 
going into the derivation of the word we 
think "goods" particularly applicable in 
view of the nature of the works issued 
from the Press. The use of the word 
" manufactured " (which may seem out of 
place in speaking of the output of the 
Press), in making us think of " hands," 
leads us parenthetically to explain that in 
speaking of the Press workmen we prefer 
using the descriptive term adopted by the 
patriarchs, and think of them as so many 
" souls " — not as so many " hands." 





Hi mmmmi mum 

!_£»!.* j.i i 

The Shanghai Press. 

And now in taking a peep into the work- 
rooms we naturally commence with the 
type-casting room. Here we find type 
being cast for the Methodist Press in Foo- 
chow, as well as for our own requirements. 
Where the heat is most intense we find 
stereoplates being cast by both plaster and 
paper processes. The group of men, heads 
down and "gravers" in hand, at the 
tables in the other room, are touching up 
and correcting plates for the new edition 
of a work on Astronomy by Rev. W. M. 
Hayes, of Tungchow. Others are finishing 
off the plates of Dr. Martin's well-known 
work on " Evidences of Christianity" — a 
work specially adapted to the Chinese mind, 
with many references to their own ancient 
books. Going into the machine-room, we 
find two large Cottrell presses throwing off 
sheets of the same work. Ten thousand 
copies of these "Evidences" are urgently 
wanted, less than a month being allowed 
for the completion of the work, as the 
books are destined for far-distant Chentu, 
the capital of the Szchuen province, and 
are wanted for distribution to the students 
who flock there to the triennial examina- 
tions. At the other machines we find 

editions of the Mandarin dialect New 
Testament, and Shanghai colloquial New 
Testament being printed off, as well as 
several "forms" of Christian Chinese 

Leaving the machine-room and all the 
rattle and rumble caused by the five cylin- 
der and two platen machines, we come to 
the quieter and more deliberate movements 
of the room set aside to hand presses. 
Here we find the men at five large presses 
busy at Bible work and missionary maga- 
zines. Passing by the " godown " with its 
large supplies of native and foreign paper, 
ink, etc., we come to the foreign binding- 
room. Its quietness is disturbed only by 
the flutter of paper, the rattle of the 
guillotine or the occasional clank of the 
hydraulic press pump handles. As Chinese 
labor is comparatively cheap, we have not 
found occasion for folding or rolling ma- 
chines. In this room works on foreign 
paper are pressed, folded and collated. 
Among these we note vocabularies, mission 
reports; missionary magazines, Chinese type 
Bibles, Testaments, etc. A large portion 
of our Bibles, commentaries, hymn-books, 
catechisms, etc., are printedj on native 




paper and bound in native style. As, how- 
ever, we are cramped for room, such bind- 
ing is done outside. 

Going upstairs to the type-setting rooms, 
we first hear in the English type-room the 
familiar click of type on composing-sticks. 
The movements are smart enough, but as 
the Avorkmen are Chinese with a limited 
knowledge of English, the matter set up is 
not characterized by the correctness expected 
from home compositors. Among the works 
in process we see the " Recorder," " The 
Medical Missionary Magazine," " The St. 
John's Echo" (published by the Chinese 
students of St. John's College), Dr. Ma- 
teer's Mandarin Lessons, New Testaments 
and Pilgrim's Progress in Ningpo Roman- 
ized colloquial; Gospels in Cantonese collo- 
quial, a History of China, etc. 

In the Chinese type-room, with its type- 
cases and frames, each capable of contain- 
ing fonts of fully 6600 different kinds of 
characters, we see the work prior to stereo- 
typing and printing. 

In this quick run through the principal 
departments, we have endeavored to make 
clear the nature and extent of the work 

done by the Press. We trust that to the 
reader the Presbyterian Mission Press is a 
more graspable fact than before. We 
bespeak your prayers for the native and 
foreign workers engaged in the work, and 
trust you will prayerfully follow the books 
and tracts as they go out on their quiet 
and tireless mission. We bespeak also 
your prayerful interest in the work of those 
gifted friends who are engaged in the prepar- 
atory literary work. Thus, whilst we em- 
phasize the work of the Press and speak 
from a technical standpoint, we would 
remember and associate with the Press all 
those whose labors precede, and are linked 
with, or follow up ours, not thinking of 
the work as beginning at the Press, but 
keeping in grateful memory the thought 
and scholarship involved in preparation for 
the Press. In fact, as missionary printers, 
we look right back to the olden times (yet 
young so far as the world is concerned) 
when God said, " Let there be light;" 
and in thinking of God's thought of love 
and plan of salvation seek to have all the 
resources of an up-to-date press utilized in 
the work of evangelization. 









« 1 PSSj 




Chinese Type Case 





Among the many issues of our mission 
presses none are more deservedly popular in 
their respective countries than the news- 
papers edited and published by our 
missionaries. The above cut presents six 
of these, much reduced in size. We 
attach a short description of each : 

1. El Faro (The Lighthouse), semi- 
monthly, Mexico City, in Spanish. Edi- 
tion, 2000. 

2. Daybreak, monthly, Bangkok, Siam, 
in Siamese. Edition, 372. 

3. El Neshera (The Herald), weekly, at 
Beirut, Syria, in Arabic. Edition, 430, 
with monthly supplement circulating 4850. 

4. El Heraldo Evangelico (The Evan- 
gelical Herald), semimonthly, at Valpa- 
raiso, Chile. Edition, 1900. 

5. Zahreree d Baura (Rays of Light), 
monthly, at Oroomiah, Persia, in Modern 
Syriac. Edition, 700. 

6. The Christian News, Seoul, Korea. 






One of the most impressive and sugges- 
tive features of this century of missions now 
drawing near its close has been the immense 
increase in the number of translations of 
the Holy Scriptures. It is the remarkable 
fact that up to the year 1804, when the 
British and Foreign Bible Society was 
founded, the word of God in all the cen- 
turies had only been translated into some 
thirty languages ! The most important of 
these, excepting the English, were, more- 
over, like the Greek Septuagint, Latin 
Vulgate, the Ethiopic and ancient Syriac, 
tongues which were dead, so that the exist- 
ence of the word in those languages no 
longer contributed anything towards the 
world's evangelization. The remaining ver- 
sions were chiefly in the languages of 
modern Christendom, so that practically the 
whole heathen and Mohammedan world, the 
immense majority of mankind, were still 
without the Bible in any language they 
could understand. 

The latest statistics, however, give the 
number of versions of the Scriptures in 
existence in 1895 as 381, so that the word 
has within about ninety years been trans- 
lated into some 350 languages. These lan- 
guages comprise those of all the great 
non-Christian nations and peoples, so that 
fully nine-tenths of the human family 
have now the word in their own tongue. 
And this work of translating the Bible has 
gone on in an increasing ratio as the years 
have passed. In the ten years, 1878-88, 
translations were made into fifty-six lan- 
guages; and recent statistics show us that 
even this rate has been latterly exceeded, 
as already in the six years, 1890-1896, of 
the present decade, versions had been made 
into fifty-two additional languages. 

And the circulation has kept pace with 
the work of translation and publication, 
and more. In this case, the supply has 
created the demand. It is estimated that 
at the beginning of the present century not 
more than five or six million copies of the 
Scriptures were in existence in the whole 
world. I have seen no estimate as to the 
number of copies probably in existence at 
the present time; but in the one year, 
1888, alone, the statistics for which happen 

to be at hand, the number of copies issued 
considerably exceeded the six millions which 
were possibly in existence in the whole 
world in 1800. In the decade preceding 
this year, 1878-1888, the number pub- 
lished in various languages is given as 
having been about 34,000,000; some six 
times the whole number in existence when 
the century began. It is certain that the 
number of copies now existing must be 
numbered by the hundred millions. From 
the rooms of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society in London alone are sent forth 
daily from 5000 to 7000 copies, to which 
must be added the copies issued from all 
their subordinate depots in various lands, 
and the issues of the American Bible Soci- 
ety, and of several other lesser bodies; so 
that the recent statement is quite credible 
which puts the whole number of copies of 
the Scriptures issued since the century began 
as over 404,000,000. One of the most 
interesting things in the recent history of 
the Bible translation work has been the 
preparation within the past thirteen or 
fourteen years of two translations of the 
New Testament in Hebrew, the one by the 
late Prof. Delitzsch, of Leipzig, the other 
by a Christian Jew, the Rev. Mr. Sal kin - 
son. Of these at least three editions have 
been published, totalling over 200,000 
copies, and it is needless to say that it is 
certain that these have almost exclusively 
been taken by the Jews; thereby adding 
another to the many indications of an 
awakening spirit of inquiry among that 
chosen and covenant nation, whose turning 
in faith and penitence to Messiah in the 
latter times, is one of the clearest predic- 
tions of the word of God, whose fulfillment, 
it is declared by the Apostle Paul, will be as 
' ' life again from the dead ' ' to the world. 

And as with Israel, so with all the peoples. 
The one report comes up from all the non- 
Christian lands of a constantly increasing 
demand for the vernacular word of God. 
Assuredly, there can be no mistaking the 
significance of all these things, by any 
thoughtful Christian. Alike in the immense 
increase of translations of the Holy Word, 
and the everywhere increasing demand for 
these, we must see the finger of God. Nor 
is it easy to overestimate the importance of 
this work of Bible translation. We write, 
read and talk more of evangelization by 
the word of the living preacher than of 




evangelization by the word translated and 
read ; but assuredly the latter is not less in 
importance than the other. It is probable 
that few realize — perhaps few of us even 
know — to what an extent the translated 
Scriptures often outrun the word of the 
living preacher, and go before him into dark 
regions where perhaps he would not be long 
permitted even to live. This is strikingly 
illustrated by the experience of our own mis- 
sion press in Beirut, from which, we are 
told, there is a constant demand for the 
Arabic translation of the Bible for use in 
the interior regions of continental Africa — 
in those regions back of Senegambia and 
Liberia, where Mohammedanism as yet 
holds undisputed sway, and where the mis- 
sionary is practically unknown. In like 
manner the Hindustani version travels 
from India to east and southeast Africa, 
where, we are told, all along the coast, from 
Somaliland to Mozambique, Hindustani is 
becoming a kind of lingua franca. And 
who can overestimate the importance of the 
translated word for the upbuilding of the 
Church when established ? On this, indeed, 
we do not need to dwell. 

In the light of all these most significant 
and suggestive facts regarding the transla- 
tion and circulation of the written word, 
the writer will be pardoned for asking for 
himself and his associated translators of 
the Old Testament into the Hindi language 
the prayerful interest of all who may read 
these words. The Hindi language, it 
should be understood, as distinguished from 
Hindustani — sometimes also called Urdu — 
the universal speech of India Mussulmans, 
is the language of the non-Mohammedan 
population of the largest part of northern 
and central India. The Scriptures have 
indeed existed in Hindi ever since, nearly a 
hundred years ago, Carey made several 
experimental versions into various forms of 
the current Hindi speech. At least two 
complete versions of the whole Old Testa- 
ment have already been published. But it 
had long been felt that the present received 
version was very far from satisfactory, both 
in that it used a form of speech too high 
and stilted, and in that it by no means 
represented that advance in Hebrew schol- 
arship which is so worthily represented in 
the Revised English Old Testament. And 
so it was that, some six years ago, the Brit- 
ish and Foreign Bible Society took up the 

question of providing an improved Hindi 
version of the Old Testament, and arranged 
with the missionaries in north India for the 
setting apart of a small committee to give 
their time to this work. The call which 
came to the writer in this connection some 
years ago seemed so clear and urgent that 
he felt constrained to resign the home 
pastorate and return to the field of his first 
love, in response to this call of the Bible 
Society and the brethren in India. Of the 
three members of the committee, one, the 
Rev. Dr. Hooper represents the Estab- 
lished Church of England; another, the 
Rev. Mr. Lambert, the English Indepen- 
dents, while the writer is privileged to work 
as the representative of the Presbyterian 
Church in America. Five years have about 
passed since the work was begun; it is 
estimated that about three years more will 
be required to finish it. The importance 
of this particular version is plain when it is 
remembered that those who speak the Hindi 
language number at least seventy or eighty 
millions; so that among the languages 
spoken in non-Christian lands, only Arabic 
and Chinese reach a larger number of peo- 
ple. But as compared with the closely 
related Hindustani or Urdu, the Hindi 
offers special difficulty as a medium for the 
expression of Biblical truth. In the 
former, the whole religious vocabulary is 
Arabic or Persian, and therefore theistic; 
Hindi, on the contrary, is a pantheistic 
language. This fact, that Hindi is the 
speech of a people to whom pantheism in 
some form is as natural as Calvinism is 
supposed to be to a Scotchman, is easily 
illustrated. We have no word in Hindi 
for ' ' person, ' ' none for ' ' matter ' ' as 
distinct from " spirit." The word for 
' ' omnipresence ' ' suggests rather universal 
pervasion than what we mean by presence. 
There is often difficulty in finding exact 
words even for moral ideas. Thus there 
is no one word to express the idea, of 
chastity, which can be applied to a man; the 
word which denotes this can only be used 
of a woman ! 

Neither is there any word which connotes 
the same thought as our word " ought," so 
that, naturally, Hindi has no word for 
" conscience." These are merely isolated 
illustrations of the defects of this very copi- 
ous language. The language itself needs 
conversion. To render into idiomatic Hindi 




Biblical ideas is thus a 
work of exceptional diffi- 
culty, for which the trans- 
lator of God's word is 
often made to feel most 
deeply that very special 
aid and guidance from the 
Holy Spirit is needed. 
May the Christian people 
of our churches, when 
praying for missions, and 
for India, not forget those 
to whom in God's provi- 
dence has fallen this so 
difficult and yet so impor- 
tant and responsible work. 


V. F. P. 

Our Presbyterian Church 
operates eight printing presses 
in its foreign missions. These 
are located at Beirut, Oroomiah, 
Shanghai, Tungchow, Nodoa 
in Hainan, Bangkok, Chieng- 
Mai and Mexico City. The 
amount appropriated by the 
Board of Foreign Missions for 
these presses last year was 
$6248.79. Their output was 
86,235,757 pages. We give 
here a separate notice of each 
of these presses, taking them 
in the order of their date of 



•trail-oar onnEA.MEaaNaBtfsaur.TY 

In 1832 the American 
Board established a press 
on the Island of Malta. Printing could not then 
be done safely at Beirut or Smyrna. In 1833 the 
press was moved to Smyrna, but its Arabic equip- 
ment was sent to Beirut, where also a new press ar- 
rived in 1834, passing through the Turkish custom 
house without objection, much to the relief of the 
missionaries. The press here was placed under the 
care of Rev. Eli Smith and Mr. G. C. Hurter, the 
latter a practical printer. By 1836 the mission be- 
came satisfied that the Arabic type in use was seri- 
ously deficient, not conforming to the most perfect 
standard of Arabic caligraphy, and so not meeting 
the popular taste. Mr. Smith collected models of 
characters of the best manuscripts as the basis of a 

Presbyterian Press, Beirut, Syria. 

new font. Mr. Hallock, the missionary printer at 
Smyrna, a man of great mechanical ingenuity, suc- 
cessfully cut the punches from these and the type 
was subsequently cast at Leipsic, at the famous 
foundry of Tauchnitz. This product of mission- 
ary energy and skill has proved a most important 
contribution to learning and the spread of the 
Christian faith, a very model of beauty to the 
scholarly Arabic eye, and one which has since be- 
come a standard of excellence in Arabic typography 
in all the best printing establishments of the world. 
In 1848 began the translation of the Bible in the 
Arabic by Dr. Eli Smith. For nine years he 
labored upon it, assisted by Mr. Butrus el Bistany, 




a native scholar of superior qualifications. When 
Dr. Smith died in 1857, Dr. Van Dyck, already 
known as " a genius in Arabic," was appointed to 
complete the work. The first printed copy came 
from the press April 19, 1865. Subsequently elec- 
trotype plates of the entire Bible were made in 
New York under the direction of the American 
Bible Society. Later other and smaller fonts of 
type, after the same beautiful models, were made, 
and various other editions were issued. This ver- 
sion of the Scriptures is regarded by competent 
scholars of both the East and the West as one of the 
most perfect translations ever made in any language. 
Dr. Van Dyck lived long enough to see it thoroughly 
tested and to perfect it by a careful revision. Last 
year some 17,000,000 pages of this splendid version 
of the Word of God were printed at the Beirut 
press. It is to be found on sale at all the great 
centres of Mohammedan population throughout the 
world, in Damascus and Jerusalem, in Alexandria 
and Cairo, in Constantinople and Aleppo, in Mosul 
and Bagdad, in Teheran and Bombay, in Zanzibar, 
in Algiers and Tunis, as well as in Shanghai, Can- 
ton and Peking, in Siberia and Sierra Leone. 

Apart from this immense work of supplying the 
world with the Arabic Bible, the Beirut press 
issues annually a large number of other publications. 
The last catalogue has 529 distinct works, includ- 
ing besides the Scriptures religious and educational 
books, theological, scientific, historical, juvenile 
and miscellaneous works prepared by missionaries, 
the professors of the Syrian Protestant College and 
by native Syrian authors. Among these may be 
mentioned the remarkable work of Dr. George E. 
Post, "The Flora of Palestine and Syria," the 
product of twelve years' research, which appeared 
in 1896. The American Tract Society and the Re- 
ligious Tract Society of London have aided in the 
extensive publication work of this press. The 
Sunday-school Union of Brooklyn, N. Y., had 
printed here in Arabic 1000 copies of the " Angels' 
Christmas" for distribution in Syria, Palestine and 
Egypt. A weekly newspaper, "EINeshera" (The 
Herald), has been issued for many years — -the 
only religious paper that reaches the outlying dis- 
tricts in Arabia. "The Kowkab es Soobah" (The 
Morning Star) is a monthly published for chil- 

Though doing a work of such a large and varied 
character and of such important consequence to the 
advancement of Christian truth and civilization, 
this press is subject to some serious restrictions. 
For one thing, the entire plant with its outbuildings 
is very illy adapted for so large an enterprise. 
Again, the censorship of the press, under the Tur- 
kish government, occasions it constant embarrass- 

ment and serious losses. The inspection every 
three months by the local censor might be patiently 
endured, but the Census Bureau at Constantinople 
subjects it to innumerable obstructions besides, re- 
jecting or multilating manuscripts submitted to it 
or forcing it to long delays. In spite of all, how- 
ever, the press holds steadily to the purpose origi- 
nally marked out for it, and stands as an evangeliz- 
ing agency of great potency for the Arabic-speaking 
world. The past year it employed on an average 
forty-seven workmen, under the efficient direction 
of the new manager, Mr. E. G. Freyer. It is not 
only a self-supporting institution, but figured up 
last year a profit of $3237.96, all of which went to 
the treasury of the Board of Foreign Missions. 


In 1837 the American Board sent a printing press 
to Oroomiah, Persia. It proved, however, too un- 
wieldy to be transported over the mountains of 
Trebizond. Two years later a press that could be 
taken to pieces, a new invention, was sent to Oroo- 
miah in charge of Mr. Edward Breath, a practical 
printer. Already considerable headway had been 
made in reducing the modern Syriac language of 
the Nestorians to written form, in which work 
Dr. Perkins, the founder of the mission, was aided 
by some able Nestorian priests, who were them- 
selves interested beyond measure to see their spoken 
language actually in written form. They would 
read a line so prepared and then break out into im- 
moderate laughter, so strange was it to them to 
hear the familiar words of their language read as 
well as spoken. The first book in the modern 
Syriac was a small tract made of passages of the 
Holy Scriptures. Of this first work of the press, 
Dr. Perkins says : 

"As I carried the proof sheets of it from the 
printing office into my study for correction, and 
laid them on my table before our translators, they 
were struck with mute rapture and astonishment to 
see their language in print. Then they exclaimed, 
' It is time to give glory to God that we behold 
the commencement of printing books for our peo- 

The first important volume printed was. the 
Psalms, adapted for use in the services of the Old 
Church. For some years all the books were printed 
from type brought from London, of rude and im- 
perfect form. Under the successful direction of 
Mr. Breath, fonts of type were prepared more 
worthy of the great work in hand, and which 
when finished became the delight of all Syriac 
readers. In the garb of these beautiful letters the 
modern Syriac versions of the Old and New Testa- 
ments'have been sent forth, receiving the encomi- 




urns of distinguished scholars in England and Ger- 
many. The blessing these volumes have been to 
the Syriac-speaking people themselves is simply 
incalculable. The latest important work is the re- 
vision of the earlier editions of the Scriptures in 
the modern tongue, and their publication in a type 
of smaller size with references. This was super 
vised by Dr. Labaree, and printed at the Bible 
House in New York city — one of the most laborious 
and difficult works ever undertaken by the Ameri- 
can Bible Society. 

The Oroomiah press has issued a large number 
of devotional and educational works, reproducing 
in the Syriac some of the best religious literature 
found in the English language, including the works 
of Bunyan, Baxter, Spurgeon and Andrew Murray. 
It also issues a monthly newspaper, " Zahreree d' 
Baura" (Rays of Light), with a subscription list of 
some 700, which meets about half the cost of pub- 
lication. It is probably the oldest newspaper in 
Persia. On an average the press turns off about 
500,000 pages annually, and it sends out from its 
bindery from 1200 to 1500 volumes. The total 
number of pages from the beginning amounts to 
133,530,181. It employs, as a rule, six workmen 
in both printing office and bindery. "Rays of 
Light" is under the editorship of Rev. W. A. 
Shedd, who also prepares other literary matter for 
publication ; but the management of the press is in 
the hands of Rev. B. W. Labaree, who has the 
efficient cooperation of Rev. Samuel Badal, a na- 
tive of Oroomiah, educated in the mission school, 
who completed his studies at the Drew Theological 
Seminary. The press is now housed in an unpre- 
tentious building erected with funds furnished by 
the Board in 1892. The annual cost of running 
the establishment is about $1000. The grant of 
the Board of Foreign Missions in 1896 was $764. 


This, now the largest press operated in any of 
our missions, was first established at Macao in 
1844. The little seed there sown so unpretentious- 
ly, yet hopefully and prayerfully, has grown into 
a great tree, with its branches spreading over the 
empire, extending beneficent influences wherever 
Chinese are found. The new enterprise was conse- 
crated by an early issue of parts of the Scriptures, 
thus beginning the wide circulation of gospel 
truth into the Chinese nation which has been so 
vigorously pushed ever since. In 1845 the press was 
moved to Ningpo, where it was known as ' ' The 
Chinese and American Holy Classic Establish- 

In 1858, Mr. William Gamble, who was sent out 
for the purpose, took charge of the press, and ac- 

complished a work for this press and all mission 
presses in general in China that has hardly been 
equaled in the annals of missions or in the history 
of the development of the art of printing. With 
his two main inventions, the making of mat- 
rices of Chinese type by the electrotype plate pro- 
cess and the Chinese type case as now generally in 
use, aided by his business faculty, indomitable per- 
severance, unfailing patience and true missionary 
spirit, he succeeded in so developing the mission 
press that it speedily grew from infantile propor- 
tions to a mighty agency for achieving great results 
for Christ in China. It was said at his funeral, 
and time but endorses the sentence, " For the cen- 
tury to come, not a Bible, Christian or scientific 
book in that empire or Japan, but will bear the 
impress of Mr. Gamble's hand." 

Perceiving the great importance of Shanghai as 
a commercial and evangelistic centre, Mr. Gamble 
succeeded in having the press transferred to that 
port in 1860, where the plant was greatly enlarged 
and from twelve to fourteen million pages were 
printed annually. To-day the property covers a 
half acre of ground, with a total value of $50,400. 
All the Chinese type is manufactured on the prem- 
ises. Some 115 men are employed under the super- 
vision of Rev. G. F. Fitch and Rev. Gilbert Mc- 
intosh. A prayer meeting, attended by most of the 
native workers and led by one of them, begins the 
day at 7.30 o'clock each morning. The press 
issues several monthly and weekly publications, 
chiefly in Chinese, and some in English. All the 
great missionary societies avail themselves of the 
fine advantages of this establishment. The American 
and British Bible Society does an extensive work 
with this press. It is only necessary to allude to 
the superb New Testament presented to the Dowa- 
ger Empress of China by 2000 Christian Chinese 
women. One critic says: "The appearance of 
these pages is not surpassed by anything in Arabic, 
Hebrew, Syriac, Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, English 
or any other language. '' 

The demands from all quarters tax the press be- 
yond its full capacity. Larger building accommoda- 
tions, with more extensive machinery, and, above 
all, an accomplished associate manager are of 
prime necessity. In a recent letter Mr. Fitch says : 

' ' In November we sent out from our sales de- 
partment nearly $4000 worth of books, tracts, etc. 
Many of the educational works are being pirated by 
the Chinese, and sold by them. Formerly we 
could hardly give them away." 

In 1896 there were printed 46,300,925 pages. 
This press pays yearly into our Mission Board's 
treasury hundreds of dollars above the cost of run- 
ning it. 




Two other smaller Chinese presses may be men- 
tioned here. One is located at Nodoa on the Island 
of Hainan. This was presented to the mission in 
1890, by friends in the United States, for the pur- 
pose of printing books in the Hainanese-Romanized 
colloquial. A number of gospels, hymn books and 
other works have been already printed. In 1894 
about 27,000 pages were issued. It is understood 
that the press is worked chiefly by school-boys 
and natives under the superintendance of a mem- 
ber of the mission, and thus far without direct ex- 
pense to the mission. 

Another small press is located at Tungchow 
College, Tungchow, Shantung. It was presented 
by a Christian Endeavor society of Pittsburg. 
Mrs. Nevius writes: "It is doing good service, 
and printing a little Chinese newspaper, ''The 
Shantung Times," edited by Rev. W. M. Hayes, 
president of the college, the first regular newspaper 
in the colloquial Mandarin, begun in June, 1896. 


Prior to 1859, our Siamese mission depended 
upon the Baptist and Congregational presses, since 
abandoned. But that year one was sent to Bangkok 
by the Board, and in a year or so reported more 
than half a million of pages printed annually. 
The Bible has until recently been issued in sepa- 
rate portions, owing to the size of the volume as 
necessitated by Siamese type ; but the Rev. J. B. 
Dunlap, the very competent manager, during his 
furlough in this country in 1895, had matrices made 
in Philadelphia, which make it possible to print 
the whole Bible in one volume of moderate size. 
Siam offers unusual opportunities for Bible distribu- 
tion. The priests in their wats (every man is ex- 
pected to spend more or less time in the priesthood, 
and according to law no one can serve the govern- 
ment until he has done so) are entirely ignorant in 
a large majority of cases of their religious tenets, 
nor do they understand their sacred books in the 
Pali, so are glad to buy our press publications, 
which in many cases they have actually taught to 
their people. 

Mr. Dunlap has eight printers at work in his 
press. "Daybreak," the mission paper, is edited 
by the missionaries, assisted by the Rev. Boon-Itt. 
The subscription list is on average as high as that 
of any local paper. No mission probably does so 
much in the distribution of religious literature in 
the vernacular as the Siam mission. Rev. E. P. 
Dunlap, D.D., in his remarkable itinerations sells 
thousands of Scripture portions and tracts in a single 
tour. Siam being a land of rivers and canals, and 
the people fond of fishing, it is said the book of 
Jonah is a great favorite. About four million 

pages were printed last year. The Board appro- 
priated for this press this year $800. Generous 
assistance towards the expenses of the establish- 
ment came through a recent gift of nearly $600, 
from the surplus receipts of " Woman's Work for 
Woman," donated especially for new type. 


The Spanish conquerors gave the New World the 
first printing press, to Mexico in 1536. In 1885 the 
Presbyterian mission established a press in Mexico 
City. Last year there were connected with it the 
Rev. Hubert W. Brown, as editor ; Rev. P. 
Arrellano, associate editor ; Rev. J. G. Woods, 
manager, with a force of nine workmen. One of 
the chief publications is the El Faro, an illus- 
trated fortnightly in Spanish, with about 2000 sub- 
scribers. It circulates in all the Protestant missions 
in Mexico, and finds readers also in Guatemala and 
Colombia. It has subscribers too among the Span- 
ish-speaking people in our Southwestern States. 
The Sabbath-school lesson leaves have a circulation 
in Cuba to the number of some 4500 copies. An 
illustrated supplement, in the form of a tract, con- 
taining a serial life of Christ, and often a ser- 
mon, is issued fortnightly, of which some 14,000 
copies are printed. 12,000,000 pages is the total 
output of the press since 1885. The Board annu- 
ally grants something over $3000, while the press 
has an additional revenue from the field of some 
$700. One means of propagating the printed 
gospel in Mexico is peculiar and very interesting. 
In various public places in Mexico City are scribes 
or readers, known as ' ' evangelists, ' ' serving for 
the benefit of the illiterate majority. They are ac- 
customed to charge one cent for reading a tract or 
small leaflet. One sainted woman is reported as never 
failing to get a copy of each new tract announced, 
which she takes to one of these evangelists and has 
him read it aloud, so that he gets the benefit, she her- 
self is .edified and the crowds of people sitting or 
standing by hear a message that the Holy Spirit 
may own to their salvation. 


A small press was established in 1890 at Chieng- 
Mai for the use of the Laos mission. At the outset 
the readers were compelled to learn the Siamese, 
and to make use of the Bible in the Siamese tongue; 
but now they have Matthew, Luke, John, Acts, 
Psalms and a few other portions in the beautiful 
Laos type, which through the energy and skill of 
Rev. S. C. Peoples, M.D., of Lakawn, was made in 
Philadelphia. The help rendered by Nan Inta, the 
first Laos convert, in the translation of Pilgrim's 
Progress and of the Scriptures is worthy of note in 


this connection. Among other interesting products we were glad at the end of an eight-hundred-mile 

of this press is a set of Bible history cards, prepared ride from the well-kept, well-fortified harbor of 

to meet the almost passionate fondness of the people Kurrachee, part of which lay along the wide sandy 

for games. bed of the Indus, to step out into the midst of a 

o f . , -a , , . . little group of loving-hearted missionaries at Lahore, 

summary of issues from .Presbyterian presses in . ,-.., ... • i 

lSQA-Qf • tne capital of the Punjab, rich in memories of 

Hindu, Mogul and Sikh, and richer still through 

mission. pages. the work and lives of such men as Forman, 

China, Shanghai 49,041,438 whose name is held still in veneration and love. 

* Guatemala 1,000 It was the time of the government examinations, 

Laos, Lakawn 1,352,000 and two classes of the Forman Christian college 

Siam, Bangkok 2,940,900 had "gone up" to them. No one at home can 

Mexico, Mexico City 5,704,343 imagine the feverish ambition of the Hindu or Mo- 
Persia, Oroomiah 631, 560 hammedan student to pass these tests. If he fails 

* Chile 1,528,000 he drops back into the great undistinguished, mis- 

* Bogota 50,000 cellaneous mob. If he succeeds he rises into the 

Syria, Beirut 24,986,516 class of acknowledged men, the class of intelligence, 

of government so far as the natives have part in it, 

Total number pages 86,235,757 of respectability, of more clothes and rupees than 

the mass. I have seen hard "cramming" at 

home, but all life hangs on the examination for 

LETTER FROM ROBERT E. SPEER. these men ; often in a literal sense failed men have 

turned not seldom to the escape of suicide. The 

On the Bay of Bengal, March 27, 1897. system has great disadvantages. It is doubtful 

through plague and famine. whether the 7 balance its commendations. A Ben- 

gali student has found in it a field for the exercise 

"We left Hamadan January 21. The ride to f the queerest benevolence at the coming sixtieth 

Bagdad led over the Corpse road, across the Zagros anniversary of his accession. " Let extra marks be 

mountains, down into the broad plains which g i y e n to all students in the tests," says he, with 

reach out into Mesopotamia. From Bagdad it was unsurpassed ingenuousness. 

easy, very easy compared with the hard riding in The college stands at the head of Punjab institu- 

mud and storm, to glide down the Tigris river to tions in many ways. It may be doubted whether 

Busra, where good steamers for India make the there is a more effective, vigorous missionary 

journey down the Persian Gulf easier still. We co llege in India. As one of the students of the 

anchored in the harbor of plague-smitten Kurrachee college expressed it in a characteristically vivid 

Monday morning, March 8. There was a spirit Oriental address : " Your unceasing efforts in trans- 

of unrest and of death on the place, and we passed on planting to our Indian soil such American flowers 

as soon as we could, accompanied by many natives ^ Drs. Ewing and Orbison, Messrs. Velte, Gris- 

who fled from the fatal touch of the plague. At wo id an d Morrison, have spread a delicious, fra- 

each large station along the road, as we went north- gra nce of moral and spiritual instruction 

ward through Sind and along the western border of They have by their strenuous exertions raised this 

Rajputana into the Punjab, there were examina- college to a height of literary excellence that makes 

tions of the passengers. One wonders, though, it unrivaled in the whole of this province. Year 

that these were so slight and superficial, and that by year they have sent into the world graduates su- 

other parts of the country seemed to fear so little pe rior in number to other colleges, some of whom 

the awful scourge which mocks at man and defies have brilliantly distinguished themselves in uni- 

him. It is said that the spring warmth checks the ver sity examinations We are constrained to 

plague. May God grant such a result rather than say that the introduction of Christianity into this 

the spread of its horrors where famine is already country is helping to dispel the darkness of ignor- 

devastating the people. ancC) and is elevating the condition of our country. 

The plains of northern India are not unlike our sir, we are deeply grateful to your country, which 

own western plains. It was easy to imagine that we has by the sacrifice of men and money helped India 

were riding over them, or down the Mexico plateau. t o raise herself somewhat in the scale of nations. 

The dust came in with a homelike heartiness, and We welcome you in our midst, and pray you to 

± „ . . . ~ '. ' T~~7 carry with you when you return home, a grateful 

* Pages printed on presses owned by private firms or Bible J . J , J 3 „ 

and Tract Societies. sense of our remembrance, and tell your people to 




continue to help a country seeking enlightenment 
and regeneration." 

Persia and China being the fields which we have 
had especially in view, it has been necessary to 
hasten rapidly across India, and so, after a brief 
glimpse at the great Rang Mahal school in Lahore 
City, where thousands of boys have been taught, at 
the native church, and at the ruins of past glory, 
sadly marred by the devastating hand of the icono- 
clastic Sikh, we passed down one of the India rail- 
ways with iron sleepers, stone telegraph poles and 
water towers built like Hindu temples to Agra. In 
Persia and Bagdad the traveler sees— save at Per- 
sepolis — no real trace of the mighty splendor of gold 
and marble and precious stones described by the 
childlike historians of the day. It is only a common 
monotony of sun-dried bricks and flat brownness. 
The imagination is satisfied at Agra. I had begun 
to doubt whether all the glory of the past was not 
a hyperbolic dream of the novelist. Agra shows 
that it was even as the legends say. There was a 
time when kings lived in marble palaces and 
treated jewels as of light account, and breathed the 
scents of Araby. When Akbar built the great 
brown stone flat at Agra, overlooking the Jumna, 
and Shah Jehan, his grandson, added to it white 
marble halls gemmed with jewels and radiant with 
gold ; and built in fair view of his palace windows, 
the Taj, to which it is sacrilege to apply adjectives 
— the tomb of his queen — those were the days of 
glory. There was wealth and royal magnificence 
then. Royalty was not maintained then just for 
the tradition of it. 

Under the shadow of the Fort and the Taj the 
famine relief works well, employing thousands of 
starving men and women and little ones. A starv- 
ing child is the most heart-rending sight I have 
ever seen — pinched, wizened face ; thin, shriveled 
little arms ; the dark skin drawn tightly, though 
heavily wrinkled and seamed like the face of an 
aged man ; the feeble, death-foretelling totter of 
the weary little legs. The famine relief funds came 
none too soon, and thousands of these little ones 
carry their baskets of earth by their mothers' sides 
and receive a few cents each day for their labor, a 
little wage but enough to buy ample food. We 
passed down into the worst of the famine as we 
drew near Allahabad. The northwest provinces 
are suffering most, and at Allahabad we saw a group 
of the wee children whom one of the missionaries 
at her own expense was saving from death, in the 
spirit of him who came not to be ministered unto 
but to minister. I dare not describe that group. 
In the Sarah Seward Hospital is one small child 

called " Little Cactus," because it was rescued from 
a cactus bush into which its mother had flung it to 
die, after she had first wrung its neck. Why, 
was not that better, she would say, than to watch 
the little life starved painfully out before her eyes? 
It would doubtless be productive of many " rice- 
Christians," but one cannot help wishing that the 
immense relief funds contributed in England and 
elsewhere might be wholly administered by the 
missionaries. The natives of India are no nearer 
sanctification or even business probity than Persians 
and Turks. Underneath that thin surface zone, 
where stern English righteousness rules, all the dis- 
tortion and obliquity of the Orient sweep in full tide 
in India, and it is beneath the zone of British ad- 
ministration that the great bulk of the famine re- 
lief funds is disposed of. What does a Hindu 
grain dealer care for the starving, or how can a 
native supervisor, whose one chance is now, be ex- 
pected to have a higher code than prevails univer- 
sally in Asiatic government, and only too commonly 
in municipal administration at home? 

It will be a long time before famines in India are 
impossible. The rainfall will be less capricious as 
the forests are developed, but it will still be too 
variable to ensure both ample and regular crops. 
Railroads will knit the land yet closer together. 
The great work of Stephenson, the India railroad 
builder, is not done yet, though after a life of in- 
defatigable energy he has fallen asleep, with his 
greatest project of a railroad from Calcutta to Ca- 
lais, straight across intervening Asia and Europe, 
still unrealized. But the poverty of India, due to 
whatever cause, undevelopment, or the overdevel- 
opment due to too great a population, will mean 
famine and want to multitudes for years. The av- 
erage village home is worth perhaps fifteen cents 
or thirty cents, or even less, a month for rent, and 
possibly in the northwest province at least one or 
two dollars for its household furniture and uten- 
sils. A dollar will supply a man with a far more 
expensive outfit of clothes than the great turbanless, 
shoeless multitude possess. ' ' The curse of the poor 
is their poverty," is a proverb well tested in In- 

We call the land India and its religion Hindu- 
ism, but under these unities what a vast collection 
of peoples and religions seethe to and fro ! We 
spent less than a fortnight in the land, but a fort- 
night of years would not reach down very deep 
into the great mystery and maelstrom of Indian 
life. But in that fortnight we saw things, many 
and many of them horrible, which I have not 
written here. 

E D U C A;T ! O N 

Eton College. England, from the Thames. 



It must have been gratifying to the Gen- 
eral Assembly to learn that the Board had 
kept its expenses during the year clearly 
within its income. One of the important 
lessons which the ' ' hard times ' ' are impress- 
ing upon our various benevolent agencies is 
to the effect that conservative estimates 
should be made of probable income, and 
that expenditures should be kept strictly 
within the estimates. Let the Church mark 
this for her guidance when prosperous times 
return to us. The indebtedness has been 
reduced since the last report from $16,675 
to $9220.75. The number of candidates is 
124 less than a year ago. The total num- 
ber enrolled during the year was 911. The 
amount of scholarship aid granted was less 
than in former years. The reduction was 
made necessary by " the present distress," 
and former rates must be restored at the 
earliest possibl 

The General Assembly, by its action, dis- 
tinctly endorses the position that it is better 
to care for fewer men on a more generous scale 
than more men in a niggardly manner. 

This implies a constant effort to effect a 
wise restriction. An arbitrary limitation of 
numbers might cut off the very men who 
should by all means be encouraged and 
assisted. The limitation must be by the 
exclusion or elimination of the unpromising 
and the unworthy. 


The command of the Lord Jesus, " Pray 
ye the Lord of the harvest that he would 
send forth laborers into his harvest," has 
never been repealed. The condition of 
things as he regarded it, when he said, 
" The harvest truly is great, but the 
laborers are few," has changed only in such 
a way as to make his words appear more 
startlingly true. " The field is the world." 
The Church has in her hands the commis- 
sion to make disciples of all nations. Godly 

e m oment. men and women will never cease devoutly 


air n: _~:j- n. 




to utter with heartfelt zeal the prayer which 
the Saviour taught them. The prayer is a 
safe one to offer. The Lord of the harvest 
is not a man that he should make a mistake; 
or that he should be misled by his people's 
importunities. He knows how many men 
are needed in every emergency, and he will 
never call too many men at any one time. 


Complaints are heard on this subject. 
Have we too many ministers ? There can 
never be too many divinely- called men in the 
ministry. The sin of the Church has been 
twofold. She has, in too many cases, hastily 
and carelessly introduced into the holy min- 
istry men who do not give satisfactory 
evidence of a divine call ; and she has failed 
to make adequate provision for the prompt, 
full, economical and constant employment of 
those who do give evidence of this call. 

This is a heavy indictment, but the truth 
of it can hardly be questioned. The remedy 
is, not disobedience to the Lord's command ; 
that would be criminal : but renewed care in 
the admission of men to the ministry, and 
renewed zeal in undertaking the redemption 
of the world for Christ. 

There may be a necessity for a reduction 
in the number of candidates for the minis- 
try, but the reduction must be attempted 
along lines which shall prevent the exclusion, 
if possible, of a single man who gives good 
evidence of a divine call. The heart of the 
Church should go out towards such a man 
very much as the heart of the mother of 
young Samuel went out after him. " For 
this child," said she, " I prayed." And 
the Church should care for the training of 
such a man with maternal affection that, 
at the proper time, she may present him to 
the Lord for his holy service. 


Presbyteries are very properly jealous of 
their prerogatives. It belongs to them 
primarily to judge of the evidence which a 
young man may give of being called of God. 
It belongs to them to judge whether the 
evidence to the contrary which may be sent 
to them is sufficient to justify the conclusion 
that a divine call is absent. It requires 
great wisdom and prudence, however, to 
deal with questions of this kind. It will 
not do to judge by the outward appearance. 
It will not do to judge by mere intellectual 

ability or scholarly attainments. Some men 
of uncouth look, like Robinson, sent in the 
early history of our Church as missionary to 
Virginia, have become powerful and success- 
ful preachers. Some men who have had 
difficulty in securing their college degree 
and have been ready to despair over prob- 
lems in geometry or floundered helplessly in 
the depths of metaphysics, have surpassed 
many of their more highly cultured breth- 
ren in zeal for God, readiness to endure 
hardships, and skill in leading souls to the 
knowledge of Christ. 

The Board simply offers its help to the 
presbyteries, so far as they may need it, in a 
task so delicate and difficult, and with which 
are bound up so many precious interests. 


One of the most prominent features of 
the report relates to a plan for the encour- 
agement of a missionary spirit in all of the 
Church's candidates for the ministry. 
While this plan is meant to apply to all 
without discrimination, it was fitting that 
the Board of Education should have a lead- 
ing part in inaugurating it because of the 
exceedingly intimate relation which that 
Board has sustained from the beginning to 
the cause of missions. It owes its origin to 
the great revivals of religion by which the 
beginning of this century was marked, 
and which were followed by a mighty 
awakening of the conscience of the Church 
to the duty of giving the gospel of Christ to 
all mankind. Its most eloquent advocates 
have written, and argued, and spoken, in 
behalf of an earnest effort to raise up a 
qualified ministry, to be the Church's instru- 
mentality for the accomplishment of this 
glorious end. 

The type of men which it has sought to 
encourage has been of the heroic order; 
men ready to lead a forlorn hope, to volun- 
teer their services for difficult undertakings, 
to brave danger, to face death. 

Its growing list embraces many such ; 
missionaries by the hundred on the foreign 
field, missionaries by the hundred on the 
frontier at home. It believes that one of 
the best indications of a call of God given 
to a young man is a disposition in his heart 
that leads him to offer himself without reser- 
vation for the divine service, to go any- 
where, and to do anything according as God 
may make the appointment. 




To keep alive such a spirit, to emphasize 
its importance, and to make it the prevail- 
ing disposition of all the probationers of the 
Church is a prime object of the plan which 
has now received the approval of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Unless all signs fail the age 
in which we live will be marked by notable 
advances in missionary enterprises. If 
new wonders are not wrought in the name 
of the Lord, it can only be on account of 
the sluggishness of the Church, and a crimi- 
nal neglect upon her part to embrace the 
magnificent opportunities which the provi- 
dence of God has opened before her. 


The Board has the opportunity to reach 
a large proportion of the Church's candi- 
dates with influences of a missionary char- 
acter, and practically all the rest can be 
reached through the theological seminaries 
and the presbyteries. Accordingly the 
Board is now directed by the General 
Assembly to put into the hand of each can- 
didate who accepts a scholarship an expres- 
sion of its judgment as to the importance of 
a missionary spirit as Ghr'istlike, apostolic 
and timely, and the appropriateness of a 
proffer of service on his part for work in a 
missionary field in view of the destitution 
which exists in many places, the advantage, 
honor and privilege of such a service, the 
peculiar adaptability of young men for its 
necessary hardships, the natural expectation 
of the Church which has educated them, 
and, above all, the spirit of the last com- 
mand of their ascended Lord. This judg- 
ment of the Church will be printed in the 
''Rules for Candidates," not as though it 
were a matter of binding obligation, but 
because the so-called rules contain as well 
whatever other matters are necessary to 
make plain to the candidate the principles 
by which his relation to the Board is to be 

If we are not much mistaken with regard 
to the character and disposition of our 
young candidates many will be found eager 
and ready for precisely such service as is 
thus proposed for them. There are many 
fields waiting for just such men. An 
average of seventy-six Presbyterian 
churches dissolved each year is too large by 
far. It is almost certain that a good pro- 
portion could be saved and made prosperous 
bv zeal and care. The Board of Home 

Missions has been too much straitened to 
encourage much aggressive work, or even 
to care for what was ready to perish. Why 
wait for a salary from the Board ? In many 
places a young man of the right kind will 
find that he can cast himself upon the care 
of the people. Food and shelter are abun- 
dant; a bicycle in these days will often, for 
a large part of the year, take the place of 
the costly horse and buggy, and an um- 
brella tent, in case of necessity, give cover 
for the night. 

The Board hopes to be the means of 
bringing enterprising and well-equipped 
men into relationship with those who can 
direct them to fields which will test their 
qualities, develop their manhood, and give 
them opportunities of making Christ known 
to those who are perishing for lack of 

It is a gratifying fact that the theologi- 
cal seminaries have done much already to 
foster a missionary spirit among their stu- 
dents. Missionary prayer meetings regu- 
larly maintained, occasional courses of 
lectures upon the great problems of the 
missionary field in the country, in the 
city, in foreign lands, and perhaps other 
instrumentalities, have been the means em- 
ployed. But much more may be done. 
particularly by the personal influence of the 
individual professors. It is very easy to 
give the impression to a young man that, 
after all the care bestowed upon his educa- 
tion, and with his talents and culture, he 
ought not to bury himself in a mission 
field, or pinch himself upon the meagre 
income which he must there be contented 
with. It is easy to convey to him the 
impression that the Church owes him a gen- 
erous support and that the seminary rather 
expects its graduates to find their way to 
what are considered the more desirable 

On the other hand, the professors in their 
individual relations with students can do 
much to make them feel that it is a nobler 
privilege and a higher honor to preach the 
gospel to the destitute, and that it is the 
peculiar privilege of the young in their 
vigor, and with their habits not yet incapa- 
ble of adaptation to new conditions, to bear 
the hardships and overcome the difficulties 
of the more rugged fields of labor. 

The students naturally look to their 
teachers for advice as to their settlement 




and few are in a better position to influence 
them in a worthy manner than those whom 
they have learned to love and trust as their 
instructors and guides. Institutions have 
characters as well a* individual*. It is 
hoped that each of our seminaries may be 
distinguished by its zeal in the cause of 
missions, and by the number of its gradu- 
ates that show a readiness to turn aside from 
the places of comparative comfort to carry 
the standard of the cross of Christ into the 
places where the conflict is hottest and the 
conditions the most difficult. 

As the presbyteries have the immediate 
care of probationers as well as of the fields 

of labor, a verv large share of the whole 
responsibility in this matter rests upon them. 
How well many of them are discharging it 
need not now be told. Nevertheless, is it 
not possible that more might be done in 
encouraging probationers to look to them 
for guidance in seeking settlement ? May 
not suitable young men be found by diligent 
correspondence who are ready to give their 
services to churches now feeble and with 
meagre salaries, where, under proper care, 
strength and prosperity may result ? That 
there are many places where the zealous 
labors of such young men are badly needed 
there seems to be no manner of doubt. 



In response to one of the notes sent from 
this office calling for the amount paid as 
premium upon a policy held by the Board, 
and also urging additional insurance, the 
following answer was received : 

" I would say, as my reason for not carry- 
ing any further insurance on the church, 
that I believe the Lord rules on earth as 
well as in heaven, and I believe that he is 
better pleased with me for using his means 
for the further advancement of his kingdom 
on earth, than giving it to some insurance 
company, and I believe he will protect his 
own to his own honor and glory." 

We do not quote this for the purpose of 
reply or criticism. The former is obvious 
to any one who believes that our heavenly 
Father, even in dealing with the interests 
of his children, works through means 
which he has placed within their reach, and 
as to the latter, we have nothing but sincere 
respect for one who reverently trusts in the 
Lord even although we think he miscon- 
ceives the relation of such trust to his own 
human responsibility. 

But we desire to use the statement of our 
friend as a text for a few suggestions upon 
this important matter of insurance against 
the danger from fire. 

The Board does all that it can to secure 
protection in this way. It takes out insur- 
ance policies to cover its mortgage interest 
in all churches and manses to which it has 

made appropriations, but it is unable to do 
this to any greater extent, and therefore 
unless the church also cares for its own pro- 
tection, only partial safety is secured, for the 
insurance held by the Board cannot exceed 
one-third of the value of the property and 
is usually much less. 

That the danger from this cause is real is 
manifest from the fact that last year there 
were reported to the Board twenty cases of 
loss, partial or complete, from fire among 
the churches upon which the Board held 
policies of insurance, and nearly $3000 
was actually collected from the companies. 
That neglect upon the part of churches is 
common is obvious. Not only was it found 
in the above instances that in many cases no 
insurance in addition to that of the Board 
was held, but also, in reply to an inquiry 
sent out a year or two ago, it was found 
that in the case of one hundred churches 
from whom answers were received, nearly 
one-half, and moreover the half that in- 
cluded the weaker churches least able to bear 
the loss, carried no insurance at all except- 
ing that held by the Board. In other 
words, the total insurance upon forty-eight 
buildings valued at $76,300 was only 
$9874, or nine per cent, of the estimated 
value, and this was held exclusively by the 
Board. Upon the remaining fifty-two, 
valued at $180,350, the total insurance was 
$136,388, or about seventy per cent, of 
their value, of which $36,883 was held by 
the Board, and $99,505 by the churches. 




These figures make it obvious that it is 
the weaker churches that are most neglectful 
in making adequate provision against this 
very real danger. 

In some regions of the country there is 
the added danger of the destruction of the 
church building by a tornado, and in such 
localities insurance should cover damage 
from wind as well as from fire. In this 
matter, the Board can give little or no help, 
as the open policy under which it obtains 
insurance does not cover loss from this latter 
cause. Yet not a year passes that the 
Board is not called upon to aid in the 
rebuilding of an edifice destroyed in an 
instant by the blow of a tornado. 

To church trustees who are neglecting 
through indifference or procrastination to 
provide against the ever-threatening calam- 
ity of fire, we would say: Friends, you are 
recreant to duty, in not recognizing the 
responsibilities that you, as trustees of the 
property of the church, have assumed, and 
if calamity comes, and finds the church 
unprotected, you cannot be held blame- 

To brethren, if such there be, who in 
what they believe to be a special faith in 
God throw upon him all the responsibility 
for disaster, we say: Meditate upon the 
teaching of the apostle James, and consider 
if it does not have a bearing upon the 
ordering of this present life as well as upon 
preparation for the next. You cannot too 
confidently put your trust in God, but his 
protecting care is most often manifest, not 
in miraculous intervention, but by pointing 
the believer to the means within his own 
reach to ensure the safety for which he 
prays. So long as fire burns and an organ- 
ized system of mutual protection provides 
insurance against loss, it is emphatically 
true that " fait h if it hath not works is 
dead. ' ' 


Three years ago (January, 1894), we 
published a most interesting account, by the 
Rev. Charles H. Cook, of the work among 
the Pima Indians in Arizona. Since then 
the work has gone steadily on and there is 
now an urgent demand for additional 
chapels at other stations among these tribes. 
In sending on applications for help at two 
points, Wa-key and Salt River, Dr. Cook, 

after saying that the Sacaton church is 
generally crowded and the others nearly 
always full, goes on to say of the new work 
now projected : 

" We got through with the walls at the 
Wa-key church yesterday. Being able 
thus far to use the water from the ditch has 
helped us very much. Hereafter, whatever 
water we use we shall have to draw from 
a well, and besides carry it quite a way, as 
the river bed will be dry again shortly. As 
I have said before, the whites, and more 
especially the Mormons, for the past three 
years have taken from us the water needed 
for irrigation, otherwise the Indians would 
contribute more cash. As soon as the gov- 
ernment helps us to a better water-supply, 
manv Papagoes no doubt will also settle in 
that neighborhood, as there is abundance of 
good, rich soil. Heretofore we have tried 
to push the work, at present the work seems 
to push us. The church at Wa-key is 
greatly needed for effective work among the 
Indians in that neighborhood, and best of 
all, many of the Indians see the need of it. 
They have worked very earnestly on it so far, 
and will gladly give more help as needed. 
A number of our Blackwater Indians who, 
nineteen years ago, were at war with the 
Wa-key people and had a battle two and a 
half miles below here, gave us a number 
of days' work. Some of the medicine men 
and others who threatened to kill us eigh- 
teen years ago are now church members 
and earnest workers at the new chapel. 

' ' We would like very much to put on the 
roof immediately, and then finish as soon 
as possible. Lumber at present is lower 
than usual, but we have to haul it some 
thirty-five miles over not very good roads. 
The church, when finished, will seat com- 
fortably two hundred and twenty-five people, 
but is so built that if necessary it can be 
enlarged without extra expense to seat 
three hundred. It would help us much if 
you could send us $250 right away, and the 
balance by the middle of June. Should 
my check arrive from the Home Board 
shortly, which I fear is doubtful, I shall go 
to work at once upon the roof. In about 
three weeks more harvest will commence, 
and then help will not be so plentiful nor so 
easily obtained as now. We take up a 
collection after the harvest, but we always 
send it to the Boards of the Church. We 
trust you will do the best you can for us. ' ' 



The fifty-ninth annual report of the Board 
of Publication and Sabbath-school Work, 
which was presented to the General Assem- 
bly at Winona, in May, traverses the entire 
field of operations of the several departments 
of work. 


The Business department, though it has 
felt the effects of the general depression 
throughout the country, has, nevertheless, 
made a substantial net profit, the result of 
the year' s trading, and has paid over to the 
Sabbath-school and Missionary department, 
in accordance with the direction of the 
General Assembly, two-thirds of the same, 
amounting to the goodly sum of $17,577.90, 
as a contribution to the missionary fund. 
The Board has issued during the year 23 
new publications and no fewer than 168 
reprints of former publications — 64 of these 
latter being bound volumes and 104 tracts 
and paper-covered books. The periodicals 
issued comprise eleven Lesson Helps and 
four illustrated papers, which have been 
received with marked favor in our own 
Church and in other denominations in the 
United States, and also in Canada and Eng- 
land. The total number of copies of books 
and tracts issued during the year was 1,831,- 
975; of periodicals, 41,814,849. This 
work is done through the agency of the 
main store in Philadelphia, the depositories 
in Chicago and St. Louis, and seventeen 
branch houses, twelve of which are in the 
United States, four in British America, and 
one in England. 

The New Hymnal. 

Several hundred of our churches have 
already adopted this book of praise for con- 
gregational use, and the work may be pro- 
nounced a decided success. The feeling in 
its favor is steadily growing, and it is find- 
ing its way into churches of sister denomina- 
tions. The Congregational Publishing 
Society has purchased an edition for the use 
of the churches of that body. A cheap 
music edition, with the Psalter, has been 

The Witherspoon Building. 

This building is rapidly approaching com- 
pletion and will, it is expected, be ready for 
occupation in the approaching fall. 


The two main branches into which this 
work is divided are very fully reviewed in 
the annual report. These branches are: 
first, missionary, comprehending the organi- 
zation of Sabbath-schools and other forms 
of work connected therewith ; and, second, 
educational, or the elevation and improve- 
ment of Sabbath-schools. In this brief 
summary we will reverse the order and give 
the precedence to the educational work. 
This has received great attention during the 
past year, particularly in efforts made to 
encourage in our Sabbath-schools the memor- 
izing of Scripture and also of the Westmin- 
ster Catechism and of standard hymns — 
also in the development and extension of 
Home Department work. The statistical 
work of the department has been prosecuted 
with care. The preparation of the Sabbath- 
school statistics of our Church is attended 
with no slight difficulty, and the attention 
of the superintendents and secretaries of 
our schools, as also of pastors and sessions, 
may very properly be called to the duty of 
promptly and carefully filling in the blank 
returns forwarded to them ' through the 
stated clerks of their presbyteries. Chil- 
dren's Day, Rallying Day and the united 
movement in the fall of the year for the 
ingathering of scholars, have also been kept 
before the churches as important agencies for 
improving and extending Sabbath-schools.. 

The relation of church and Sabbath- 
school, and of the Presbyterian Church as a 
whole to the Sabbath-school movement, has 
been discussed in lectures, magazine and 
newspaper articles, and correspondence. 

It is gratifying to find in this report the 
assurance that the constant aim of this 
department in this important feature of its 
work is to subordinate all machinery and 
methods to the one great end of the conver- 
sion of the scholars to Christ. It is stated, 
as a mark of divine favor, that in the year 


1895-6 and as the result of the labors of 
faithful pastors, superintendents and teach- 
ers, no fewer than 32,141 Sabbath-school 
scholars were received into full communion 
of the Church. 



Persons desiring information on these sub- 
jects should correspond with the department. 


A large space in the annual report is given 


Besides the lines of educational work 
above referred to, the department has given 
much attention to the promotion of Normal 
Class instruction and Bible Institutes, and 
the introduction into our schools of the 
Westminster graded supplemental lessons. 

to the operations of the missionary branch 
of this department. First, we find a state- 
ment of objects which are now arranged iu 
six divisions, namely, the organization of 
Sabbath-schools in localities of our country 
destitute of the means of grace; the up- 




Wisconsin Lumber District. 

building of mission schools ; the reorganiza- 
tion of lapsed schools; the distribution of 
Bibles, hymn- books, books, tracts, lesson 
helps and Sabbath-school papers to churches, 
Sabbath -schools, families and individuals; 
the visitation of families and individuals 
not reached by other Christian agencies; 
other forms of work growing naturally 
from Sabbath-school missions. A thought- 
ful glance over the list of objects will satisfy 
anyone of the vast range covered, and of the 
imperative demands of the work upon both 
the brains and the hearts of those engaged 
in carrying it on. 

The number of Sabbath -schools newly 
organized during the year was 938 ; of 
schools visited or otherwise aided, 3894 ; of 
lapsed schools reorganized, 389. There 
has been a noticeable gain in the matter of 
permanency of the schools. A generous 
distribution has been made of Bibles and 
Christian literature, including lesson-helps 
to the mission schools. House-to-house 
visits by the Sabbath-school missionaries 
numbered 89,940. Evangelistic services 
lasting from two to more than twenty days 
at each point were conducted in 180 places, 
leading to 1463 known cases of professed 
conversion and 675 admissions to the fellow- 
ship of Presbyterian churches. In eighty- 
five places Normal Classes or Bible Insti- 
tutes, each attended by representatives of 
several schools, have been held by the mis- 
sionaries with marked benefits. The estab- 
lishment has been reported of thirty- three 

preaching stations, eighty-two 
Home Departments and twen- 
ty-eight Young People's Socie- 
ties. Fourteen chapels have 
been dedicated, and thirty- 
eight Presbyterian churches 
which have been developed 
from the work have been duly 
organized by authority of 
Presbyteries. The missiona- 
ries have delivered an aggre- 
gate of 13,272 public ad- 
dresses or sermons, and report 
a total of 2824 instances of 
professed conversion. 

The number of teachers and 
scholars gathered into the 
newly organized and reorgan- 
ized schools at starting was 

A summary of the work for 
the past nine years shows a total of 8927 
schools organized, 2030 reorganized, 413,- 
613 teachers and scholars, 20,412 grants of 
literature made, a total distribution of 117,- 
487,948 pages of periodical literature, 
642,342 house-to-house visits, 437,176 vol- 
umes distributed, and 416 churches (in six 
years) developed from the mission schools. 


A specially attractive part of the report 
is the presentation of brief summarized 
reports from different portions of the mission 
field, chiefly reports from the synodical 
Sabbath-school missionaries, who, in addition 
to performing the regular duties of the 
Sabbath-school missionary, exercise a general 
supervision over the work of their presby- 
terial brethren. The tone of these reports is 
strikingly encouraging. The characteristics 
of different fields are also brought out. some- 
times with picturesque effect. And not least 
the influence of Sabbath school missions 
upon the growth of the Presbyterian Church 
is made very clear. 

From the Southern (colored) field we 
read: " This year has excelled all others in 
the history of our struggles and victories. 
We have organized nine more Sabbath- 
schools than the previous year. Twelve 
churches with a total membership of 200 
have been developed. These are being 
preached to by Presbyterian ministers and 
are among the most vigorous and consecrated 
of all the churches in their vicinitv." In 




Colorado over fifteen hundred fami- 
lies have been visited. In Illinois 
three churches have been organized 
or reorganized, and much church 
property saved. In Indiana, Pres- 
byterian churches have been organ- 
ized at Albany, Hebron, North In- 
dianapolis and Sugar Grove; three 
buildings have been erected and 
three additional preaching stations 
established. In Iowa, eight churches 
have grown out of the work, six 
being Presbyterian. In one com- 
munity in Kansas a missionary con- 
ducted a series of meetings which 
resulted in thirty-four conversions, 
the organization of a Sabbath-school 
of seventy-four members, a Young 
People's Society and a weekly prayer meet- 
ing. Michigan reports a Presbyterian 
church of seventy members at Muuissing, 
the outgrowth of our work. Minnesota 
sends the details of 294 additions to Presby- 
terian churches from our mission schools, 
twenty-five preaching points and eight 
churches organized. Montana reports 
sixty-seven Home Departments, six chapels, 
one Presbyterian church and five Young 
People's Societies. Nebraska reports twenty 
Home Departments, 384 hopeful conver- 
sions, four Presbyterian churches. North 
Dakota reports 226 conversions and four 
churches organized. In West Virginia two 
churches and two chapels have been built in 
connection with our missions in that State, 
and the work has been greatly blessed in 
many particulars. In Kentucky the attend- 
ance at the schools has been strikingly large 
and two church buildings have been dedi- 
cated. In Tennessee two Presbyterian 

Chapel of Mission at North Cabanne, St. Louis, Mo. 

churches have grown out of the work. In 
South Dakota the work has triumphed over 
many obstacles. In the States of Washing- 
ton and Oregon the labors and successes of 
our missionaries have attracted much atten- 
tion. In Wisconsin six mission chapels 
have been built and five Presbyterian 
churches have been developed from our 


The entire cost of the work done by the 
Sabbath-school and Missionary department 
in its educational and missionary work for 
the year ended March 31 last was 8111,- 
633.14. The receipts from churches, Sab- 
bath-schools and individual contributions 
amounted to 892,391.07, to which items of 
interest and sales have to be added, making, 
with the sum of 817,577.90 paid over to 
the department from the profits of the 
Business department, a total of 8113,811.50. 






*3^ ' 

— Mr. L. P. Berry, one of our missionaries in 
North Carolina, writes : "A majority of our Sab- 
bath-schools flourished all winter and the outlook 
for our work is bright and encouraging. The Bible 
is being studied as never before ; the teachers are 
earnest and faithful and the children are anxious 
to learn." During the year two Sabbath-schools 
in Mr. Berry's district had developed into Presby- 
terian churches and in three other places applica- 
tion is about to be made to Presbytery for authority 
to organize. 

— The long distances which people in frontier set- 
tlements have to travel to reach a common center 
makes the organization of Sabbath-schools often 
very difficult and places the work of house-to-house 
visitation on a high plane of usefulness. 




Treasury : 
For the General Fund : 1895-6 1896-7 
Churches and Sab- 
bath-schools $28,300 00 $29,751 97 

Other Sources 6,767 53 10,317 97 

Property Fund 12,267 03 3,495 50 

Permanent and "Trust 

Funds 427 08 427 08 

Direct : 
Churches and Sab- 
bath-schools 9,163 89 9,316 86 

Individuals 31,217 76 23,320 47 

Sustentation 510 50 853 36 

Transmission 484 58 248 68 

Total $89,138 37 $77,731 89 


Of many faithful churches it may be 
said, that in a great trial of affliction, the 
abundance of their joy and their deep 
poverty, abounded unto the riches of their 
liberality; though we cannot bear record 
of all, that to their power, and even beyond 
their power, they were willing of them- 
selves, praying with much entreaty that we 
would receive the gift. The following table 
shows the number of 


1895-6 1896-7 

Sent to the Board's Treasury 2,347 2,536 

Sent, by permission of the Board 

to aided institutions in their 

own synods or presbyteries . . . 



Total 2,917 3,031 

Nearly two-thirds of the churches make 
no offerings for this Board, do not place its 
literature in their pews, and presumably do 
not hear sermons on this great work for our 
Church and country. 


At the beginning of the year the Board 
resolved to cut administrative expenses fif- 
teen per centum. In voting appropriations 
it allowed for a possible decrease of six per 
centum in its General Fund income. 

Administrative expenses were reduced 
nearly twenty-two per centum, instead of 
the fifteen contemplated. But, near the 
close of the year, it appeared probable that 
the General Fund income would be much 
Jess than in 1895-6, threatening a consider- 
able deficit. Kind friends, some new, some 
long-time and generous benefactors, made 
up the necessary amount. The year closes 
with funds in hand to pay all appropria- 
tions voted. 

For the current year the Board will cut 
administrative expenses about ten per cen- 
tum more, and will vote appropriations very 


In accordance with the action of the last 
General Assembly, fields for solicitation of 
funds have been assigned to some institu- 
tions under a carefully devised plan. It is 
still an experiment, and will be continued 
until the wisdom of it can be estimated 
by results. Pastors and people are asked 
to give canvassers who bear commissions 
from this Board kind hearing — " Thou 
shalt not make clean riddance of the cor- 
ners of thy field when thou reapest; thou 
shalt leave them to the stranger" — and to 
give the Board their judgment of the plan 
and of the work done by canvassers. 


Thirty institutions have been aided. 

Six, aided the previous year, were not 
aided this year. One did not reopen ; 
indebtedness, proximity to other institutions, 
the financial stringency, and the inability 
of this Board to give the very large aid 
required, making a prosperous year impos- 
sible. Small attendance and lack of local 
interest seemed not to warrant further 
investment of Church funds in another. 
One academy was not aided because it 
attempted, without permission of this Board 
or its synod, full college work while not 
equipped for it. Another academy was not 
aided because the trustees deeded the prop- 
erty to private parties. Two colleges in 
one synod were not aided because, being] in 




close proximity and rivals, they could not 
be brought by their synod to unite. 


Most institutions have suffered severe 
reductions in income, and have been able 
to keep open only by great sacrifices made 
by instructors or by local friends. 

The number of students was 2711, being 
(for the same institutions) 170 more than 
in 1895-6, and the number in college 
classes also increased ; but there was a con- 
siderable decrease in the number in classical 
courses, and some decrease in church mem- 
bership, credible conversions, and choice of 
the ministry, with slight increase of the 
number in systematic Bible study. 


Unless this Board shall soon be enabled, by 
more and larger church offerings to its Gen- 
eral Fund, to grant much larger current 
aid to institutions; and unless it shall be 
enabled, by more and larger legacies and 
individual gifts to its Property Fund, to 
secure endowments for institutions; some 
institutions which render eminent service to 
the Church, and are both needed and desired 
in their several regions, are likely to close 
their doors. 

Our beloved and honored Church, the 
ancient friend of higher education based 
upon the word of God, either must pres- 
ently put much money into Western use for 
such purpose, or must consent to underrank 
all the other great Churches in such work 
and in future harvesting in the newer West. 


If our ministers, appreciating the critical 
condition, will inform their congregations, 
the loyal people of our name will no doubt 
see to it that our responsibility to our his- 
tory, to our claims to possess superior cul- 
ture and loyalty to the Bible, to our 
country, and to the Great Head of the 
Church, shall be better discharged. 


The use of a Sunday near the Day of 
Prayer for Schools and Colleges as Education 
Day,, recommended by previous General 
Assemblies, is happily increasing. The suc- 
cessive generations of our Church should 
have continual instruction regarding one of 
its fundamental principles and historic glories 
— Higher Education based upon the word 
of God. 



A. E. A. 

In the arithmetic of salvation, the open- 
ing problem of addition sends a thrill of 
gladness and thanksgiving through our 
whole being, as we hear the loving Master 
say, " Seek ye first the kingdom of God, 
and his righteousness: and all these things 
shall be added unto you" (Matt. 6:33); 
and how this deepens, when we realize what 
has been done for us by subtraction : "All 
Israel shall be saved: This is my covenant 
with them, when I shall take away their 
sins" (Rom. 11:26, 27); then multiplica- 
tion follows, bringing rest and comfort in its 
thought, " Grace and peace be multiplied 
unto you through the knowledge of God, 
and of Jesus our Lord" (2 Peter 1:2); 
and when we reach " division," we are 
ready, by the grace of God, for service: 

" The manifestation of the Spirit is given to 
every man to profit withal. For to one is 
given by the Spirit the word of wisdom ; to 
another the word of knowledge by the same 
Spirit ; to another faith by the same Spirit ; 
to another gifts of healing by the same 
Spirit; to another the working of miracles; 
to another prophecy. But all these worketh 
that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing 
to every man severally as he will " (1 Cor 

Realizing what blessedness such an arith- 
metic contains for lost souls, a young man 
devotes himself to the work of winning 
back the lost ones and enters the ministry of 
God. He is at once confronted by the 
arithmetic of life, and some knotty prob- 
lems, hard and difficult to solve, are pre- 
sented to him. He hears God's word 
spoken in infinite love, "Add to your faith 
virtue; and to virtue knowledge; and to 




knowledge temperance; and to temperance 
patience; and to patience godliness; and to 
godliness brotherly kindness ; and to brotherly 
kindness charity. For if these things be in 
you, and abound, they make you that ye 
shall neither be barren nor unfruitful in the 
knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 
Peter 1 : 5-8, margin ). Very soon he must 
face and solve the problems of subtraction 
and what shall he do ? With a mere pit- 
tance for salary, he must not only deprive 
himself and his family of many of the bare 
necessities of life, but also he can make no 
provision for his old age. At times the 
question confronts him, as he looks at his 
wife, so weary with overwork, " What shall 
I do for her and my helpless children ?" 

But he is not left alone, for he leans in 
strong faith upon the covenant-promises, 
and each day he learns a new lesson and 
solves another problem in the arithmetic of 
trust, as he earnestly prays to be held " mo- 
ment by moment,' 1 '' by the power of God, 
and bravely he goes on with his work. But 
all the problems of subtraction have not 
yet been solved. The angel of death enters 
his home and one of his little ones is gone! 
With a heart well-nigh crushed with 
sorrow, it would seem as though he would 
sink in despair. But, oh! the Master 
speaks in tender love and pity, comforting 
his heart and anew he learns the lesson 
taught by the great Teacher of teachers that 
life must be lived " moment by moment," 
for there is 

" Never a trial that he is not there, 
Never a burden that he doth not hear, 
Never a sorrow that lie doth not share. 
Moment by moment, we're under his care ! " 

In this place of deep trust, by the grace of 
God, he is able to say, " The Lord gave, 
and the Lord hath taken away.''' As the 
" peace of God that passeth all understand- 
ing " enters his heart, he is able to add, 
" Blessed be the name of the Lord " (Job 
1 : 21). Ah, now your heart has gone out 
in sympathy to them, but listen! and you 
will hear this faithful servant of God tell 
you that in the arithmetic of life, he has 
gone one step farther, by all this, has 
turned a new page and is deep in the study 
of multiplication, for his heavenly Father is 
saying unto him, " Mercy unto you, and 
peace, and love be multiplied " (Jude 1:2). 
Does he withdraw from his work and leave 
it because he has met with so much care 

and sorrow ? Ah, no! out of the fullness of 

his heart's experience, he goes forward, clad 

in the power of his might, and faithfully 

proclaims the gospel of our Lord and 

Saviour Jesus Christ. And when he is 

called hither and thither into homes where 

the sorrows of life have entered and where 

sad hearts think they cannot endure the 

weight of care, and the loneliness of the 

long years ahead of them, in which they 

will so keenly miss the loved ones who have 

left them, then hear him give his heart's 

testimony that 

" Moment by moment, he's kept in his love, 
Moment by moment, there's life from above." 

And hear him tell these sad hearts that they 
live not a year, or a month, or even a day 
at a time, but simply moment by moment, 
held in his love! Now he is listening to 
his heavenly Father bidding him " study 
to show thyself approved unto God, a 
workman that needeth not to be ashamed, 
rightly dividing the word of truth " (2 
Tim. 2:15). What joy comes when this 
page in the arithmetic is turned, and he 
enters fully into the problems of division! 

As in the power of God, guided by the 
Holy Spirit, he rightly divides the word of 
truth, one soul after another is led to the 
foot of the cross, there to receive pardon for 
sin and to be washed in the blood of the 
Lamb. As the years come and go this 
number increases rapidly and this faithful 
workman of God has the joy of knowing 
that hundreds of souls have been saved, and 
gathered into the kingdom of God through 
his instrumentality. One by one, his chil- 
dren have been gathered to their heavenly 
home, old age is upon him — he and his wife 
have, perhaps, only a few more years to live. 
Are they to be forsaken and left alone, with 
no one to care for them ? Or shall they 
be cheered and comforted, and their lives 
blessed and brightened ? Dear reader, these 
are problems for you to solve, and you hold 
in your hands the solutions. Will you add 
joy and comfort to their lives, xubtracting 
care and worriment, multiplying peace and 
dividing his blessing, who honors even a cup 
of cold water given in his name ? It is in 
your power to cheer these and many others 
similarly situated, and make the closing 
years of their lives bright and happy, free 
from care and replete with peace and joy. 
Will you do it in His name, and for His 
sake ? 




Perhaps you have had great care and 
burden in your own heart and life, and if 
so, you are learning what the " moment by 
moment" life really means. If that be 
so, how it will cheer your heart, as you 
lovingly minister unto these beloved ones 
who have labored so long and so faithfully 
in the Master's vineyard! Many of these 
have had their faith sorely tested and yet 
they stand true to God. One of our best 
writers has said: 

The present circumstance, which presses so hard 
against you (if surrendered to Christ), is the 
best shaped tool in the Father's hand to chisel you 
for eternity. Trust him then. Do not push away 
the instrument, lest you lose also its work. 

Do you believe in God ? If God be God, what- 
ever he shall plan for us, is positively and surely the 
best ; and could our eyes at this moment see by the 
light of eternity, instead of time, we would always 
choose for ourselves, that which God has chosen 
for us. "Jesus said unto him, What I do thou 
knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter" 
(John 13 : 7). 

If you have been sustained under deep 
affliction, by the grace and power of God, 
will you not in thanksgiving join in this 
loving ministry to others, rejoicing that 
they have been so marvelously used in 

God's service, both in leading souls to 
Christ, and afterward in the building up of 
his kingdom and in strengthening the lives 
of his followers, teaching them to live close 
to the Lord Jesus — moment by moment. 
Dear reader, then your heart will be glad- 
dened and your trust will be deepened, and 
you can say with the poet: 

Dying with Jesus, his death reckoned mine ; 
Living with Jesus, a new life divine ; 
Looking to Jesus till glory doth shine, 
Moment by moment, O Lord, I am thine. 

Moment by moment, I'm kept in his love ; 
Moment by moment, I've life from above, 
Looking to Jesus till glory doth shine ; 
Moment by moment, O Lord, I am thine. 

Never a trial that he is not there, 
Never a burden that he doth not bear, 
Never a sorrow that he doth not share ; 
Moment by moment, I'm under his care. 

Never a heartache, and never a groan, 
Never a tear drop, and never a moan ; 
Never a danger, but there on the throne, 
Moment by moment, he thinks of his own. 

Never a weakness that he doth not feel, 
Never a sickness that he cannot heal ; 
Moment by moment, in woe or in weal, 
Jesus, my Saviour, abide with me still. 





Your committee, to whom was referred 
the thirty-second annual report of the Board 
of Missions for Freedmen, would respect- 
fully report that they have carefully gone 
over the records of the meetings of the 
Board for the past year, and have been 
gratified with the evidence which they fur- 
nish of the deep and prayerful interest in the 
great department of Church work committed 
to their hands, and the wise and prudent 
measures from time to time taken under the 
stress of a greatly reduced iucome, to save 
the work from present disaster on the one 
hand, and the accumulation of a huge debt 
on the other. The Board has not only 

retrenched its operations in the field, but 
materially curtailed the expense of office 
work. The salaries of two officers are for the 
present saved to the Board ; that of treasurer 
and that of secretary in the field, 
resulting in a saving of nearly 83000 over 
last year, and not quite $5000 over previous 
years. In this connection it is but just to 
mention that Dr. Beacom, late treasurer, is 
gratuitously giving his valuable services to 
the Board. A spirit of entire harmony 
seems to have pervaded the councils of the 
Board, and from their widely diversified 
fields of labor there has not reached the 
ears of the committee a single complaint or 

During the year there has been expended 
by the Board $182,299.22, an increase of 
not quite $10,000 over the expenditures of 
last year. This increase was not spent in 
the enlargement of the work, but simply 




arose out of the disbursement of a sum of 
money held in trust to aid in the reerection 
Mary Holmes Seminary, and which was 
expended for that purpose, considerable 
less having been expended, as we may learn 
from the report, in the prosecution of the 
regular work. 


The Board reports 175 ministers, five less 
than were reported last year ; churches and 
missions, 321, an increase of seven churches 
or missions over last year; added on exami- 
nation, 1809, a loss of 174 as compared with 
the number reported last year; whole num- 
ber of communicants, 18,068, 693 less than 
were reported last year ; 315 Sunday-schools, 
one more than reported last year; 19,021 
Sunday-school scholars, 603 less than last 
year's report; number of day-schools, sixty- 
seven, eight less than last year; number of 
teachers, 204, twenty-six less than last 
reported; 9442 scholars, sixty-nine less 
than reported last year. 


Biddle University, for the training of 
ministers and teachers of a higher grade; five 
female seminaries; thirteen academies (coed- 
ucational) ; eight other institutions classified 
as academies and large parochial schools. 
Two of the five female seminaries were not 
on the list reported last year. The Mary 
Holmes Seminary, West Point, Miss., 
which burned some two years ago, and was 
reopened under most favorable circumstances 
under the efficient management of the Rev. 
Dr. Payne and his estimable wife, the insur- 
ance and the gifts of sundry friends meeting 
the cost of construction, some $39,000, 
with the exception of $5000, which it is 
hoped some friend of the enterprise will 
speedily liquidate. 

Another substantial, beautiful and spa- 
cious seminary building, built and furnished 
at the cost of $50,000, was erected by Mrs. 
Phineas M. Barber, of Philadelphia, as a 
memorial of her late husband, and pre- 
sented by her to the Board. The building 
was of brick and stone, four stories high, 
with accommodations for between two and 
three hundred pupils, with all the modern 
appliances fitted to secure the health and 
comfort of the scholars. On the same 
delightful premises, some sixty-nine acres in 
extent, is erected a neat chapel, and a com- 

fortable parsonage. Since the writing of this 
report was begun, the sad intelligence has 
been received that this building has been 
burned to the ground. Particul ars connected 
with this sad calamity have not yet been re- 
ceived, save that in the providence of God 
no lives have been lost and the furniture 
was saved. There was an insurance of some 
$25,000 on the building. The sympathies 
of the Assembly are due the Board of Freed- 
men, upon whom in their present great 
embarrassment this great calamity has 
fallen, and the noble Christian woman, who 
with loving hands reared this grand build- 
ing as a memorial to her sainted husband, 
and a munificent gift to a needy race. 

The number of churches contributing last 
year was 3639, showing a gratifying gain 
over last year of 328. Women's societies, 
1805, a gain of 187. Young People's 
Societies, 256, thirteen less than last year. 
The amount contributed for self-support on 
the field, which does not pass through the 
treasury of the Board, was a little more 
than $70,000, an increase of nearly $2000 
over last year ; an encouraging fact when 
taking into consideration the distressed and 
impoverished condition of the contributing 


Besides the moneys paid out to secure the 
finishing and furnishing of Mary Holmes 
Seminary, moneys were paid out from the 
treasury during the year in aid of the erec- 
tion or enlargement of fourteen different 
schools or churches, which moneys in every 
instance have been paid into the treasury for 
these specific purposes and could not be used 
for any other. These contributions increase 
the real estate item, and possibly diminish 
the receipts for the regular work of the 

Foreseeing about the beginning of the 
year that the receipts as compared with the 
preceding year were falling off, notice was 
sent by the Board to all their teachers that 
in the year to come such reductions should 
be made as would bring their expenditures 
within the limits of their income. It is 
sincerely hoped that further retrenchment, 
which simply means disaster to the field, 
may not be found necessary. 

The Board reports to the Assembly their 
resolution to decrease their indebtedness 
$20,000 during the coming year, and asks 




its advice as to how it may be best accom- 
plished. If the present status of the work 
is maintained, no new enterprises being 
entered upon, the income of the Board from 
regular sources continuing as it is, "this 
would enable them to liquidate $9000 of 
their indebtedness, leaving $11,000 to be 
provided for either by increase of income 
or a reduction of expenditures to that 
extent. The latter, in the present condition 
of the work, would, in the judgment of 
your committee, involve irreparable injury 
to the work, and distress and suffering to 
the workers. 

The Board gratefully acknowledges the 
generous aid received from the various 
societies connected with the Woman's Exec- 
utive Committee, which, notwithstanding 
the stringency of the times, aggregates but 
a few hundred dollars less than last year, 
making honorable mention of Mrs, C. E. 
Coulter, general secretary of Freedmen's 
Department, and Miss Mary E. Holmes, of 
Rockford, 111., acting without salary as 
Freedmen's secretary of the Northwest. 

Your committee would make to the 
Assembly the following recommendations: 

1. That the minutes of the Board, which 
they have carefully examined, be approved. 

2. That whilst deploring the painful 
necessity for such action, the General As- 
sembly commends as wise and prudent the 
measures taken by the Board to bring their 
expenditures within the limits of their in- 

3. That the presbyteries be requested to 
urge upon delinquent churches the duty of 
contributing to the Freedmen's cause, that 

pastors and stated supplies earnestly show its 
pressing need and present peril. 

4. That in the present crisis, with disaster 
impending, if retrenchment is further con- 
tinued, the Assembly appeal to the member- 
ship of the churches to give preference to 
their own work and institutions in their 
gifts to the Freedmen. 

5. That the General Assembly urge upon 
the churches under the Freedmen's Board 
the duty and necessity of self-denying 
effort to lighten the burdens of the Board, 
and at the earliest practical moment to 
assume their pastor's support. 

6. That the Assembly renew the recom- 
mendations of former Assemblies with refer- 
ence to steps being taken to secure the 
endowment of Biddle University in order 
that the burden of its support may be lifted 
off the Board, and that they approve of the 
appointment of Rev. W. H. Weaver, D.D., 
to act as financial agent of the university. 

7. That permission be given by the As- 
sembly to the Board of Freedmen to appeal 
to the churches for an increase of $11,000 
over the contributions of last year, that the 
necessity for further retrenchment may be 
removed, the present work maintained, and 
that they may be enabled, in accordance with 
their expressed desire, to reduce their pres- 
ent indebtedness to the extent of $20,000. 

8. Your committee would recommend the 
reelection of the following members of the 
Board, whose term of service expires with 
this Assembly, i. e., Rev. D. S. Kennedy, 
D.D., Rev. H. T. McClelland, D.D., Rev. 
David M. Stalling, Rev. Samuel J. Glass 
and Mr. A. G. Bixler. 

— "You must not be discouraged," said a Kiowa, 
"if we Indians come slow. It is a long road for us 
to leave our old Indian ways, and we have to think 
a great deal ; but I am sure that all the Indian _ 
people will come into the Jesus road, for I see that 
these white Jesus people are here to help us, and I 
thank them for coming. Tell the Christian people 
to pray for us. We are ignorant, but we want to 
be led aright that we may come into the Jesus 

— There is no evidence of a crisis in missions. 
All movements, religious as well as commercial and 
industrial, have their periods of enthusiastic ad- 
vance and of conservative delay. The cause of 
missions, not merely foreign, but home, is at 
present in the latter, but it will not remain there. 
It is as firmly seated as ever in the conscience of the 
Church, and it has as strong a hold as ever upon its 
affection and devotion. There is need for work, 
but none for discouragement. — The Independent. 




Rev. Thomas L. Janeway, D.D., 
Corresponding Secretary, 1862-68. 



It will save considerable inconvenience if 
all our friends when sending remittances to 
this Board, will kindly make the same 
payable to the order of the undersigned, 
as Treasurer, and not as an individual. 

HARVEY C. OLIN, Treasurer, 

Madison Square Branch P. 0. (Box 156). 

The Mormon Priesthood. 

From every part of Utah come over- 
whelming evidences that Statehood has 
repaired the broken power of the Mormon 
priesthood, just as Brigham Young in 1877 
said it would. 

Polygamous Converts. 

The question of receiving polygamous 
converts to church membership has been 
frequently forced upon our missionaries in 
Utah. They have in every case declined 
to receive them, thus placing a ban upon 
the unholy thing. 

The Debt Reduced. 

The Board of Home Missions closed the 
fiscal year, April 1, 1897, with its debt 
reduced to $147,276.96. The receipts for 
March — the last month of the fiscal year — 
were $232,080.91 — about twenty-seven per 
cent, of the receipts of the entire year. The 
debt one year ago was $299,062.42. It has 
been reduced more than one-half. 

Our City Populations. 

About one-half of the citizens of the 
State of New York reside within the limits 
of the "Greater New York" city. Nearly 
one-half of the population of Illinois reside 
within the city limits of Chicago. One- 
fourth of the population of Pennsylvania 

are in Philadelphia. Providence is thus 
massing the people conveniently for Church 

A Good Investment. 

Alaska cost $7,000,000 when we pur- 
chased it thirty years ago. Its gold mines 
are expected to yield $10,000,000 the pres- 
ent year, and the values of furs and of fish 
taken this year are expected to bring up the 
yield to twice the original cost of that 
country. Our heterogeneous American 
population are flocking up to that land of 
varied climate and wealth, increasing its 
importance as a mission field. 

Soldiers at the Front. 


Our missionaries are soldiers of the 
who have turned away from the money- 
making businesses of life to fight the battles 
of the kingdom. They are not the kind of 
soldiers who are in barracks, but are at the 
front, many of them on the picket line. 
They do not stand upon the fortified towers 
of Zion and man theological columbiads; 
they are pushing on to broader conquests, 
and as they advance they build fortifications 
for the rear guard to occupy. 

The Kind of Men Needed. 

The home missionary, like the apostle 
Paul, must be all things to all men. He 
must be all kinds of a good man. Some of 
his congregation may have come to him 
from Dr. John Hall's church, with one 
ideal to be satisfied; others from Dr. Tal- 
mage's, with another ideal; others from 
Plymouth Church, Brooklyn ; while others 
still may be from Dr. Gunsaulus' church 
in Chicago — with a sprinkling of Baptists, 
Methodists and Episcopalians — all of 
which must be shepherded together in one 
little fold under our comity rules. Does 
any Eastern pastor want the job ? Ah ! 
we must beguile the young graduates into 
such fields. 





Moderator Sheldon Jackson. 

The General Assembly displayed wisdom 
and fairness in the election of the Rev. Dr. 
Sheldon Jackson as Moderator. Though a 
native of New York, a graduate of Union 
College at Schenectady, New York, and of 
Princeton Seminary, he is the foremost pio- 
neer in the history of the Christian Church 
in America. He is the fourth missionary — 
the first home missionary — called to mod- 
erate the General Assembly. He is sixty- 
three years old, the age at which the Gov- 
ernment retires its generals, and yet he is 
still in the saddle. He has been in Asia 
half a dozen times, yet never crossed an 
ocean. He is the smallest big man and the 
greatest little man in America. He has 
read his obituary three times in the great 
journals of the country, yet he lives to mod- 
erate the General Assembly. Nine synods 
now cover the fields of his pioneering, yet 
his own presbyterial relation is in the far- 
thest outpost of civilization. He is near- 
sighted, yet the most far-sighted man in 
modern times, as we shall see when the Acts 
of the Apostles shall be fully written. 



Four of our Indians, with the interpreter, 
came in to ask us if we would have an 
extra service and read the Bible to them. 
In the course of their prolonged talk we 
noticed a disposition on their part to lean 
on the arm of flesh. We said yes, we 
did believe in the effectual prayers of the 
righteous. But I said we must not depend 
too much on any one ; we can go to Christ 
alone, if we are in earnest and believe. 
Christ knows our hearts and he will be our 
helper. The interpreter said: " Yes, but 
we are so ignorant about such matters, and 
these Christians have been so long having 
this knowledge that they know better." 
The interpreter also asked for our prayer. 
I told him that ever since we had been here 
it was our united plea daily at the mercy- 
seat that the eyes of their understanding 
might be enlightened. We believe God 
has heard our petitions. We told them we 
would meet them any time ; nothing was of 
so much importance as to have this matter 
settled. The schoolhouse was overfilled just 
with men. 

In the morning the eleventh chapter of 

Hebrews was read, with such explanations 
as we thought could be comprehended by 
them. Then in the evening, such passages 
were selected as we thought suitable to 
their case, such as the love of God for all 
who will come unto him, and the rejoicing 
in heaven over one sinner that repenteth. 
Then, with one accord, they would chatter 
their approval in their own dialect. I 
knew they felt glad that the healing balm 
was for them also. When they would get 
quiet we would go on. They were told 
nothing was impossible with God. 

Our Indians for the last eighteen months 
have shown a great change for the better in 
the way of Sabbath observance and in 
other respects, but they have never shown 
the interest in seeking Christ that they do 

On the first day of the new year, the new 
officers were elected, and, as is their custom, 
they get their orders in regard to the course 
of action they are to pursue for the coming 
year. The interpreter told us that the 
officers had instructed the people that noth- 
ing was to be done on the Sabbath day, not 
the least thing. No doubt they will be 
much ridiculed by the other members of the 
tribe, and they will need much comfort and 

Mr. Bercovitz will be here next Sabbath; 
he now comes twice a month. I do not 
know what course he will take with them, 
but hope for the best. I will not prolong 
this recital, but would like to ask if it is 
not too much, if either of the secretaries, 
Mr. McAfee or any member of the Board, 
would send a message assuring them of 
your earnest prayers in their behalf, with 
promises, and with a prayer which can be read 
to them often, giving them to know that it 
was written especially for them by these 
same people who spend all their time trying 
to save souls. I have told the interpreter 
to teach them the Lord's Prayer, so that 
they can use it daily. 

Our work heretofore has been to try to 
get them to believe that the Bible is the 
word of God. Many of them have be- 
lieved. I told them the story of the Pente- 
cost; it did seem to me so significant to see 
them all of one accord in one place. 

Miss Mathes and myself especially desire 
the united prayers of the members of the 
Board. We feel we are standing in solemn 






The last three months have been attended 
with blessed results for our churches in 
Nebraska. In addition to our regular pas- 
tors and pastors-at-large, we have had the 
services of two evangelists during the entire 
period. Major James H. Cole began 
evangelistic services at Hastings early in 
November, and for ten weeks continued to 
hold services in that city, and more than 
300 persons confessed conversion. Seven 
churches united in this protracted effort, 
and they all received much benefit. 

Moving on westward, Major Cole stopped 
part of a day at Kenesaw, where his efforts 
were blessed in leading souls to Christ. His 
next stop was at Holdredge, where he spent 
a couple of weeks or more with good results, 
forty-three persons having been received 
into our church on confession of faith. 
His heart seems to be going out toward the 
feeble churches in the western part of the 
State, and his faith is being honored of 
God in the salvation of many souls. Rev. 
Dr. W. F. Ringland has been with him 
and has in some cases been his forerunner, 
going in advance and preparing the way. 

Major Cole is now at McCook , where the 
greatest spiritual power has been mani- 
fested. While at this place he has 
visited our church at Culbertson, and has 
greatly encouraged our people in their 
struggle to hold the place for the Master. 
Rev. D. W. Montgomery, pastor-at-large, 
has been here holding services and is greatly 
encouraged by what the Lord has done 
through Major Cole. Up to the present time 
more than 1100 souls have professed conver- 
sion under his earnest labors. The other 
evangelist who has been at work is Rev. J. 
C. Redding, of York, Neb. He has been 
holding special services in a number of our 
churches, and large numbers have been 
brought to Christ through his labors. He 
has been ably assisted by the pastors where 
he has been at work. On the last Sabbath 
of February twenty-five persons were 
received into our church at St. Paul on 
confession of faith, and on the same day 
thirty-five were received into our church at 
Central City, of whom twenty-seven united 
on confession. At St. Paul, the pastor, 
Rev. George A. Ray, D.D., baptized twen- 

ty-three adults, and at Central City, the 
pastor, Rev. H. A. Carnahan, baptized ten 
adults. Bro. Redding has labored also at 
Lexington and at Wood River, where 
large accessions were made to our churches 
as the result of his labors among our people. 

Our pastors-at-large have also been faith- 
fully at work, and in some cases their efforts 
have brought new life into churches which 
have had merely a name to live, while they 
have been really dead spiritually. Thus 
God is honoring the faith of his believing 
people, and giving an answer to the perse- 
vering prayers which they have been pour- 
ing out before the throne. One church has 
been organized as the result of a gracious 
revival at which the services were conducted 
by one of our Sabbath-school missionaries, 
who is also a licentiate under the care of 
the Kearney Presbytery, Mr. Nelson C. 
Johnson. He went to Rockville, in Sher- 
man county, where there was no church 
organization, and began holding special 
services with the people, and the result is a 
Presbyterian church with twenty-nine mem- 
bers. The name of this church is Rock- 
ville, and it is within the bounds of Kearney 
Presbytery. I am now under appointment 
to organize a church on the Winnebago 
Indian Reservation as the result of special 
evangelistic services held by the Rev. W. 
T. Findley, in charge of our church at the 
agency. He was assisted by the Rev. L. 
W. Scudder, of Emerson. During the 
greater part of the time the weather has 
been favorable for carrying on these ser- 
vices, and they will be continued until the 
opening of spring, when the people will be 
compelled to resume work on their farms. 
A new church building has been erected at 
Randolph, and it will soon be ready for 
dedication. The church building at Gordon, 
in Sheridan county, has been completed and 
furnished, and during the month of Janu- 
ary it was solemnly dedicated, your mission- 
ary being present to preach the sermon. 

Holdredge has decided to assume self- 
support, and has called a pastor, Mr. Harry 
B. Allen, of the McCormick Seminary. 
He is one of our Nebraska boys, and is a 
graduate of the college at Hastings. 

The condition of the Board's treasury is 
not encouraging to us, either in regard to 
new work or in our efforts to secure new 
workers on our fields. We are planning to 
employ our own students to as great an 




extent as possible, yet some of our churches 
now vacant wish to secure settled pastors ; 
but the problem we cannot solve is one of 
finances which those feeble churches cannot 
possibly supply. Our faith is still firmly 
fixed in God, and we are going forward 
with confident assurance that the silver and 
the gold will yet be brought into the treas- 
ury, so that our home mission work will 
not be halted in the present crisis. 



Work upon the Farm, while not alto- 
gether monotonous, is, as one of the boys 
expresses it, " powerful constant." That 
is, we find something to fill every hour of 
the day. Our woodland affords sufficient 
work for a large number of boys during the 
winter months. We are just finishing 
clearing a tract of land for fruit trees from 
which we have procured our wood for the 
winter, and will have a large amount 
toward next winter's supply. The school 
building is heated by steam, and we use 
wood for the boiler, so that it requires a 
large amount during the winter season. 
The boys cut and split it in the woodland, 

then it is hauled to the woodhouse, and 
sawed by horse power. This is done on bad 
days instead of taking a holiday. The 
holiday might not be so objectionable, but 
by sawing we impress upon the boys the 
fact that there are duties for rainy as well 
as sunshiny days, an impression which in 
some cases is very much needed. There is 
a wonderful difference as to the amount of 
energy found in these boys. While some 
have a certain " immovableness that tendeth 
not to work," the majority are ambitious, 
and are ready to do what they can to make 
their way in life. A boy under fourteen 
told me a few days ago that last year he 
raised over a hundred bushels of corn, and 
sold part of it to buy a cow and fed the 
rest to two hogs, which he had killed for the 
winter meat. When I asked him what he 
wanted with a cow, he replied, " Why, to 
get some milk and butter." His mother is 
a widow, and he has a brother six years 
old, so that he seems to be the man of the 
house. He says he must go home as soon as 
school is out ' ' to put in a crop. ' ' When 
I asked him if that would not be too late, 
he said, " It's not too late for corn." 
When a boy less than fourteen will do this 
to help a widowed mother, surely some one 
ought to help him. 



To Williams College, in the autumn of 
1806, came a young man of twenty -three, 
outwardly quiet and reserved, but with a 
soul made strong by rare spiritual experi- 
ences and all aglow with love for Christ and 
for sinful humanity. From his mother's 
lips in childhood he had often heard of the 
work of Brainerd, Eliot, and others, among 
the Indians, had listened to her earnest 
prayers for the missionary cause ; and her 
words, " I have consecrated this child to 
the service of God, as a missionary," had, 
no doubt, an influence in shaping his after- 
life. He was carefully trained by both 
parents in the home at Torringford, Conn. 

When fifteen, a revival that swept his 
native town awoke in him the deepest con- 
victions of sin, and a desperate struggle of 
two years followed, when his heart was filled 
with bitterness and opposition, and his 
stubborn will refused to yield. As he was 
leaving home at the age of eighteen to 

attend school in Litchfield, he confided to 
his mother, "Oh, that I had never been 
born ! For two years I have been sorry 
that God ever made me." " But," she 
replied, " you are born, and you can never 
throw off your existence or accountability 
to your Maker." 

They parted, the son to go to his school, 
and the anxious mother to her closet, where 
she plead with a covenant-keeping God for 
her boy ; nor did she cease till, by faith, she 
was assured of an answer to her prayers. The 
answer did indeed come that very morning 
when, on the way to Litchfield, he was 
almost overwhelmed with a sudden revela- 
tion of the divine majesty and perfection, and 
turning aside into the woods he paused for 
a short time to enjoy undisturbed his new 
conceptions of God. Yet it was not till three 
months after, that he experienced a hope of 
personal salvation. Through these spiiitual 
conflicts the divine hand was surely mould- 




ing him for his life work. After his return 
from school the first positive proof his 
parents had of his conversion was the re- 
mark that he could not conceive of any 
course of life in which to pass the rest of his 
days that would prove so pleasant as to go 
and communicate the gospel of salvation to 
the poor heathen. In June, 1806, he united 
with the church in Torringford, where his 
father was pastor for over sixty years. By 
his own example and teachings that father 
had sown in the heart of his son the seeds 
which afterward bore wonderful fruitage in 
sublime efforts for the extension of Christ's 
kingdom throughout the world. When at 
last young Mills announced his decision to 
devote his life to foreign missions the sur- 
prised father asked, " My son, where did 
you learn to be a missionary ?" "I 
learned it of my father," was the reply. 

He carried with him to Williams College 
that intensity of love for Christ, that entire 
self-surrender, coupled with constant prayer- 
fulness, that made him eminently successful 
in creating among others the missionary 
enthusiasm that had already taken full pos- 
session of his whole being. Having thor- 
oughly enlisted some of his fellow-students, 
they held their first special prayer meeting 
under the well-known haystack in what is 
now called Mission Park, and two years 
later formed the first Foreign Missionary 
society in America, pledging themselves to 
service in foreign lands. When these young 
men entered Andover Theological Seminary, 
they transferred their society to this institu- 
tion, where it was increased and strength- 
ened by the addition of such men as Adoni- 
ram Judson, Samuel Newell, Samuel Nott 
and Gordon Hall. Mills quoted the words 
of another, " The field is almost boundless. 
Oh, that we could enter at a thousand gates, 
that every limb were a tongue and everv 
tongue a trumpet to spread the joyful 

In 1810 he led Judson, Nott and Newell 
in the historic appeal to the General Con- 
gregational Association of Massachusetts 
which subsequently resulted in the organiza- 
tion of the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions. A year before, in 
the interval between his graduation at Wil- 
liams College and his entering the Sem- 
inary at Andover, he was a resident gradu- 
ate at Yale College. Here began his deep 
interest in the friendless Sandwich Island 

boy, Henry Obookiah, which afterward 
resulted in the establishment of the Foreign 
Missionary School at Cornwall, Conn., by 
those who had become interested in the edu- 
cation of young men from different parts of 
heathendom. This school came later under 
the care of the American Board, and from 
it originated, with glorious results, the mis- 
sion to the Sandwich Islands. " Mills, 
anxious to see every wheel set in motion 
for the advancement of Christ's kingdom, 
was restless because of the inaction of the 
Presbyterian Church in the cause of for- 
eign missions ; again, by his personal influ- 
ence upon prominent men, another plan 
was matured." As a result, General As- 
sembly, in 1816, organized the United 
Foreign Missionary Society, embracing the 
Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed Churches, 
which, in 1826, was merged in the American 
Board. The plans of Mills for denomina- 
tional work were first carried out by the 
Presbyterian Church as a Church, through 
the organization, in 1831, of the Western 
Foreign Missionary Society, which, in 1837, 
became the Assembly's Board of Foreign 

The most important period in his life 
began when he was called by Providence to 
do a special four years' work in the home 
mission field. Again we turn back to his 
boyhood's days, when the father, with his 
contemporaries, was in the habit of leaving 
home for missionary tours in Vermont, and, 
upon his return, telling the children of his ex- 
periences. Thus, by the fireside was created 
that interest in the new and destitute por- 
tions of his own land, which prepared 
Samuel Mills for successful home missionary 
work in later years. In a letter written to 
his father in 1816, he expressed the hope 
that the interest of the Presbyterian Church 
in foreign missions might excite fresh zeal 
for the diffusion of religious knowledge in 
our own country. The true missionary spirit 
was embodied in this earnest man, who, 
while forming plans for evangelizing the 
heathen in distant lands, had no less at 
heart the regeneration of every part of his 
own loved country, and whose desires in 
this direction had led him, before this, to 
take two long journeys, each time with a 
single companion, to what were then our 
Southern and Western frontiers. 

The first tour, begun soon after his grad- 
uation, and while he was yet a licentiate, 




was taken in company with Rev. John 
Scheminerhorn, under the patronage of the 
Massachusetts and Connecticut Home Mis- 
sionary Societies and of local Bible Socie- 
ties. Its object was to explore the almost 
unknown territory west of the Alleghany 
Mountains, extending from the Great 
Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, to ascertain 
its moral and religious condition, to preach 
the gospel to the destitute and to establish 
Bible societies and other needed institu- 

The two travelers set out on horseback in 
the early fall of 1812, and journeyed 
through New York, Pennsylvania, Western 
Virginia and Kentucky, to Tennessee. 
" They went through swamps and cane 
brakes, cutting their way with their hatch- 
ets, in sound of the Indian war whoop and 
the howling of wolves around their camp at 
night." But they did not enlarge upon 
personal dangers and privations. From 
Mr. Mills' journal we quote: " In perils in 
the city, in perils in the wilderness, in 
perils on the rivers and in perils on the 
seas, the Lord has preserved us." In all 
the leading towns they formed Bible socie- 
ties and everywhere preached and distrib- 
uted Bibles. 

The war of 1812 was in progress. Ar- 
riving in Nashville, they rode out to Frank- 
lin, eighteen miles distant, the home of that 
grand old pioneer of Presbyterianism in the 
Southwest, Rev. Gideon Blackburn, who 
introduced them to Gen. Jackson, explain- 
ing the object of their mission. He 
received them courteously and invited them 
to take passage on his boat just ready to go 
down the Cumberland and Mississippi 
rivers, with fifteen hundred volunteers. 
They gladly accepted this invitation to con- 
tinue their trip by water to New Orleans, 
the extreme southern limit of their journey. 
They had no opportunity at this time for 
personal exploration in Indiana or Illinois 
and landed at only one point on the Illinois 
shore. Fort Massac. Remaining a few days 
at Natchez, they continued on to New 
Orleans, where they spent a few weeks busy 
with evangelistic work, and then returned 
through the western parts of Georgia, the 
Carolinas and Virginia. A letter from 
Mills expresses the regret that while passing 
through the territories they were not able 
to proceed more slowly and perform more 
missionary labor. 

From the letters and reports of Mills, 
published in the Panoplist and other mis- 
sionary magazines of that time, a few inter- 
esting facts have been gleaned concerning 
this trip, and also concerning the second 
tour, in 1814, undertaken in company with 
Rev. Daniel Smith, at an expense of 
$2000, borne by the Massachusetts Mission- 
ary Society, by the Bible Society of Phila- 
delphia and by the Assembly's Committee of 

Their route as far as Cincinnati was the 
same as that of two years before ; from 
Cincinnati they passed through Indiana and 
Illinois by way of Lawrenceburg, Jefferson- 
ville and Vincennes, on to St. Louis, Mo. 
They reported the people exceedingly desti- 
tute of religious privileges; many American 
families had never seen a Bible or heard of 
Jesus Christ. 

Of Indiana they reported that it was 
peopling rapidly, the population being 
nearly doubled in four years, and yet there 
was but one Presbyterian minister in the 
State. In a letter dated November 7, 
1814, Mills spoke of the universal favor and 
approbation with which they were received 
in Illinois, the governor and other promi- 
nent persons expressing a desire for a Bible 
society in this State, destitute alike of both 
Bibles and ministers. 

Arriving at S*. Louis, Mills wrote: 
" This is a city of two thousand inhabi- 
tants, one-third American, the remainder 
French Catholics, " and prophesied, "When 
we consider the situation of St. Louis, just 
below the confluence of the Illinois and the 
Missouri rivers, so that no place in the 
Western country save New Orleans has 
greater natural advantages, we think it 
highly probable it will become a flourishing 
commercial town." Here, in a schoolroom, 
the first Presbyterian sermons ever preached 
on the west side of the Mississippi were 
listened to by large and appreciative audi- 

Norton, in his History of Presbyterianism 
in Illinois, says : These two exploring mis- 
sionaries were men of keen observation and 
sound judgment. They went on to Natchez 
and New Orleans, and returned to New Eng- 
land by sea in the early part of the summer. 
Since neither of them was an ordained min- 
ister, they could not administer the sacra- 
ments and ordinances of the Church. 

Portions of the country had never before 




been visited by Presbyterian clergymen, 
although a large number of the inhabitants 
were originally Presbyterians. 

Mills wrote: " Many among the settlers 
regret with many heartaches and many a 
tear the loss of former privileges, and are 
looking with anxiety toward the rising sun 
for some one to come to them who shall 
again stand and feed them in the name of 
Christ, and break to them the bread of 
life." New Orleans was reached for the 
second time after the battle of January 8, 
1815, when Gen. Jackson had ended the 
war with his signal victory. They visited 
the hospitals filled with sick, wounded and 
dying English and American soldiers, 
and ministered to the needs of both alike, 
praying with them, distributing Bibles and 
preaching in camp. When the English 
prisoners left, they packed carefully in their 
knapsacks and carried away every Bible and 
tract that had been given them. Throngs 
of all ages and colors crowded about them 
at St. Louis eagerly asking for Bibles. 
Those in the French language were greatly 
in demand. Even some of the Catholic 
clergy assisted in the distribution of the 
Testaments, the bishop preferring, as he 
said, to have the Protestant version in the 
hands of the people in all his parishes than 
to have them remain entirely ignorant of 
the Scriptures. " Thus the door was 
opened for distributing the word of God 
among 20,000 Catholics, where, in the 
opinion of their bishop, ten copies before 
could not have been found." Some Bibles 
were sent to St. Domingo and Havana, 
Cuba, carried by visitors from those coun- 
tries. The Bible societies which were 
formed at this time in the different territories 
were, in 1816, united, with those of other 
denominations, in the American Bible Soci- 
ety. In 1853 their headquarters were 
located permanently in the well-known 
building, the Bible House, on Astor Place, 
in New York city. 

A Charleston paper, speaking of the 
distribution of seven hundred Bibles among 
the destitute, added, " By the formation of 
the Bible societies in the interior States 
and in Louisiana, Bibles will be given to 
hundreds of thousands who are now famish- 
ing for the word of eternal life." 

The General Assembly of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in 1816 organized the Board 
of Home Missions to take the place of the 

Standing Committee of Missions, appointed 
in 1802. The reports of Mills and his 
fellow-explorers after their return awoke a 
fresh enthusiasm, and as they were able 
intelligently to indicate the most important 
points for work, a large number of mission- 
aries were at once sent out supplied with 
thousands of Bibles and tracts. 

It is inspiring briefly to trace the progress 
of the home missionary movement as the 
work, under the wise leadership of such 
men as Dr. Blackburn, Rev. Salmon Gid- 
dings, Dr. Norton, and others, was ex- 
tended into the Mississippi Valley, where it 
opposed its beneficent influences to the cor- 
rupting results of European immigration, 
and thence, still onward to the Pacific 
Ocean. It was Dr. Livingstone who said, 
" Where the geographical feat ends there 
the missionary work begins." The explorer 
must precede the missionary. The early 
enthusiasm created in the Presbyterian 
Church by this twofold pioneer work of 
Mills was but a dim foreshadowing of the 
mighty impulse given to home missions 
when another heroic explorer, missionary 
and patriot, Dr. Marcus Whitman, over- 
came the intervening mountain barriers, 
and, martyred, saved our whole Pacific 
coast for God and country. 

Mr. Mills, after his Southern tours, was 
ordained at Newburyport, and spent two 
years in the Middle States, in Albany, New 
York, Newark, Philadelphia and Washing- 
ton, quietly enlisting those most influential 
to help him carry out his unaccomplished 
projects. His biographer tells us that for 
the furtherance of his plans, he had the 
wisdom to solicit the able writer, the effec- 
tive preacher, the noble statesman, and the 
liberal merchant, each to do his appropriate 
work, and then he was willing that they 
should enjoy all the reputation of it while 
he was himself unseen. 

While in New York city his indefatigable 
energy found ample scope in evangelistic 
work. He would often visit as many as 
fifty families in one day, carrying Bibles 
and tracts into the wretched cellars and 
garrets of the poor; and thus he was a 
pioneer of city missions. 

His last efforts were in behalf of the Afri- 
can race, in which he had become deeply 
interested while on his visits to the Southern 
States. The Synods of New York and 
New Jersey, listening to his eloquent pleas 




for that down- trodden people, established in 
1816 a school for young colored men, where 
they might be trained as preachers and 
teachers to their countrymen, but though 
popular sentiment made its continuance 
impossible, it was yet the forerunner of 
Hampton and Carlisle, of Lincoln Univer- 
sity and Biddle Institute, which have pro- 
duced such men as Daniel J. Sanders and 
Booker T. Washington. 

In 1817, his earnest efforts to create 
public sentiment in its favor resulted in the 
American Colonization Society in Washing- 
ton, and by it he was commissioned, with 
Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, to visit England 
and explore the west coast of Africa in 
search of a suitable location for a colony of 
colored people from America. They re- 
ceived a warm welcome and much assistance 
from influential friends of the cause in Eng- 
land and then spent two busy months in 
Africa, gathering the needed information 
and selecting the region of country where, 

in 1822, the Liberia colony was planted, 
which has since become an independent 
republic, and as he hoped, " a radiant point 
of civilization and Christianity to western 
Africa. ' ' 

Their mission successfully accomplished, 
they turned their faces homeward, but a 
severe cold suddenly resulted in the death of 
Mr. Mills two weeks later, on the 16th of 
May, 1818. 

Like his friend, Adoniram Judson, he 
was buried in the ocean. During his short 
life of thirty-four years he had faithfully 
carried out his own words, written to his 
classmate, Gordon Hall, in the early An- 
dover days: " Though you and I are very 
little beings, we must not rest satisfied until 
our influence is felt in the remotest corner 
of this ruined earth." 

The Presbyterian Church will ever hold 
him in grateful remembrance as the founder 
of American missions, the home missionary 
and philanthropist. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH Alaska. 

APRIi; The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JUI/Y Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER . . . . ' The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 


The last four or five years form a unique 
and, in some respects, exceptional period in 
our country's history. Political, social 
and financial storms swept over the land, 
doing damage that will require years to 

Capital quietly retired into the vaults of our 
great trust companies; millions of spindles 
in New England and other places were 
stopped; the fires in many of the great fur- 
naces of Pennsylvania and Ohio were put 
out, and our interstate and foreign com- 
merce gradually decreased in bulk and 
value. Multitudes of men were compelled 
to draw on the earnings of former years to 
support their families. Even the revenue 

of the United States Government showed a 
diminution of from $40,000,000 to 
$50,000,000 a year. In view of this con- 
dition of things it is not strange that our 
hospitals and orphan asylums, our Tract 
and Bible Societies, and especially our 
Missionary Boards should suffer a serious 
falling off in receipts. 

It was not within the power of the 
Board directly to readjust or to curtail the 
work in the field, because that is the duty of 
the presbyteries. Nor is it possible even 
for the presbyteries always to adjust their 
financial affairs after the strict method of a 
business corporation. The doors of the 
mission church cannot be closed nor the 
agreement made with the missionary can- 
celed by a simple resolution of presbytery 
or Board. Sacred interests and solemn 
pledges are involved which cannot be 
changed without a breach of faith. 


Before issuing the circular informing the 
presbyteries that lack of funds would 
necessitate a reduction in the Board's appro- 
priations often per cent., the expense of the 
office in New York was materially reduced. 
This was effected mainly by reducing the 
force and allocating the duties of the dis- 
missed ones to those who remained. 




In spite of all efforts to shield the mission- 
aries from distress many of them were 
reduced to suffering if not to actual want. 
But the Board's new method of retrench- 
ment was universally approved as effecting 
positive reduction of expenditures, placing 
the distribution of the cut in the hands of 
the presbyteries where it belongs, leaving 
the presbyteries free to use their judgment 
as to what work Avas to be supported and 
what to be suspended and as giving them a 
rational basis on which to plan their work. 

Home missionaries have always had 
their share of trials. During the last 
three years not a few of them suffered in 
degree, if not in kind, as much as those 
who labored among the mountains at the 
beginning of this century. 


The Board regrets that ill-health compelled 
Mr. John S. Kennedy, one of the most 
useful of its members, to resign. Every 
effort was made to persuade him to remain 
and continue his valuable service to the 
cause in which he has been so long inter- 
ested, but it proved unavailing, because his 
physician ordered him to give up all duties 
which required close attention and mental 
anxiety. The Board feels assured, how- 
ever, that Mr. Kennedy will not lose his 
interest in home mission work nor his 
regard for the missionaries. 


With deep sorrow the Board announces 
the death, during the past year, of its treas- 
urer, Mr. O. D. Eaton. His name had 
become a household word in nearly every 
home in the Presbyterian Church. 

Upon the removal to Philadelphia of the 
formert reasurer, Mr. S. D. Powel, Mr. 
O. D. Eaton — though a young man to fill 
such a position — was made treasurer. But 
he soon realized the highest expectations 
of his friends. His devotion to the work 
became in time so intense that it undermined 
his health. Instead of performing his 
duties in a perfunctory manner, he exercised 
all the consecration and devotion of a true 
missionary. He carried upon his heart 
the disappointments and trials of the mis- 
sionaries and their families. 

During the last two or three years Mr. 
Eaton's duties became very perplexing and 
onerous, by reason of the repeated embar- 

rassments of the Board. In many ways he 
showed that he was suffering from the 
strain. His friends urged him to seek 
rest, but he could not see that his presence 
in the office could be spared. Consequently 
he postponed it from year to year, until last 
spring the Board insisted upon his taking 
a trip to Europe. But at the expiration 
of six months his health had not materially 

On the 21st of September, 1896, he died 
in a camp near Weld, Me. Nothing had 
been left undone which promised relief, but 
his life could not be prolonged. He entered 
quietly into rest among the beautiful hills 
of his native State. " He fought a good 
fight and kept the faith." 


At its monthly meeting, November 24, 
1896,. the Board unanimously elected Mr. 
Harvey C. Oliu, of Chicago, to fill the 
place made vacant by the death of Mr. 
Eaton. For years Mr. Olin was an elder 
and superintendent of the Sabbath-school 
in the Hyde Park Presbyterian Church, 
Chicago. He has had thorough training 
and large experience as a business man. 
In addition to occupying for years a 
responsible position as a man of affairs, he 
has always shown more than ordinary 
interest in home missions. The Board has 
been fortunate in securing such a person 
for a place that demands not only uncom- 
mon ability, but also a true missionary 


Though the field has been rapidly grow- 
ing in extent and demands, yet the Board 
has been compelled to reduce the number. 
For more than two years no new work was 
undertaken for the lack of funds to carry 
it forward. For the same reason, middlers 
in our theological seminaries have not been 
sent out to preach as heretofore during their 
summer vacation. Contiguous churches 
have been grouped and a whole district 
committed in many cases to the care of a 
pastor-at-large. By this means the number 
of our missionaries and that of our mission- 
ary teachers has been materially reduced. 
The whole force during the past year num- 
bered 1416, and they are distributed in the 
following manner, namely: Alabama, 2; 
Alaska, 9; Arizona, 10; Arkansas, 2; 




California, 75; Colorado, 58; Florida, 19; 
Idaho, 24; Indian Territory, 30; Iowa, 
100; Kansas, 120; Kentucky, 21; "Maine, 
2; Massachusetts, 8; Michigan, 84; Min- 
nesota, 93; Missouri, 59; Montana, 19; 
Nebraska, 84 ; Nevada, 1 ; New Hamp- 
shire, 2 ; New Jersey, 2 ; New Mexico, 42 ; 
New York, 131 ; North Carolina, 3 ; North 
Dakota, 52; Ohio, 19; Oklahoma, 14; 
Oregon, 46 ; Pennsylvania, 9 ; Rhode 
Island, 4; South Dakota, 74; Tennessee, 
20; Texas, 23; Utah, 24; Vermont, 1; 
Washington, 66 ; Wisconsin, 57 ; Wyo- 
ming, 7. 


During the year those whose names are 
given below passed from their earthly 
labors into the " rest that remaineth to 
God's people." Among them are found 
the veteran of more than fourscore years 
whose bow abode in strength to the day of 
his departure, and the useful man cut down 
in the midst of his years; the trusted, 
laborious synodical missionary and the 
model pastor and stated supply. Servants 
of God, well done! Their names are: D. 
F. Kuffel, Elk Grove, Cal. ; Enries Vinay, 
San Francisco, Cal. ; Thomas W. Russell, 
Ottumwa, la. ; Andrew Axline, Arlington, 
Kans. ; James A. Menaul, Albuquerque, 
N. M. ; J. C. Sylvanus, Mehama, Oreg. ; 
Robert M. Wallace, Lewiston, Pa. ; Joshua 
Loughran, White Lake, S. Dak. ; W. K. 
Marshall, D.D., Marshall, Tex.; Robert 
Williams, Kamiah, Ida. 


It is hardly necessary to state in this con- 
nection that the first direct results of home 
mission work are the conversion of the 
unconverted, the comforting of saints by 
preaching and pastoral labors, and the 
affording to all who desire them gospel 
ordinances and the rites of a Christian 
burial. During the past year 13,300 
persons were received into the Church by 
our home missionaries. 

A number of revivals of religion were 
reported — some of them were of unusual 

" It rejoices our hearts," say Dr. Thomas 
M. Gunn, " to be permitted to report most 
delightful revivals in nearly every part of 
the Synod of Washington. At Rathdrum, 
Moscow, Denver, Kendrick and Julietta, 

Ida. ; at Davenport, Fairfield, Prescott, 
Spokane First Church, Wilbur, Everett, 
Washington; we hear of times of great 
refreshing, while in most of the fields there 
is steady and satisfactory growth. Likewise 
even our Indian churches have been blessed, 
and are exhibiting a most remarkable spirit 
of liberality. 

" Evangelistic efforts," says Dr. Dun- 
can, " have been greatly blessed this year 
in the gathering of many souls into the 
kingdom, and the hard times have doubt- 
less had something to do in making the 
people thoughtful and in preparing the way 
for the blessing. Then, I believe that some 
of our churches have been stirred up to 
make more heroic efforts for self-support. 
Indeed, precious revivals seem to prevail all 
over our home mission field, if not over 
the land. This ought to inspire the people 
to greater self-denial and liberality." 

" Our school at Harlan, Ky.," writes 
one of the teachers, " has been greatly 
blessed ; there has been an outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit upon our town. The 
human agent in bringing this about was the 

Rev. Mr. C , a Methodist minister 

from P . For eleven days and nights 

he preached Christ so tenderly, so touch- 
ingly, so beautifully, that the most indiffer- 
ent were deeply impressed. As a result 
thirty-six persons were received, last 
Sabbath morning, by our pastor, into our 
church. Thirty of that number — and 
almost all of them young men and young 
women of our school — were baptized." 

' ( In face of the hard times, ten per cent, 
cuts, and the machinations of the Ogden 
Land Company, the progress here," writes 
the Rev. Morton F. Trippe, " is most 
encouraging. Never before has the Holy 
Spirit so manifested his power among us. 
Never have our Indian churches experi- 
enced to such an extent the glory of 
his presence! Great progress has been 
made in Church work, Christian life and 
thought. New doors are wide open for 
teaching and preaching. Nearly every 
point is touched by the gospel, and Chris- 
tian services are held in the strongholds of 
paganism. The impression prevails among 
the Indians that the old religion is fast pass- 
ing away. More effective work can now be 
done from house to house, and more people 
reached than ever before. ' ' 

The most tangible results of home mis- 




sions are the organized churches which dot 
the country from the Alleghenies to the 
Rockies, and from the Rockies to the 
shores of the Pacific. As soon as men are 
brought to Christ they look for a permanent 
sanctuary in which they may enjoy Chris- 
tian fellowship and exert upon those around 
them some influence for good. 

According to presbyterial reports, fifty- 
three churches were organized during last 
year, notwithstanding the hard times and 
the inability of the Board to aid new enter- 
prises. It was generously assisted in erect- 
ing houses of worship by our Board of 
Church Erection. 


The title Mission School Work is not in 
all respects appropriate. For it does not 
set forth its true nature and character. 
The Board's work is not educational in a 
technical, but in a Christian sense. It is 
strictly evangelical in its nature, and mis- 
sionary in its spirit. 

The class of people reached by this agency 
of the Church could not be reached so 
easily or economically, if at all, by any 
other. In many of those communities 
where the home missionary meets with 
persistent resistance the teacher succeeds. 
The children are gathered into the school in 
which the spelling book, the gospel songs, 
the Catechism and the Bible do their work. 
Here prejudices give way; a Sabbath -school 
is conducted, and before long the home 
missionary is invited by the people to 
undertake a church organization. Out of 
these small beginnings have grown sixty - 
nine churches. In many communities the 
work has been so successful that the people 
themselves have assumed a part, if not all, 
of the expense of maintaining it. 


Alaskans. — In eight schools, with twenty- 
five teachers, eleven tribes of Alaskans, 
besides several hundreds of Eskimos, are 
being educated and evangelized. Three of 
these are industrial schools. In them the 
boys and girls are taught both industries 
and domestic arts; thus they are being 
fitted for life's duties. From all our 
schools pupils go forth to establish Chris- 
tian homes and to take an active part in the 
world's conflicts and progress. 

The Indians. —The Indian problem re- 
mains still unsolved. The United States 
Government is conducting many excellent 
schools among the tribes, but it does not 
teach them religion. The Presbyterian 
Church feels that she ought not to turu 
over these half-educated, partly civilized, 
though in many cases converted Indians, to 
the Government schools, which are taught 
in many places by unchristian teachers. 
She must continue to provide Christian 
instruction especially for those Indians who 
are particularly her wards. To do other- 
wise would be unchristian. Among the 
various tribes there are ten boarding and 
industrial schools and nine day-schools, 
with eighty-six teachers. 

The Mexicans. — Much good is being done 
among this class of our fellow-citizens. Our 
teachers are winning their way to the hearts 
of the old and the young. Prejudices are 
being broken down, and the way opened 
for a more extended evangelistic work among 
them. Many young men are preparing to 
teach and preach among their own people. 
There is in places a widespread interest felt 
in the study of the Bible which would have 
exposed them a few years ago to persecution 
and danger. There are three boarding 
and industrial schools and twenty-six day- 
schools, with forty-seven teachers. 

The Mormons. — Statehood has not solved 
the Mormon problem. The " Church of 
the Latter -Day Saints " is yet unchanged. 
The power of the priesthood is unbroken. 
Missionary zeal among them was never more 
intense. The actual fact of Statehood has 
encouraged the Mormon leaders, and threat- 
ens to cripple our work. Yet the good seed 
has been sown; it is being watered with 
prayers and tears, so that a harvest is sure to 
be gathered in the near future. There have 
been in operation four boarding schools and 
twenty-eight day-schools during the year, 
with sixty-eight teachers. 

Mountaineers. — Mission school work- is 
carried on in the mountain regions of 
North Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia 
and eastern Kentucky. This is the newest 
of the several fields, but not the least inter- 
esting or hopeful. No prejudices are to be 
encountered in these regions. Heathenism 
is not a factor. Indifference to education 
and religion are not characteristics of the 
descendants of the Scotch-Irish. They are 
religious in their instincts and traditions. 




The five boarding schools established among 
them are full to overflowing, and the day- 
schools are crowded. The eighty-two teach- 
ers find more than they can do. In this 
field is realized more fully than in any 
other, perhaps, the true aim . of the school 
work of the Board. A consecrated 
teacher, and a little home with a pleasant 
chapel -schoolhouse planted in the midst of 
one of these mountain regions, has trans- 
formed the whole neighborhood into an 
intelligent, thrifty, Christian community. 

Foreigner*. — Two industrial schools, 
which are maintained by the Woman's Pres- 
byterial Society, have been opened among 
the foreign population of Chicago and are 
doing a grand work, and a day-school has 
been conducted a portion of the year with 
blessed results among the Italians of Ban- 
gor, Pa. 


The Woman's Executive Committee pays 
the salaries of several ministers who super- 
intend schools and at the same time supply 
churches. A number of Indians and Mexi- 
cans are supported as evaugelists, who labor 
among their own people. Much of this 
kind of work is acceptably done during the 
summer months by superintendents and 


The General Assembly of 1895 authorized 
the employment of women Bible readers in 
the mountain districts of the South. Six 
consecrated ones have been sent into the 
field, two into eastern Kentucky, and four 
into West Virginia. They have been most 
cordially received everywhere by the peo- 
ple. Their duty is to visit from house to 
house, read the Bible and pray, organize 
and conduct Sabbath-schools, and hold 
here and there cottage prayer meetings. 
One church and fifteen Sabbath-schools have 
been organized, with an enrollment of seven 
hundred and seventy-four scholars ; twelve 
weekly prayer meetings have been main- 
tained by them, hundreds of families have 
been visited, spoken to on the subject of 
persona] religion, and prayed with. Sixty- 
six hopeful conversions have been reported. 
This has proved a much-needed and won- 
derfully blessed work. 


The Woman's Executive Committee is 
charged with the responsibility of collecting 

funds for the maintenance of this important 
department of home missions. This is 
done through the several synodical, presby- 
terial and auxiliary societies, the various 
Young People's organizations, and, as 
recommended by the General Assembly, by 
an annual collection from each Sabbath- 
school connected with the Church. It is 
through a complete organization and a sys- 
tematic effort that these magnificent results 
have been reached, for a large proportion 
of the money has been gathered by littles 
which represents real sacrifice upon the part 
of the givers. 


There have been in operation during the 
year 117 schools, with 308 teachers and 
8018 pupils. In connection with these 
schools and missions, 110 Sabbath-schools 
have been maintained, with 6754 scholars 
and 47 Young People's Societies, with 1117 
members There have been reported 645 
pupils hopefully converted. 


The Average Salary of a Missionary. — 
The salary paid to a missionary by the 
Board at the present time is about 8300. 
This amount, however, does not constitute 
his entire compensation. It is only a 
supplement to what the church which he 
serves is able to pay. In making applica- 
tion for aid, the church is required to for- 
ward to the Board a list of its members and 
adherents, with their subscriptious towards 
the support of the pastor or stated supply. 
A few of our church members contribute 
$300 yearly towards the support of these 
missionaries to preach the gospel as their 
substitutes. Some support as many as 
twenty or twenty-five. It is pleasant to 
add that, by their bequests, two or three 
now in heaven preach the gospel through a 
number of such substitutes. 

Monthly Payments. — According to the 
announcement, monthly payments to the 
missionaries began with the present fiscal 
year, April 1, 1897. 

Special Times for Taking up Collections. 
— There is no month specially designated by 
the General Assembly for taking up collec- 
tions for the Home Board, but the majority 
of our churches have chosen the month of 
November for that purpose. 

The General Assembly has repeatedly 
recommended that all our Sabbath-schools 




take up a collection on the Sabbath follow- 
ing the National Thanksgiving Day for the 
educational work conducted by the 
Woman's Executive Committee, and that 
the Sabbath nearest Washington's Birthday 
be set apart as a special rally day in the 
interest of the Board's work. 

The Literature of the Board. — Since 1886 
the Home Board has had no periodical of 
its own, but has a department in each of the 
periodicals of the General Assembly, 
namely, in The Church at Home and 
Abroad and in The Assembly Herald. 
The Woman's Executive Committee issues 
The Home Mission Monthly, with a circula- 
tion of 18,000, and has a joint control of 
the juvenile magazine called Over Sea and 
Land. In addition to these, a number of 
leaflets bearing on their respective depart- 
ments of work are prepared by the Board 
and the Woman' Executive Committee. 

The Library. — Until its removal to the 
new building, the Board had no place for a 
library, and, consequently, it has but few 
books — too few for its needs. Now it has 
a convenient room for a library. If any 
friends have books on the different phases 
of the Board's work, which they would be 
willing to donate, the gift will be most use- 
ful and greatly appreciated. An endow- 
ment fund, producing a small annuity, 
would enable the Board to build up a 
choice missionary library. 

The Reading Room. — A comfortable room 
has been set apart for current religious news- 
papers and missionary magazines of our 
own and of other evangelical denominations. 
This is open every day, not only to the 
Board, but also to friends who may chance 
to be visiting the building. 

Noonday Prayer Meeting. — A daily 
prayer meeting is held between 12.45 and 
1 o'clock, in which the entire office force 
takes an active part. Important features of 
the work, both in the home and foreign 
fields, are alternately presented for prayer 
or remarks. Visitors are invited to attend. 

general summary. 
We condense the most important details 
of the year's work into the following, viz. : 

Number of Missionaries 1,416 

Number of Missionary Teachers 303 

Additions on Profession of Faith 8,522 

Additions on Certificate 4,778 

Total Membership 87,035 

Total in Congregations 106,368 

Adult Baptisms 4,010 

Infant Baptisms 4,637 

Sunday-schools organized 271 

Number of Sunday-schools 2,180 

Membership of Sunday-schools 129,812 

Church Edifices( value of same, $3,176,917) 1,617 
Church Edifices built during the year (cost 

of same, $125,362) 81 

Church Edifices repaired and enlarged (cost 

of same, $46,625) 247 

Church debts canceled $89,085 

Churches self-sustaining this year 16 

Churches organized this year 53 

Number of Parsonages (value of same 

$467,968) 467 


The following members were reelected for 
three years : Ministers — Rev. John Hall, 
D.D., Rev. D. Stuart Dodge, Rev. Lyman 
W. Allen, Rev. Wilson Phraner, D.D. ; 
Laymen — Mr. George R. Lock wood, Mr. 
Titus B. Meigs, Mr. George H. Southard. 

Mr. A. Noel Blakeman was elected to 
serve to the end of the year in place of Mr. 
John S. Kennedy, resigned. 


APRIL 1, 1896 TO MARCH 31, 1897. 
From Churches, Woman's Societies 

and Bands $476,123 69 

Sabbath-schools 40,334 42 

Young People's Societies 38,327 91 

Individuals and Miscellaneous 

Sources 132,029 66 

Legacies 105,589 08 

Sale of Securities 45,251 76 

Quarter-Century Anniversary Re- 
union Fund 33,101 51 

For New York Synodical Aid Fund 7,879 70 

Sustentation 486 73 

$879,123 46 

Missionaries — Home Missions $407,740 00 

New York Synodical Aid Fund .... 25,954 48 

Sustentation 1,453 70 

Teachers, Schools, etc ... 215,729 24 

Printing and Distributing Annual Re- 
port 1,745 41 

Church at Home and Abroad 379 43 

Assembly Herald 420 00 

Literature Department 1.866 43 

Interest on money borrowed 9,231 42 

Woman's Executive Committee 19,432 86 

Expenses for Administration, 41 per cent. 

of receipts for current work 32,418 28 

$716,371 25 
Excess of Receipts over Expenditures 

applied on last year's Debt 162,752 21 

$879,123 46 
Amount of Debt April 1, 1897 $147,276 96 





Utah. — Rev. F. W. Blohm, American Fork : — 
No special meetings — no excitement — much earn- 
est personal work — people visited in their homes 
— many special meetings with small audiences — 
often one or two adults with their children — 
sometimes one person alone [see John 3 : 1, and 
4 : 7]. This method greatly hlessed. 

Five Scandinavian families received out of Mor- 
monism into the Church — children baptized — 
going on winning these people for Christ and his 
Church — people come slowly, hut when they do 
come they come to stay. 

Statehood increases priesthood's power over 
people — some trying to shake off this power. 
[Liberty usually works its way out of tyranny 
by slow and painful growth.] Mormon people 
growing more tolerant of other faiths — not so the 
priesthood. [Always so.] 

He pleads for the continuance of the school work 
of those consecrated and godly teachers sent out 
by the Women's Executive Committee, to educate 
the children of parents who come out of Mormon- 
ism and take a stand for Christ. 

Arizona. — Rev. I. T. "Whittemore, at Florence, 
tells of plans and expectations defeated and blasted 
by Satan — yet sees a silver lining to the cloud. 
Sunday-school larger than ever before ; seven good 
teachers and eighty-five members. Goes to Casa 
Grande each alternate week — spends two or three 
days in visiting, traveling east, west and south — 
ninety to a hundred miles, each trip. A packed 
house once lately at Casa Grande, and closest at- 
tention, so eager to catch the truth — the best and 
most intelligent of the people. 

" It is no hardship even at my age to cover, or 
attempt to, so large a field. I go singing behind 
my mule and if I could see more fruit it would 
be a delight to continue for years." 

Bravo! Old Dr. Beecher once said, "I mean 
to fight old age with hard work till I'm in my 
grave." Nicer things than that are written in Ps. 
91 : 16, and Ps. 92 : 14. And then, as to "seeing 
fruit," let us strengthen ourselves with Eccl. 11 : 
6, and comfort ourselves with Rev. 14 : 3, last 

Idaho — Rev. D. O. Ghormley, Moscow :— Spe- 
cial services begun in February — Rev. R. M. Hays, 
of La Grand, Ore., came to assist — March 14, 
largest communion service ever held in that 
church— house crowded — twenty-seven received 
on confession of faith in Christ— twelve of them 
heads of families —nine men from 22 to 65 years 
of age. 

New Mexico. — Rev Thomas C. Moffett, Ra- 
ton : — Congregations notably large at all services — 
auditorium inadequate — no exceptional features — 
gratifying progress in all departments, along well- 
tried and approved lines. 

Kentucky. — Rev. William C. Clemens, Har- 
lan : — Some of the most substantial people received 
into our little church — new members goiug right 
into the work and old ones revived — Sabbath- 
school in good condition— more than one hundred 
in attendance— one class taught by Mrs. Clemens 
composed of the older people, thirty or more — 
older people are taking more and more interest in 
it ; prayer meeting continues to be well attended. 

Oklahoma. — Rev. S. V. Fait, Anadarko :— 
Eleven received to communion, six of them full- 
blood Indian girls — evidence of fitness clear and 
strong — lives since in sweet accord with profession 
— sixteen such girls now in that church, between 
the ages of fourteen and twenty-one. " Convert 
th,e Indian woman, Christianize the Indian mother, 
and future generations will be Christian." Work 
never seemed more bright or hopeful. Great de- 
sire of Indians to know more of the gospel. 

Colorado. — Rev. J. J. Perdomo, Trinidad : — 
Large crowd of Mexicans joined him at the court- 
house for a midnight communion service, Decem- 
ber 31 ; the first minute of the new year in prayer. 

Kansas. — Rev. J. M. Batchelder, Osborne :— 
Greatly cheered by announcement that the Board 
has been able to extend the agreement in the case 
of Osborne Church. Never had his mind "exer- 
cised so deeply about our dear, grand, historic old 
Church as during the previous terrible six months. 
Would not despond — kept up work." 

Iowa. — Rev. William S. Shiels, Keokuk : — 
Over thirty-five people confessed conversion and 
twenty-nine of them have already become members 
of our church. Twelve of the number are young 
men, some of whom have been very wicked. In 
fact when one of them was converted he went up to 
a crowd of young men and answered their amuse- 
ment by saying : ' ' Boys, as I have been a leader 
among you for the devil in the past, I propose to be 
a leader among you in the future for Christ." He 
is doing good work. We have three of the fou 
children of that family, and the fourth and oldest 
is under conviction. 

Minnesota. — Rev. C. C. Hoffmeister, Lake 
Crystal : — The people have had a hard time with 
finances, and are behind with me, so that it takes 
some marvelous financiering in this family. I 
think McKinley would have done well to select 
his Secretary of the Treasury from the home mis- 
sionaries — they are thoroughly familiar with the 
operation of making ends meet. 

Young People's Christian Endeavor. 

The session of a church in Pennsylvania gives a 

Bible to each baptized child when it reaches the 

age of seven years. 

* * 


" Fidel is in minimis et maximis," fidelity in little 
things and in the greater, was one of the working 
rules of life for Dr. Hort of Cambridge. 

* * 


"He who imparts light to another," said Dr. 
Trench, "has not less light, but walks henceforth 
in the light of two torches instead of one." 

* * 


"A keen every-day-in-the-week, personal in- 
terest," writes our correspondent from Ann Arbor, 
is the secret of successful work with young people. 

* * 


"One of the brightest and most encouraging 
features of our work" — that is the testimony of the 
pastors in Lackawanna Presbytery to the Young 

People's societies. 

* * 


Those who are accustomed to look in these 
pages for the biographical sketch, will find in the 
home mission department the story of that grand 
hero, Samuel J. Mills. 

* * 

A pastor in Minnesota writes us that he would 

not know how to preach on Sunday evenings if he 

lacked the inspiration that comes from the presence 

of the Endeavor society. 

* * 


A "missionary war" meeting, with dispatches 
from the various battlefields, was held recently by 
the Christian Endeavor societies of the First Pres- 
byterian Church in Saginaw, Mich. 

* * 


In a large wagon the Presbyterian Endeavorers 
of Junction City, Kansas, drove about the city, and 
spent a whole evening singing the gospel. Listen- 
ing groups gathered every time the wagon stopped. 

* * 


"One of the most loyal bands of helpers that 
ever a pastor was blessed with, " is what the Pres- 
byterian pastor at Ovid, N. Y., thinks of his young 
people. Read what he says of their work in the 
column "Presbyterian Endeavorers." 

* * 


A Presbyterian Christian Endeavor society in 
Kansas reports: "We find it a good plan to go 
for advice to our pastor, who is in hearty sympathy 
with the work "of the young people. No new 

methods of work are presented to the society until 

we have talked with him." 

* * 

A pastor gives this counsel to his Sunday-school 

teachers : " Beware how you insist upon the pupils 

accepting your ideas. Let them speak freely for 

themselves. Provide the right conditions for 

growth, but let the child do the growing. If we 

dictate too absolutely we envelop instead of develop 

the child's thoughts." 

* # 


Every class graduating from Park College 
between 1884 and 1896, save one, is represented on 
the foreign mission field. Every class from 1879, 
the first class graduated, to 1894, is represented on 
the home mission field by from one to twelve or- 
dained missionaries. The graduates of the last 
three years, who are still pursuing their theological 
studies, will largely swell the ranks 

* # 


In a Christian Endeavor address in Rochester, 
N. Y., on "The Best Way of Vanquishing," Dr. 
Way land Hoyt said : "The only true liberty is the 
submission to righteous rule. Don't be bothering 
about your reputations ; occupy, rather, your time 
in building up your character. Crown the right, 
the pure and the true, and keep them crowned, and 
in the presence of these the impure and the evil 
will pass away." 

* * 


To encourage the steadily growing movement 
toward systematic instruction in the Shorter Cate- 
chism, the Board of Publication has for the last 
ten years offered an Oxford Bible to every scholar in 
Sabbath-schools connected with our own churches 
who shall be certified as having committed the 
Catechism to memory. Last year 1469 Bibles 
were given away under these conditions, and the 
total number for ten years is 14,406. 

Have you seen the young people' s paper, Forward, 
in its enlarged and greatly improved form ? It is 
bright, attractive, up-to-date and possesses high 
literary excellence. The young people of the Pres- 
byterian Church will find in its pages much that is 
spiritually helpful, many fresh incentives to new 
endeavor. The Church at Home and Abroad 
extends a hearty welcome to Mr. William T. Ellis, 
formerly on the staff of the Oolden Rule, who is 
now associated with Dr. J. R. Miller in the edi- 
torial management of Forward. 





This was Fenelon's Christian Endeavor pledge : 
Cheered by the presence of God, I will do at each 
moment, without anxiety, according to the strength 
which he shall give me, the work that his provi- 
dence assigns me. I will leave the rest without 
concern ; it is not my affair. I ought to consider 
the duty to which I am called each day as the 
work that God has given me to do, and to apply 
myself to it in a manner worthy of his glory, that 
is to say, with exactness and in peace. I must 
neglect nothing ; I must be violent about nothing. 

•*■ * 

" Taking part " in religious services is a techni- 
cal phrase. Of the forty or fifty or more persons 
at a meeting, only those are said to "take part" 
who lead in prayer, or make a speech, or repeat a 
Scripture quotation. Is there danger of your for- 
getting the far deeper and more vital necessity of 
joining with the heart in worship to God, even 
though the lips are silent ? When some one else 
leads in prayer do you pray ? When some one else 
reads the word, do you attend ? When another 
mouth utters the message, do you receive it? — 


Dr. George F. Pentecost writes in the Golden 
Rule that liberality is ' ' not simply the giving of 
money to the cause of Christ, but the religious giv- 
ing of money as a sign of grace and consecration, 
and as an expression of gratitude to God for tem- 
poral blessing daily received at his hands. Benefi- 
cence is a grace, and as essential to Christian char- 
acter and growth as faith and prayer. It is not a 
mere incidental or impulsive offering made now 
and again to God. It must be cultivated as a 
spiritual exercise, systematically, persistently, and 
proportionately, as God has prospered us." 

At the fifth annual meeting of the Christian En- 
deavor Missionary League of the Reformed Church 
in America, the Eev. A. DeW. Mason, president 
of the League, emphasized the need of more infor- 
mation about mission work. This can be secured, 
he said, in three ways : by more missionary preach- 
ing and teaching on the part of pastors ; by syste- 
matic review of the work at the regular missionary 
meetings of the society ; and since frequent and ac- 
curate information is impossible without a regular 
supply of literature, every Christian Endeavor so- 
ciety ought to be a missionary reading club, to take 
and read the missionary periodicals and circulate 
them among less interested people. 

* # 


The Committee on Narrative reported at the 
spring meeting of the Presbytery of Lackawanna 

that there is a Young People's Society of Christian 
Endeavor in almost every church, and that Junior 
societies are almost as numerous. As an illustra- 
tion of the spiritual tone of their work, it is related 
that a recent convention came in conjunction with 
the revival work of an evangelist. In the evening 
among the twenty-five hopeful converts who came 
forward was a blacksmith, who with tears of 
repentance told how his heart had been touched and 
completely won that day by hearing the Endeavorers 
in their open-air meeting sing his mother's old 
hymn, " Guide me, thou Great Jehovah." 


* * 

Edward Everett Hale said recently in an address 
to the young men of Boston : " You have no right 
to take the comfort of Sunday and then leave to the 
ministers, to your father and mother, to the women 
of the community, the maintaining of Sunday. 
When a club of high-minded, moral and intelligent 
young men mount their bicycles on Sunday morn- 
ing, by public appointment, they say far more dis- 
tinctly than any words or voices could say, that, so 
far as they are concerned, they mean that the next 
generation shall have no Sunday. Courts are not to 
be closed, stores shut up, sheriffs kept back from exe- 
cuting writs, in order that young gentlemen may ride 
all day on bicycles. The institution of Sunday, if it 
is to be maintained at all, will be maintained for the 
nobler purposes of the higher life." 

* # 


Writing on the Standard of Missionary Culture 
in the Sunday-school, the Rev. J. B. Thomas says 
it is not intended to interfere with the regular rou- 
tine work. A larger purpose controls. It ought 
in every sense to be an assistant. It should prove 
a real health tonic. The future mission work of 
the Church is largely dependent on the culture of 
our schools, both in the matter and method of work 
as well as in the established habit of regular and 
systematic giving. How shall our children believe 
in missions unless they know about them ? . How 
shall they know unless they are taught? How 
shall they be taught unless we take time to teach 
them ? They ought to be brought face to face with 
the religious needs and problems of our country, 
as well as the frightful destitution beyond the seas. 
The relationship between these two great depart- 
ments ought to he clearly outlined. Neither can 
prosper without the other. They are indissolubly 
connected. To study either exclusively is to pro- 
duce a one-sided and disjointed religious force. It 
is doubtful if any greater purpose can be set before 
our schools. This is the very essence of the Christ 
spirit. Any narrower view of either the Church or 
the school were in the end ruinous. 




Syrian Pastor and Family. 


"Look into This," is the caption of an article 
in the Golden Rule, in which Mr. J. W. Baer says 
the following kind words : 

All Presbyterian Christian Endeavorers should 
know about the Christian Training Course, which 
appears from month to month in The Church at 
Home and Abroad. This consists of outline 
programmes, which include four principal sub- 
divisions : a doctrinal study, a Biblical study, a 
historical study, and a missionary study, each 
occupying from ten to twenty minutes, and each 
superintended by a different leader. The Church 
at Home and Abroad suggests copious authori- 
ties for preparation, and gives numerous test ques- 
tions, thus making the whole eminently practical, 
and just what the Presbyterian Endeavorers would 
find helpful. 

The last of the nine outline programmes for the 
second year of the Christian Training Course ap- 
peared in our issue for June. Next month the 
third year's study will be fully explained, and the 
first programme will appear in October. 

General Assembly again commended the Course, 
and advised the young people to devote one meet- 
ing each month to it. 

The pictures on pages 65 and 67 are from 
"Christian Missions and Social Progress," soon to 
be issued by the Fleming H. Revell Company. 
They appear in The Church at Home and 
Abroad by kind permission of Dr. James S. 
Dennis, author of the book. 

BENJAMIN labaree, d.d. 

The history of the printing press in Persia is very 
closely identified with the progress of the spiritual 
awakening of the old Nestorian Church. In the 
earliest years of mission work schools sprang up and 
large numbers of both old and young became 
readers. Powerful revivals followed the preaching 
of the gospel of free grace, and then became evi- 
dent the power of the press. On the one hand, 
school books were issued calculated to foster the 
awakening interest in education, and on the other 
hand, some of the most valuable devotional books 
known in the English language were reproduced in 
the Syriac tongue and widely scattered, which have 
had an incalculable influence in carrying forward a 
grand national reformation. Their use has done 
much to rehabilitate the mental powers and capa- 
cities of a people once eminent for their scholastic 
culture, but who in later centuries had fallen into a 
deplorable state of intellectual as well as spiritual 
decadence. One result has been that the Moham- 
medans of Persia have acquired a new respect for 
Christian character, and listen with interest to 
statements of Christian truths from the lips of 
those whom they once contemned for their stupidity 
and ignorance. One must mingle with this people 
to fully realize the benefit they have received from 
these new forces. 

I once went into the humble home of a native 
school-teacher, on the plain of Oroomiah, which 




was little else than a dismal hovel, neatly kept it is 
true, but very contracted in its dimensions, with- 
out windows, and with only a small hole or two in 
the roof for the entrance of light and the egress of 
smoke. The poverty of the good man' s surround- 
ings affected me deeply, but as we sat together on 
a mat upon the earth floor of that smoke- stained 
home, discoursing upon spiritual things, I was 
struck with the contrast between his external con- 
dition and the brightness of his spiritual life. And 
as he told me, with animated face and voice, of the 
inspiration he had derived from Baxter's "Saint's 
Kest," I got a new sense of the silent power of such 
books in developing spiritual and intellectual 
character, lifting men above their environment, 
and imparting to them patience and firmness of 
purpose amid most depressing circumstances. 

I remember at another time asking a young 
bishop of the Nestorian Church from a distant part 
of Koordistan, where missionaries seldom went, 
and who had become a bright and active Christian, 
a preacher and leader of power among his people, 
what, outside of the Scriptures themselves, had had 
the greatest influence in developing his spiritual 
life. His reply was, Doddridge's " Rise and Prog- 
ress of Religion in the Soul." A copy of this, 
carried by some colporteur to the plains of the 
Tigris, where he lived, had fallen into his hands, 
and in the retirement of his rude home had force- 
fully interpreted to him the things of Christ, and 
thus became an important factor in the shaping of 
a life that proved of inestimable value to his nation. 
Certainly, in circulating such literature we are 
giving to the nations the noblest productions of 
sanctified human intellect. Through them we 
preach the beauties and the power of the world's 
Saviour in the most impressive forms of speech that 
divinely illumined minds have yet achieved. 

Not many years ago, it was my privilege to take 
through the press a translation of Mr. Spurgeon's 
daily readings, known as " Morning by Morning." 
After its completion I sent a copy to Mr. Spurgeon 
himself, with an explanatory note. I very shortly 
after received a letter from him, which was little 
less than an anthem of praise and thanksgiving 
that he was thus permitted to speak of the things 
of Christ and his glorious salvation to one more 
nation of the earth, in a new language. And justly 
might he exult could he have seen how intensely 
welcome this volume was among the people for 
whom it was printed, and the profound impression 
it produced upon their spiritual life. I recall, as 
this book was going through the press at the slow 
gait of our establishment, we sent out pages of it 
as tracts, that gave their readers great joy, and 
created a degree of impatience for the speedy issue 

of the whole book. There was an old man of 
fervent soul, who had once been connected with the 
press, who came regularly and begged a copy of the 
printed sheets as they were struck off. One Easter 
morning, as he met with others at his pastor' s house, 
he startled the company by declaring with Oriental 
fervor that he had had for his breakfast something 
choicer than all the rest. After trying their guess- 
ing powers a little, he produced the latest issue of 
Mr. Spurgeon's book, with the reading for that par- 
ticular day, one of the most elevated and edifying 
of all the utterances of that godly man, and passing 
it around, he challenged any one to affirm, if he 
could, that he had had as choice a feast on this fes- 
tive morning as this. That volume, side by side 
with the holy Scriptures, is now found in hundreds 
of Syriac-speaking families, a daily lesson book in 
the principles and practice of Christian living. The 
matchless preacher never knew this strange tongue ; 
he could not while living have recognized his own 
beautiful thoughts in the dress they here wear ; more 
than that, his lips and pen are forever at rest ; but 
he still lives and speaks in that printed page ; 
which will perpetuate for generations to come his 
inimitable expositions of divine truth, and ex- 
haustless supply of spiritual milk and honey to the 
dwellers in those desert regions. 


Just as Dr. Judson had finished translating the 
New Testament into Burmese he was cast into 
prison. His wife took the precious manuscript and 
buried it in the ground. But if left there it would 
soon decay, while to reveal its existence to its foes 
would surely lead to its destruction. So it was 
arranged that she should put it within a roll of 
cotton and bring it to him in the form of a pillow, 
so hard and poor that even the keeper of the prison 
did not covet it. After seven months this pillow 
(so uninviting externally, so precious to him) was 
taken away, and then his wife redeemed it by giv- 
ing a better one in exchange. Some time after that 
he was hurried off to another prison, leaving 
everything behind him, and his old pillow was 
thrown into the prison yard to be trodden under 
foot as worthless cotton ; but after a few hours one 
of the native Christians discovered the roll and 
took it home as a relic of the prisoner ; and there' 
long afterwards, the manuscript was found within 
the cotton, complete and uninjured. Surely the 
hand of the Lord was interposed to save from de- 
struction the fruit of years of toil, so important for 
those who were to read the Burmese Bible.— 
Edward W. Gilman, D.D., in Leaflet. 







Rev. Frederic Poole. 


In Race street, between Ninth and Tenth, the 
centre of Philadelphia's "Chinatown," directly 
opposite the temple where incense is always burn- 
ing before a heathen shrine, there was opened in 
November, 1896, by the Christian League, " The 
Hall of Happiness and Glad Tidings." The 
superintendent is the Rev. Frederic Poole, who 
while a missionary in China became fa- 
miliar with Chinese habits and their pe- 
culiar methods of thought. Here in- 
struction in English is given at all hours 
of the day, and frequent gospel meetings 
are held. A reading-room and a dispen- 
sary have been opened ; the men who 
come are made to feel at home ; and they 
are under the influence of the Christian 

Wong Kong, one of the most progress- 
ive Chinamen in this country, is inter- 
preter and assistant in the mission school. 
After coming to Philadelphia a few years 
ago he began to attend a Chinese Sunday- 
school. In his present position he has 
not only won confidence and respect ; 
those who know him notice a broadening 
of character. Mr. Wong has overcome 
much of the conservatism peculiar to his 
race, and has developed into a liberal- 
minded Chinaman. As vice-president of 
the Chinese Y. M. C. A. he is zealous in 
evangelistic work, using forcible and 
convincing arguments. 

Choy, thirteen years of age, was sold 
for $120 to a Chinese merchant, Chu 
Nan, who four years ago brought her to 
this country to wait upon his wife. Not 
only was she compelled to do all the 

housework and care for the two babies, she was in 
constant dread of brutal treatment and frequently 
suffered cruel beating. Mr. Poole interfered and 
brought the evidence before the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Children. The court awarded 
the child to the custody of the society, and she is 
now in a Christian home. 

These and many other facts are given in detail 
in The Chinaman, a monthly journal issued in the 
interests of this work. 


In a recent volume, "Child Life in our Mission 
Fields," Mrs. W. B. Burke, of Sung Kong, China, 
gives many interesting facts about school life in 
that country. Thirty boys are studying aloud, each 
boy shouting his lesson at the top of his voice. 
Then one of them comes up to bey see or "back the 
book." Turning his back to the teacher, after lay- 
ing his open book upon the table, he begins to 
swing from side to side, and repeats from memory, 
yelling, if possible, just a little louder than the 
others. Laid safely away in the memories of mil- 
lions of Chinese boys are the moral precepts of 

Choy and her Rescuer. 




Confucius. Line upon line these are added to, until 
it has been said that his classics, if destroyed, 
could easily be reproduced in a single day. This 
at once explains the powerful and enduring 
influence those classics have had upon China 
for ages. In honoring the past by such con- 
tinuous and reverential study, these Chinese 
teachers have woven so surely about the youths of 
the empire the bonds of conservatism that progress 
has been checked for a thousand years. Remark- 
able memories have been developed however by 
this method of training, and missionaries have 
taken advantage of the system to store away in these 
little close-shaven pig-tailed heads more Bible 
truth than is usually found in the minds of Ameri- 
can boys of the same age. 


The Lackawanna Presbyterian reproduces the re- 
ports of the Committee on Narrative made at the 
spring meeting of that presbytery. After setting 
forth the work accomplished by the Young 
People's societies, the report enumerates the fol- 

Wong Kong. 

lowing ways in which they help : by enlarging the 
circle of active workers ; by affording the young 
people a fine training ground for personal service 
for the Master ; by stimulating attendance upon the 
regular church services ; by keeping the church 
alive when there is no pastor ; by their cordial 
help in church work as opportunity offers ; by 
their generous contributions to the mission cause ; 

and by their Sabbath-school and home 

mission work. 


In 1872 George Leslie MacKay began 
his labors in North Formosa, where he 
was a pioneer missionary sent out by the 
Presbyterian Church in Canada. To-day 
there are sixty organized native churches 
all ministered to by trained native 
preachers, and four of them are self-sup- 
porting. At Tamsin there have been 
established a hospital and dispensary, 
a girls' school and Oxford College for 
the training of young men for the minis- 
try. During his recent furlough, Dr. 
MacKay prepared for the press ' ' From 
Far Formosa," a book which abounds in 
thrilling experiences of missionary ad- 
venture, and gives much interesting in- 
formation about the Island Beautiful. 

For the picture of Dr. MacKay we are 
indebted to The Record, of the Presby- 
terian Church of Canada. 

Rev. G..L. MacKay, ]),D. 

Make a little fence of trust 

Around to-day ; 
Fill t lie spare with loving work, 

And therein stay. 

Look not through the sheltering bars 

Upon to-ruorrow ; 
God will help thee hear what comes ; 
_„ Of joy or sorrow, 






Centerville, Cal. 

A missionary meeting held by the Y. P. S. C. E. 
in April was addressed by Mrs. Kin Eca de Libra, 
M.D., an educated Chinese woman, who has been 
a missionary in her own land. Full of interesting 
things about China, her talk was enjoyed by every 
one present, including a number of Chinese. This 
society gave $30 for missions the past year. — Mis- 
sionary Committee. 

San Francisco, Cal. . 

The Whatsoever Circle of Chinese King's Daugh- 
ters, belonging to the First Presbyterian Chinese 
Church of San Francisco, has twenty members. 
They have recently taken the support of a Bible 
woman in China. Their bi-monthly meetings are 
occasions of deep interest, and the Circle is growing 
into a valuable auxiliary to the work of the church. 
They visit the sick and poor, and labor to bring 
children into the Sabbath-school. One of the 
members teaches in the primary department. — I. M 
Denver, Colo. 

The Christian Endeavor society of the First 
Avenue Presbyterian Church is not large, but the 
weekly prayer meetings have always been a source 
of great helpfulness to the members. The society 
has paid the electric light bill of the church each 
month for several years. Money is raised largely 
by pledged amounts, paid to the society treasurer 
once a month. Most of the members pay ten cents 
a month to missions through the Missionary Com- 
mittee. The city mission of the W. C. T. U. 
receives %\ a month from this society, and occasion- 
ally the superintendent visits us to report the work. 
— G. M. 

Chicago, III. 

The leaders of the Englewood Presbyterian Juni- 
ors believe in the use of "eye gate" as well as 
' ' ear gate. '' ' As reported in the Weekly Endeavor 
News, they have a changeable bulletin board, on 
which notices and topic are each week attractively 
grouped, with reproductions of the work of cele- 
brated artists. 

Clinton, Iowa. 

The young people of the Clinton Presbyterian 
Church have been much interested in the local 
Army of American Volunteers. Last winter the 
Christian Endeavor society contributed fifty dollars 
as a free-will offering to the work of the Volunteers, 
to aid them in securing their equipment. The 
officers of the Volunteers are frequently present at 
the Sunday evening Endeavor meetings. — F. M. C. 

Oelwein, Iowa. 

The " Roll of Honor" is a large sheet of paper 
on which the names of the members of the Junior 
Endeavor society are inscribed in an artistic 
manner. Each member who reads the portion of 
Scripture assigned for every day and commits one 
passage to memory, has a star cut out of gold paper 
placed opposite his name. For each twenty-five 
answers from the Shorter Catechism committed to 
memory an anchor is given This method has a 
stimulating effect, and many have been helped by 
it.— & a 

Leon, Iowa. 

The Juniors are stockholders in missionary en- 
terprise, and are interested in their investment. 
They have been so thoroughly drilled in the names 
and order of the books of the Bible that they turn 
readily to a Scripture reference. At present they 
are taking a course of study in the Life of Christ. 
Their pastor testifies that they are advancing 
steadily on the road to intelligent, energetic church 
membership. — G. D. G. 

Storm Lake, Iowa. 

For two years past a lady who is a member of 
the Storm Lake Presbyterian Endeavor society has 
driven each Sunday to a schoolhouse four miles 
distant to superintend a Sunday-school. She has 
also, for about half that time, gone out the same 
distance to attend a midweek prayer meeting. 
She "hitched up" her own horse each time, and 
put it away on returning home. A fine ex- 
ample of self-sacrificing endeavor. — J. Mac A. 

Junction City, Kans. 

The Presbyterian Juniors of Junction City, Kans., 
recently studied Asia as a mission field. A special 
map was prepared on heavy paper and cut into 
twelve sections. Twelve captains directed the 
study, each having a section. A miniature flag of 
the country was shown, and such facts as could be 
gathered concerning the country, the people, the 
work of the Lord, were presented by members. Il- 
lustrations by means of the stereopticon were thrown 
on the screen. The Juniors number about a hun- 
dred, and are directed by a general superintendent 
and four faithful assistants, who have the oversight 
of divisions. They have just taken up a collection 
for missions which is to be loaned to members for a 
time and then returned with the increase. — A. H. H. 

Smith Centre, Kans. 

Music plays an important part in our Christian 
Endeavor meetings. The Music Committee appoints 
a quartette to lead the singing. At the end of one 
month four others are appointed, and so on. Fre- 
quently the quartette renders a special selection in 
which the congregation does not join. One of the 
four is always an active member. Some of the as- 
sociates who have heretofore taken very little in- 
terest in the singing, or even the meetings, have be- 
come quite enthusiastic since serving in this 
capacity. We hope that some may be " sung into 
kingdom."— L. M. H. 

Washington, Kans. 

A member of the Junior society edits and pub- 
lishes monthly The Junior Reporter, which gives 
topics, announcements, church notices, and interest- 
ing items about the work of the Juniors. 

Shelbyville, Ky. 

Our young people's missionary society finds 
helpful information for its monthly meetings in 
Over Sea and Land, Woman's Work for Woman and 
The Church at Home and Abroad. The dues 
are five cents a month, with an additional five 
cents if absent from the meeting. Mite boxes are 
also used. These contributions, which are mostly 
earned by the members, are given in aid of Mr. 
Jones' school work in Alaska and Dr. Atterbury's 
hospital in Peking. Last year a Christmas box of 
toys and clothing was sent to the Kentucky moun- 




tain children. Daily Bible reading is urged upon 
the members, a certain book of the Bible being se- 
lected for reading within a certain time. The use 
of the sermon text-book issued by our Board of 
Publication has proved a stimulus to church 
attendance and helpful in gaining attention to the 
sermon. — W. E. B. 

Baltimore, rid. 

The Christian Endeavor society of Boundary 
Avenue Church did a wise thing for missions when 
they invited a band of students from Princeton to 
hold a series of meetings among the young people in 
the interest of foreign missions. They were enthusi- 
astic young fellows, preparing for the mission field 
themselves, and awakened a great deal of interest 
among the people here. The society bore all the 
expense and arranged for the meetings. The in- 
fluence was felt beyond the boundaries of our own 
church.— F. E. W. 

Ann Arbor, nich. 

The Presbyterian Christian Endeavor society, 
composed chiefly of students of the University of 
Michigan, numbers 150 active members. Much 
care is taken to secure acquaintance and keep alive 
the individual interest and cooperation. The zeal 
with which the committees work is a commendable 
feature. Good singing, under the direction of a 
wide-awake musical leader, enlivens the prayer 
meetings. The society fosters a Junior and a new 
intermediate society. A keen, every-day-in-the- 
week, personal interest is the secret of our success 
with the young people. — I. M. H. 

Saginaw, Mich. 

There are three Christian Endeavor societies in 
the First Presbyterian Church. A chorus choir 
of thirty-five voices has greatly helped the services. 
A contribution of fifty dollars goes to Dr. Bradford 
of Persia. The King's Messengers, intermediate, 
have an orchestra of fourteen pieces which plays 
each Sunday at the meetings. Once a month they 
have a praise service, which is chiefly music. Our 
Juniors are the most interesting of all. They raise 
fifteen dollars for Miss Dresser in Nanking, China, 
a member of this church, and founder of this 
society. These three societies, which meet every 
Sunday, furnish music once a month for the Y. M. 
C. A. and one service for the hospital and orphan- 
age. They also aided in the Christian Endeavor 
annex to the hospital, the inception and direction 
of which was from them.— C. E. B. 

Redwood Falls, /"linn. 

Practical training for church work is a marked 
feature in our Endeavor society. During the 
pastor's absence at General Assembly the regular 
services were conducted by the young men. Some 
of the best speakers among these young men, five 
years ago, scarcely dared to venture a sentence in a 
public place. This self-training, which is so well 
fostered by the methods of Christian Endeavor, 
weaves itself into the life of every branch of church 
work. The Bible is the Endeavorer's chief strong- 
hold. He cannot study the Bible without prayer ; 
and with these two, the life-blood of the Endea- 
vor movement added to sanctified common sense, 
he becomes a power that is felt. A deepening in- 
terest in the missionary efforts of the congregation 
has been a characteristic of this society for more 

than a year past. Vigorous work was done in 
connection with the Million Dollar Fund, and a 
hearty response was made to the call to help the 
Board of Home Missions. Most of the members 
make regular weekly contributions to missions. 
The society is as loyal to the interests of its own 
church as ever George Washington was to his 
country. — J. S. 

Avalon, Mo. 

Last November the study of the Catechism was 
introduced into the Avalon Presbyterian Sunday- 
school. On Christmas Day a class of fifteen could 
recite it perfectly, and were entitled to the Bibles 
offered by the Board of Publication. Three 
months later there were thirteen more, and still an- 
other class was heard from on Children's Day. 
The pastor writes : In making the presentation I call 
the young people before the pulpit, and in a short 
address strive to impress them with the value of 
what they have done. Then they recite whatever 
questions I ask, generally some of those closely con- 
nected with the work of redemption, and receive 
their Bibles. These Bibles are seen at once in the 
church services and Sunday-school, and are re- 
garded with much pride and affection by those who 
have gained them. 

Fremont, Neb. 

A recent revival has aroused the young people of 
this church in opposition to cards and dancing, and 
the pastor has been requested to form a class for 
Bible study.— N. 0. 

Tekamah, Neb. 

Our young people are organized into an Endeavor 
society, which carries forward its various lines of 
work with spirit and interest. They render effi- 
cient aid to the leader of the Junior society, and 
to the Sabbath-school in teaching, gathering new 
scholars and distributing religious literature in the 
community. A number of them during the year 
have been active members of the pastor's training 
class. They are watchful for opportunities of 
Christian work, and show a helpful and earnest 
spirit.— A. G. W. 

New York, N. Y. 

At the Fourteenth Street Presbyterian Junior 
society a junior ten years old plays the piano at 
all meetings. The society has given during the 
year forty-two dollars to foreign missions, and 
thirty-five dollars to home missions. Six juniors 
lately united with the church. — M. K. 

Ovid, N. Y. 

The Christian Endeavor society supplies the 
majority of attendants on Sunday evening preach- 
ing and midweek prayer services, and is very 
efficient in bringing in new-comers and leading 
them to Christ. At the last communion, for ex- 
ample, out of eight additions to the church, four 
came through the Endeavor society. By systematic 
giving the society has for five years supported a 
native preacher on the foreign mission field, con- 
tributing one hundred dollars annually. They regu- 
larly provide the programme for the monthly 
missionary prayer meeting of the church, making 
good use of The Church at Home and Abroad. 
— H. A. P. 




Syracuse, N. Y. 

The active membership of the Christian En- 
deavor society in the First Presbyterian Church is 
less than ten per cent, of the church membership. 
The average attendance at Wednesday night 
prayer meetings was last year thirty-five per cent. 
Christian Endeavor. — Golden Rule. 

Westfield, N. Y. 

The Young People's Society of Christian En- 
deavor, with nearly one hundred members, has an 
average attendance at the meetings of about sixty. 
For many years the young people have carried on 
Sunday-schools and prayer meetings in outlying dis- 
tricts with excellent results. Held weekly through- 
out the whole year, they have deepened the spiritual 
life of many and have stimulated to more active 
usefulness. In addition to this the society takes a 
deep interest in an old lady, a member of the 
church who is quite helpless and has no means of 
support. Her wants are relieved and her last days 
made happy. — J. A. S. 

Concord, N. C. 

In Scotia Seminary, where Christian teachers are 
trained for the home and the school, the evangelis- 
tic work of the students among themselves is a 
prominent feature. The season of special religious 
interest each year seems to grow up out of the 
regular work of the school. We scarcely ever omit 
a school exercise to promote it. The teachers are 
keenly alive to their responsibility, but we are al- 
ways impressed with the personal influence of the 
Christian students. A group of girls will take up 
the case of one or more still unconverted, hold 
special meetings in their interest, and invoke the 
help of a favorite teacher. A whole class came to 
the study of the president, asking him to help win 
the last wanderer in the class. We are not disap- 
pointed when we accept this soul- winning spirit as 
an indication of what our girls are to be on the 
field. Every year there come encouraging reports 
of what our graduates are doing. — D. J. S. 


[Answers may be found in the preceding pages.] 


1. What financial conditions in this country 
have affected the Board of Home Missions ? Page 

2. How many persons were received to the 
Church last year by our home missionaries? Page 

3. Name some of the other results. Page 58. 

4. Tell something about the six classes of people 
among whom home missionary work is carried on. 
Page 59. 

5. What results have followed the work of the 
women Bible readers ? Page 60. 

6. Glean interesting incidents from home mis- 
sion letters. Page 62. 

7. How does the early history of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in this country illustrate the value of 
home missionary effort ? 

8. What did the Woman's Board of Home Mis- 
sions accomplish last year ? Page 5. 

9. What has been the effect upon Mormonism 
of Statehood in Utah ? Pages 49, 59. 

10. How does the value of Alaska's annual pro- 
ducts compare with the original cost of the Terri- 
tory? Page 49. 

11. What example of enterprise in a boy of 
fourteen is reported from Asheville farm ? Page 

12. By what early influences was Samuel J. Mills 
prepared for his life work ? Pages 52, 53. 

13. What other young men were influenced by 
his missionary enthusiasm ? Page 53. 

14. Relate some of the incidents of his home 
missionary tour. Page 54. 

15. What is said of his wisdom and modesty in 
enlisting others ? Page 55. 

16. In whose behalf were his last efforts made? 
Pages 55, 56. 

17. What is said of the importance of insurance 
for church property ? Page 36. 

18. Name some of the results of Sabbath-school 
missionary work. Pages 4, 40. 

19. What work was accomplished last year by 
the College Board ? Page 42. 

20. What "new arithmetic" is applied to the 
work of the Board of Ministerial Relief? Pages 
43, 44. 

21. How many families has this Board aided the 
past year ? Page 5. 

22. What calamity has recently befallen the 
Freedmen's Board? Page 46. 

23. What plan has been devised by the Board of 
Education to encourage a missionary spirit in all 
candidates for the ministry? Pages 34, 35. 

24. What effort has recently been made to deepen 
the missionary spirit in our theological semina- 
ries? Page 3. 


25. With what key does a missionary unlock the 
mysteries of a new language? Page 18. 

26. Into how many languages and dialects has 
the Bible been translated ? Page 25. 

27. What part of this work has been accom- 
plished during this century? Page 25. 

28. Mention some of the difficulties encountered 
by a translator of the Bible? Pages 18, 19. '_ 

29. In reducing a spoken language to writing, 
what use has been made of the Roman alphabet ? 
Page 18. 

30. The methods of Bible translators are how 
illustrated by the work upon the Japanese version ? 
Page 19. 

31. How many copies of the Scriptures have 
been put in circulation since the century began ? 
Page 25. 

32. In what country besides India is the Hindu- 
stani version used ? Page 26. 

33. What is the language of the non-Moham- 
medan population of India? Page 26. 

34. What are the special difficulties connected 
with the use of the Hindi language as a medium 
for the expression of Biblical truth? Page 26. 

35. What was the output last year of the eight 




mission presses of the Presbyterian Church ? Page 

36. What is said of the Arabic type used in the 
Beirut press? Page 27. 

37. How do competent scholars regard the Ara- 
bic version of the Bible ? Page 28. 

38. To what restrictions is the Beirut press sub- 
ject? Page 28. 

39. How did the Nestorian priests express their 
joy at seeing their language in print ? Page 28. 

40. How do the native workmen in the Shang- 
hai press begin the work of each day ? Page 29. 

41. Describe a peculiar method of propagating 
the printed gospel in Mexico. Page 30. 

42. How has the Presbyterian Mission Press at 
Shanghai cooperated with other societies? Page 

43. How was Judson's manuscript of the Bur- 
mese Bible preserved ? Page 66. 

44. In what estimation is Forman Christian 
College held in India? Page 31. 

45. What are the evidences of increasing vitality 
in the Mohammedan world ? Page 16. 

46. What fact is announced as the result of ex- 
plorations in Laos? Page 17. 

47. How do the native boys at Elatte, West 
Africa, earn the necessities of their new life? 
Page 17. 

48. What is said of the recent revivals at Oroo- 
miah ? Page 17. 

49. What incident illustrates the possibilities of 
Christian Chinese women? Page 3. 


V. F. P. 

1. In how many languages do our missionaries 
teach and preach ? 

2. Describe the Chinese language. 

3. Describe the Arabic language. 

4. How many languages in India ? 

5. Describe the Chinese literature. 

6. Why has it been difficult to create a Christian 
literature in China, India, Siam or Korea? 

7. Which of our mission lands have the whole 

8. How many mission presses have we, and locate 

9. How many pages did they print last year ? 

10. What is the cost of their support to our mis- 
sion Board at home ? 

11. Which presses are self-supporting? 

12. Why are presses necessary ? 

13. What do our presses print besides Bibles and 
Testaments ? 

14. Tell of some of the weekly or monthly papers 
or magazines issued by our presses. 

15. Describe some of the special achievements 
in fine printing effected by our mission presses. 

16. How many workmen are employed at our 
Beirut press? 

17. How many are employed at Shanghai, and 
what do they do before going to work each day ? 

18. When was our first press established and 
where ? 

19. What is the most perfect translation of the 
Bible, when and by whom translated, and how 
many does it reach ? 

20. Give some incidents in Bible translation. 



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Ministerial Necrology. 

4*- We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible in the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 

Bartholomew, Thomas D. — Born at Crawfords 
ville, Ind., 1839 ; graduated from Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1869 ; ordained by the 
Presbytery of Huron, Ohio, 1870 ; pastor of 
Presbyterian Church, Olena, Ohio, 1870-78 ; 
Corrunna, Mich., 1880-85 ; Presbyterian 
Mission, Detroit, Mich., 1885-87 ; Concord, 
Mich., 1887-90; Lawrenceburg, Ind., 1890- 
92 ; Corrunna, Mich., 1892-94. Died March 
12, 1897, at Highland, Mich. 

Married, October 28, 1874, Mrs. Harriet 
M. Lyman, who, with four children, survives 

Burr, Alexander. — Born at Aberdeen, Scot- 
land, May 14, 1830 ; graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, taking the degree of M. A. ; 
took a four years' course at the University of 
Glasgow, and his theological training at the 
United Presbyterian Divinity Hall in Edin- 
burgh ; ordained by the Presbytery of Glas- 
gow (United Presbyterian), May, 1865; pre- 
vious to this he was for seven years a city 
missionary in Glasgow ; pastor of Petrodie 
Church, Perthshire, 1868-1872 ; foreign mis- 
sionary at Trinidad, 1872-1874; home mis- 
sionary in Canada, 1874-1883; stated supply, 
Kensington and Park River, N. D., 1883- 
1884; stated supply, Bottineau, N. D, 1885, 
where he resided until his death. Died May 
5, 1897. 

Married, November 11, 1868, Miss Mary 
McLachlan, in Belfast, Ireland. She sur- 
vives him with five children. 

Crawford, John W. — Born in Lawrence county, 
Ind., November 20, 1836 ; graduated from 
Hanover College, 1860, and Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1863 ; ordained by the 
Piesbytery of Dubuque, October 8, 1863 ; 
stated supply, Franklinville, la., 1862, and 
pastor 1863-69 ; pastor, Vinton, la., 1869-72 ; 
pastor, Woodhull, 1872-80 ; stated supply, 
Third Church, Topeka and Bethel, 1880-83 ; 
stated supply, Wamego, Kans., 1883-88 ; 
stated supply, Hopkinton, Ky., 1888-90 ; 
Ellsworth, Kans., 1890-94; stated supply and 
Professor of Greek, Trenton, Mo., 1894-96. 
Died at Monett, Mo., May 13, 1897. 

Married, April 3, 1862, Miss Emma J. 
Vannuys, who survives him, with five of their 
seven children. 

Falconer, William C, D.D. — Born at Wells- 
ville, Ohio, December 13, 1836 ; graduated 
from Washington College, 1861, and Western 
Theological Seminary, 1864 ; ordained by the 
Presbytery of New Lisbon, October 11, 1865 ; 
stated supply of Presbyterian Church, East 
Palestine, O., 1866; pastor at Sharon, Pa., 
1867-70; Sharpsburg, Pa., 1870-72; presi- 
dent of Highland University, Kans., 1874-76; 

pastor of North Presbyterian Church, St. 
Louis, 1876-80 ; First Church, Springfield, O., 
1880-90. Died at Canandaigua, N. Y., April 
23, 1897. 

Married, January 31, 1867, Miss Bessie W. 
Dickson, daughter of the late Rev. Robert 
Dickson, D. D , who, with two children, sur- 
vives him. 

Randolph, J. Davidson.— Born near Carlisle, 
Pa., May 16, 1831 ; graduated from Princeton 
College, 1858, and Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary, 1861 ; ordained by the Presbytery of 
Raritan, May 16, 1864 ; pastor, Frenchtown, 
N. J., 1864-82; part of the time Kingwood 
Church was connected with the Frenchtown 
Church ; was dismissed by the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick to West Jersey Presbytery, to 
the church of Pittsgrove, 1882 ; he served 
the Pittsgrove Church two years, and supplied 
the church at South Amboy six months ; was 
pastor of Atglen Church from December, 1887, 
to May, 1897, nine and a half years ; Chris- 
tiana Church, since 1891, was connected with 
Atglen under his pastoral charge. Died May 
23, 1897. 

Married, November 2, 1865, Miss Sarah M. 
Rutherford, of Harrisburg, who survives him, 
with one daughter, wife of Rev. Wm. S. 
Voorhies, and one son, Mervyn P. Randolph, 
of Pittsburgh. 

Richardson, Willard. — Born at Harford, Pa., 
1815 ; graduated from Hamilton College, 1837, 
and Union Theological Seminary, 1840 ; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Montrose, 1846 ; 
principal of Academy at Bethany, Pa., 1846- 
51 ; pastor at Conklin, N. Y., 1851-63 ; chap 
lain Eighty-ninth New York Volunteers, 
1863-65 ; home missionary and principal 
Fairfield Normal Institute, 1865-69 ; Superin- 
tendent of Schools, Susquehanna county, Pa., 
1876-78. Died at Houston, Del., March 19, 

Married, May 25, 1840, Miss Harriet A. 
Tyler, Honesdale, Pa. 

Vance, Joseph. — Born in Mendhamp township, 
N. J., January 25, 1806; graduated from 
Williams College, 1832 ; studied theology 
privately with Rev. Wm. Hoover, Morristown, 
N. J.; ordained by Morris and Orange Pres- 
bytery, May 6, 1836; stated supply at Boon ton, 
N. J., 1834-38 ; Sussex, N. J., 1838-39 ; South 
Orange, N. J., 1839-44; field missionary in 
Central Pennsylvania, 1844-45, and in North- 
western Pennsylvania, 1845-46 ; settled over 
Fairview, Girard and McKean Churches, 
Erie county, Pa., 1846-48 : Girard alone, 
1848-54 ; Belle Valley, Pa., 1854-71 ; super- 
intendent of Erie cemetery, Pa., 1871-89 ; re- 
tired, 1889-97. Died at Erie, Pa., April 26, 

Married, May 6, 1834, Miss Marietta King, 
of Bloomfield, N. J., who died February 23, 
1843. Married March 13, 1844, Miss Hannah 
Bell, of South Orange, N. J., who survives 
him, with her five children (among them Rev. 
E. D. Vance, of Erie, Pa.), and one child,]of 
his first wife. 




Wycoff, Samuel. — Born in Crawford county, 
Pa., December 11, 1829 ; graduated from 
Allegheny College, 1858, and Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary, 1861 ; ordained by the Presby- 
tery of Meadville, September 11, 1861 ; stated 
supply, Cherry Tree and Kerr's Hill, Pa., 
1861; Titusville, Pa., 1862; pastor, Peoria, 

111., 1863-65 ; Knoxville, 111., 1865-71 ; pas- 
tor-elect, Peru, Ind., 1871-75; pastor-elect, 
Portage, Wis., 1875-79 ; stated supply, Lake 
City, Minn., 1879-82; stated supply, Minne- 
apolis, Minn., 1882-84; La Crosse, Wis., 
1884-85. Died at La Crosse, Wis., April 24, 
1897. His wife survives him. 


HOME MISSIONS, May, 1896 and 1897. 


* Woman's 
Ex. Com. 


Individuals, Etc. 



86,026 34 
7,225 03 

89,486 75 
f4,534 47 

81,739 72 
2,646 52 

83,559 19 
2,083 15 

$20,812 00 
16.489 17 


81,198 69 

84,952 28 

8906 80 

81,476 04 

$4,322 83 

Compaeative Statement of Receipts for Two Months Ending May 31, 1896-1897 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Individuals, Etc 



$22,824 19 
22,631 81 

$21,149 81 
13,973 98 

$4,458 89 
7,382 91 

$6,268 79 
4,614 52 

$54,701 68 
48,603 22 


$192 38 

$7,175 83 

$2,924 02 

$1,654 27 

86,098 46 

* Under these headings are included the gifts of Sabbath-schools and Young People's Societies. 

t Includes the receipts of the Literature Department (sale of leaflets) which are not included in 1896 figures. 


May, 1896 and 1897. 


Y. P. S. C E. 


W. E. Com. 





82,072 20 
1,312 72 

$21 25 
8 89 

$312 07 
110 22 

8598 62 
55S 21 

$1,958 15 
99 80 

85,525 00 
427 12 

810,487 29 
2,516 96 


8759 48 

$12 36 

$201 85 

$40 41 

81,858 35 

$5,097 88 

87,970 33 

Total Receipts t 

o June 1, 181 

16 and 1897. 


Y. P. S. C. E. Sab. -schools. 

W. E. Com. 





$4,933 64 
4,072 20 

879 60 
52 14 

8522 95 
360 54 

$1,331 58 
885 44 

83,519 02 
601 31 

85,525 00 
427 12 

815,911 79 
6,398 75 


$861 44 

827 46 

$162 41 

$446 14 

$2,917 71 

85,097 88 

$9,513 04 





Women's Boards , 
Sabbath-schools .. 
Y. P. S. ('. E. ..., 


.Miscellaneous ... 

Tins Year. Last Year. Increase. 


Total '. ! $1,369,343 










May, 1897. 

Contributions from Churches $2,356 61 

" " Sabbath-schools.... 440 42 
" " Individuals 70 56 

Previously acknowledged 

$2,867 59 
3,630 58 

$6,498 17 


May, 1897. 

General Fund. 

Contributions $2,050 88 

Miscellaneous 1,923 77 

,974 65 

Loan Fund. 

Amount collected on loans 6,321 78 

Manse Fund. 

Amount collected on loans. . . . $1,098 50 

Miscellaneous 12 37 

1,110 87 

$11,407 30 

Genekal Fund Contributions. 

April 11-May 31, 1897 $5,000 23 

April 11-May 31, 1896 5,092 22 


$91 99 

General Fund Appropriations to date. .$16,775 00 
Net receipts available to meet same. ... 6,617 83 

Deficiency $10,157 17 

For same period last year 81,206 89 


May, 1897. 

Churches $2,955 69 

Individuals 205 60 

Interest 2,925 30 

Interest on bank deposits 189 15 

Legacies 1,325 00 

$7,600 74 

Total for Current Fund since April, 

1897 $11,191,35 

For same period last year 14,484,20 

May, 1897. 

Churches, Sabbath-schools and C. E. So- 
cieties $1,055 07 

Miscellaneous sources 9 09 

Legacy 290 00 

Amounts refunded 25 00 

Income from investments 216 15 

Total $1,595 31 

Previously acknowledged 1,250 51 

Total since April 15, 1897 $2,845 82 


1334 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

JOHN S. MACINTOSH, D.D., Chairman, 
Charles A. Dickey, D.D, John H. Dey, Esq., Secretary, Charles L. Thompson, D D 

Warner Van Norden, Esq., Stealy B. Rossiter, D.D., Frank F. Ellinwood, D.D., 
Hon. Robert N. Willson, Henry T. McEwen, D.D., William C. Roberts, D.D. 

Stephen W. Dana, D.D., 


D. J. McMillan, D.D., 
Arthur J. Brown, D.D., 
Edward B Hodge, D.D., 
Elijah R. Craven, D.D., 

Erskine N. White, D.D., 
Benj. L. Agnew, D.D., 
Edward P. Cowan, D.D., 
Edward C. Ray, D.D. 

[Each of (hose Editorial Correspondents is appointed by the Board of which he is a Secretary, and is responsible 
for what is found in the pages representing the work of that Board. .See list of Officers and Agencies of the General 
Assembly on the last two pages of each number.] 


Current Events anil the Kingdom, . . 81 

Editorial Notes, ■. .82 

Our New Cover, 83 

Let Us Have Peace 85 

Womanhood in Eloquence .... 86 
Ministerial Tenderness, Francis A. Horton, 

D.D, 89 

of the New West— Student Life, . . 92 

MINISTERIAL RELIEF.— Official Extract 
from the Minutes of the General Assem- 
bly—Pressing Needs of the Board, . . 95 

CHURCH ERECTION.— The Assembly and 
the Board, 98 

EDUCATION. —President Angell — Important 
Action of the Board, 100 

FREEDMEN.— Barber Memorial Seminary to 
be Rebuilt -Affiliated Schools, . . . 103 

WORK. — Sabbath-school Missions in 
Cities— Great Gain— Winning Souls— A 
Tear's Retrospect 100 

FORELGN MISSIONS— Notes-Fresh Facts 109 
Semi-Centennial of the Siam Mission, Rev. 
J. A Eakin, Ill 

Korea, 114 

Concert of Prayer — Commercial Influence of 
Foreign Missions, Howard Agnew John- 
ston, D.D., 116 

The Reflex Influence of Missions, George T. 

Purves, D.D., 118 

The Reflex Influence of Missions, Bishop 
Chas. H. Fowler, D.D., . . . .120 

Recent Testimonies, 123 

Letters — Persia, Rev. F. J. Goan — China, Rev. 
F. H. Cludfant— Korea, Rev. W. M. 
Baird—Japni), Rev. J. B. Ayres, . . 123 

HOME MISSIONS —Notes, .... 127 
Rev and Mrs. II. II. Spalding, Rev. G. L. 

Deffenbaugh, 119 

Concert of Prayer, Foreigners, . . 131 

Letters— Appointments, 137 

DEAVOR— Notes— Home Mission Priva- 
tions — The Sunday-school Committee, 
Jenks B. Robinson — The Nearest Cross, 
Ervilla Goodrich Tuttle—Ltfe in Zululand 
-Presbyterian Endeavorers— With the 
Magazines— Book Notices — Questions, 141-152 

Ministerial Necrology 152 

Summary of Receipts, .... 153, 154 
Officers and Agencies, . . . 155, 156 

Gen. Benjamin Harrison, 

Commissioner to the General Assembly from the Presbytery of Indianapolis. 

" The Presbyterian Church of the United States should now start forward on a great career for missions. 
The Church all aglow with missionary spirit should be a growing Church. When we are giving our- 
selves to fresco, organs and cushioned pews, the taste may be educated, but the heart is not set on fire. A 
spirit of missions alone will fill the Church with enthusiasm and growing power, attractive beauty that 
will attract large accessions of useful members." 



August, 1807. 


Westminster College, Cambridge. — 

English Presbyterians will remember May 
25, 1897, as a red-letter day in their his- 
tory. On that day was laid the cornerstone 
of a new building for the theological col- 
lege, which, through the liberality of two 
excellent women, is to be removed from 
London to Cambridge. Though the college 
is not to become an integral part of the 
university, it will enable Presbyterian grad- 
uates to complete, on the classic soil of 
Cambridge, their preparation for the min- 

Southern Student Conference.— To 

deepen the spiritual life of college men, to 
train them for leadership in organized Chris- 
tian work among their fellow-students, and 
to open up the possibilities for Christian 
service which await them after graduation, 
was the purpose of the Southern Student 
Conference held at Knoxville, Tenn., dur- 
ing the last week of June. One hundred 
and forty students from sixty-one institu- 
tions were in attendance. Instruction was 
given as to the best methods of deepening 
the interest in missions among students and 
as to the principles that should guide one 
in the choice of his life work. The influ- 
ence of the conference was helpful, and 
gives promise of a deeper religious work in 
the colleges in which the delegates will be 
leaders during the coming year. 

^ Korean Liberality — The editor of the 
Seoul Independent relates this incident 
which he says indicates what Christianity 
can accomplish in the minds of uncultured, 
ignorant and uncharitable people : A little 
native Presbyterian church of about one 
hundred members in Janguen district of 
Whanghai province, not under the immedi- 

ate charge of a foreign missionary, contrib- 
uted sixty dollars towards the Indian famine 
fund called for by the Independent and the 
Christian News. Some of the women mem- 
bers who did not have money gave their 
silver hair-pins and rings which were worth 
altogether over twenty dollars; making the 
total contribution from that church more 
than eighty dollars. Not a cent of contri- 
bution towards this fund was received from 
other Koreans, who are far more able to 
give; but these poor country people, who 
probably earn a dollar for a month's hard 
work, willingly gave their earnings for the 
relief of distressed people in a far-away land 
which they never saw and probably never 
will see. The point made by the editor is 
that the difference of sentiment between 
the native Christians and other Koreans has 
been brought about by the influence of 
Christianity, which makes them feel the 
obligation which each man owes his fellow- 
creatures, wherever they may be. 

Discovery of North America On 

June 24, 1897. anniversaries were held in 
several places in New England and Canada, 
commemorative of the discovery of the North 
American continent, by John Cabot, in 
1497. The discoverer was a citizen of 
Venice, who secured from Henry VII the 
right to sail under the English flag, on a 
voyage of exploration in the Western ocean. 
He sailed from Bristol, Eng., and on the 
date above named, sighted land, which is 
believed to have been Cape Bona Vista, 
Newfoundland. It is also claimed that he 
visited in the same year the coast of what 
is now Nova Scotia. In the following 
year, 1498, John Cabot with his son Sebas- 
tian, made a second voyage to the West 





and coasted along the Atlantic coast of the 
American continent from Nova Scotia to 
Cape Hatteras. The extent of this voyage 
is noted on the map of Juan De La Cosa, 
the pilot of Columbus, published in the 
year 1500. Upon it the North American 
coast is dotted with English flags. This 
voyage of Cabot gave England the right of 
occupancy of the Atlantic coast of the 
North American continent, and determined 
what the form of civilization would be 
which should occupy the newly discovered 
territories. God is in history, and his hand 
it was that guided John Cabot and an Eng- 
lish crew across the trackless ocean, the 
first bearer to American coasts of that Eng- 
lish speech and civilization which are now 
dominant over the continent. 

Li Hung Chang and the Bible. — Dr. 

Coltman, of Peking, writing under date of 
May 15, 1897, relates the following very 
remarkable interview with that eminent 
Chinese statesman, Li Hung Chang: 

"At a recent visit I made to His 
Excellency Viceroy Li Hung Chang, I 
found him reading a beautiful Russia- 
leather bound copy of the New Testament, 
that had just been sent him by Rev. George 
Owen, of the London Mission. The type 
and paper were of the same kind as that 
presented to the Empress Dowager on her 
jubilee celebration a few years ago. The 
old gentleman was so intent on his reading 
that he did not notice me for several min- 
utes, and as I could see the title of the 
book, I put up a silent but earnest prayer 
that God might send him some message in 
his reading that would appeal to his heart. 

In a little while he raised his eyes, and 
looking attentively at me, said, ' Dr. Colt- 
man,' or, as he addresses me in Chinese, 
' Man Tai Fu, do you believe this book ?' 
' Your Excellency,' I replied, ' if I did not 
believe that book I should not have the 
honor of being your physician. I thor- 
oughly believe it. ' ' Are you sure it is not 
all rumor and report ?' he again asked. 
' Very sure,' I replied. ' How do you 
know ?' he continued. ' By a test given in 
the book itself. Does it not say in the 
book that a bad tree cannot bring forth 
good fruit, nor a good tree bad fruit ? 
Your Excellency has admitted to me previ- 
ously, that the condition of the people in 
Western lands far surpasses anything in the 
East, and I can assure you that the happi- 
ness and prosperity of the various nations 
you have recently visited is in direct pro- 
portion to the nearness with which they live 
to the precepts taught in that Book, Would 
that your Excellency also believed it.' 
Why, 'I believe that you would like me to 
turn Christian,' he said, in a half-joking, 
half-earnest tone. ' Not only you,' I re- 
plied, ' but your young emperor and all his 
people.' ' We have Confucius, ' he replied, 
' and you have your Jesus; are they not 
much the same ?' ' By their fruits ye shall 
know them,' I replied. Then, before we 
could carry on the conversation further, 
important dispatches were brought in, and 
the viceroy had to give them his attention ; 
but as a servant took the book from his 
hands to place it in his library, he said, 
' Don't carry it to the library; take it to 
my bedroom table. I wish to look at it 
again.' " 

One who signs himself " A Poor Boy " 
writes: " Here is the dollar. Kindly send 
The Church at Home and Abroad 
for one year to somebody who has the mis- 
fortune not to get it now." 

As a result of the action of the presby- 
teries, Moderator Jackson announced the 
new constitutional rule, that candidates for 
licensure shall be examined in the English 
Bible, and shall be required to exhibit a 
good knowledge of its contents. This is 
now a law of the Church. 

The jmstor of the University Place Pres- 
byterian Church, New York, relates that 
about three years ago a gentleman came 
forward at the close of the morning service 
and said : " I am a pilgrim and a stranger. 
I arrived this morning by the steamer from 
Havre, and have been sitting in the corner 
of the gallery yonder, where I heard the 
last sermon before my conversion, and the 
first sermon after my conversion, both on 
the same day." It was Theodore Monod, 
the leading spirit and best - known pas- 
tor in the Reformed Church of France to- 




Our frontispiece is the pleasant face 
of Ex-president Harrison, appearing now 
as a modest American citizen, and a faithful 
elder in the Presbyterian Church. Sent by 
his presbytery as a commissioner to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, he took part pleasantly and 
usefully in its proceedings, not only as a 
member of an important committee on the 
Presbyterian Building in New York, but 
in speaking pleasant, brotherly and wise 
words, some of which we have placed below 
his portrait. 

Other Portraits in this number will 
not fail to interest our readers. President 
Angel! (p. 100) is on his way to Constanti- 
nople, commissioned by the government of 
his country to conduct its negotiations with 
the government of Turkey. His fellow- 
citizens, as well as their President, have 
confidence in his Christian wisdom, patriot- 
ism and philanthropy. 

The faces of the young missionaries, Marl - 
ing and Good aud Mrs. Laffin, who gave 
their lives to Africa, appear at the same 
opening (pp. 110, 111) with that of Dr. 
Mattoon, in which the venerableness of 
white beard and hair do not seem inconsist- 
ent with the youthful joy and vigor tbat 
shine from his face. Strength and vener- 
ableness unite again on p. 112, in the face 
of Dr. House. 

Other Pictures illustrate and beautify 
other pages. A Korean Rice Shop, p. 
113 J Korean Mother and Children, Korean 
Village, Korean Noblemen in Court Dress, 
pp. 114, 115. The Amanzimtote Church 
and the Winona Auditorium appear in the 
Christian Endeavor pages. 

We are quite sure that if these pictures 
attract the eyes of young or old to the 
pages which they illustrate, they will find 
the printed matter on those pages well 
worthy of attentive perusal. 

Business. — It would be well to hold this 
strong word more closely than we do to its 
true meaning, including all things with 
which earnest men and women busy them- 
selves. This would be a gain to our speech, 
our literature and our thought. There is 
an unhappy suggestion in distinguishing 
" professional " men and " business" 
men — a seeming hint that lawyers and doc- 
tors and teachers and ministers are not busy 
as well as merchants. There is not only a 
verbal but a practical gain in understanding 
that in the pulpit, in the Sabba th- school 
and in the church, in preaching and 
evangelizing and all practical Christianity, 
we ' ' mean business. ' ' Let us keep the 
diligence and earnestness which that strong 
word ex presses. 


We have received pleasant commendation 
of the change in our cover which was pre- 
sented on our last number. Our readers 
may desire some explanation of the seals 
which are its principal feature. On informa- 
tion obtained from Dr. McCook, who is the 
author of the original designs, except that 
of the Board of Publication and S. -S. 
Work, we have prepared the following ex- 

In the upper right-hand corner of the 
page is the seal of the General Assembly. 
In form it is substantially that of the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines, except that on 
the left-hand page of the open Bible is dis- 
played the well-known ancient seal of the 
General Assembly's Board of Trustees. This 
is a serpent uplifted upon a cross in the midst 
of a wilderness, in reference to our Lord's 

type of his atonement as found in John 3 : 14. 
Eurther, only half of the Westminster wreath 
of palm branches is used, the lower half 
being replaced by a demi-wreath of olive 
and oak, emblems of peace and endurance. 

The latter are the plant emblems used on 
the seal of Geneva and also that of the 
United States Senate. The motto on the 
left-hand page above the cross is " Christus 
exaltatus Salvator " — " The Uplifted 
Christ, our Saviour. ' ' 

The seal of the Board of Home Missions 
occupies the upper left-hand corner. The 
central design is the straight trumpet of 
the ancient Jewish priests, a type of the 
heralds of the gospel. Suspended to the 
trumpet is a gonfalon, or banner, upon 
which is an outlined map of the United 
States. A ribbon issues from the ends of 




the trumpet and surrounds the gonfalon, on 
which is the Scripture text, " Unto all 
the inhabitants thereof" (Lev. 25 : 10). 
Above the trumpet is a dove which bears in 
its beak an olive branch, and spreads its 
wings above an open Gospel. The symbol- 
ism is readily intepreted to imply that the 
mission of our Home Board is to bring the 
gospel of peace through the grace of the 
Holy Spirit, by means of the heralds of 
truth to all the inhabitants of the United 

The seal of Foreign Missions comes next. 
The design is composed from figures used on 
the old certificates of life-membership. Iq 
the centre is a globe, partly obscured by 
clouds, and represented as revolving towards 
a sun placed in the upper dexter part of the 
field. In the base is a radiant printing 
press, beneath which, in the exergue, is a 
wreath composed of palm with dates, and 
pine with cones. These plant emblems 
represent the world-wide field of the Board, 
which extends from " Greenland's icy 
mountains" and the northern regions 
where the pine has its home, to " Afric's 
sunny fountains" where the date palm 
flourishes. The globe represents the same 
fact, with the further truth that the clouds 
and shadows of superstition and error are 
illumined and dispersed as the dark places 
of the earth are brought into the light of 
Christ. The Latin motto on the escroll, 
" E luce in tenebris; a tenebris ad lucem " 
is translated: " Out of the light into the 
darkness; from the darkness to the light." 

The thought is that a Christ-illumined 
Church must bring light to heathendom, 
which in turn is enlightened in the knowl- 
edge of Christ. 

The next seal in order is that of the 
Board of Ministerial Education. The 
design is a pulpit recess or architectural 
tabernacle within which, upon a Bible and 
hymn book laid on a pulpit stands a burning 
candle. The motto, " Aliis in serviendo 
consumor " — "I am consumed in serving 
others," is the verbal interpretation of the 
burning candle. Surrouuding this illu- 
mined tabernacle are seven stars, types of 
the messengers or ' ' angels ' ' of the 
churches (Rev. 1 : 20). The olive wreath 
on the base of the field symbolizes peace 
and the gospel. The above figures strik- 
ingly represent the office of all who have 
devoted themselves to the Christian minis- 

try. The seal, as adopted by the Board, 
was arranged from the old certificate of 
membership, which has long been out of use. 

The Board of Church Erection comes 
next. The central design is a church edi- 
fice, on either side of whose spire are placed 
•'the seven stars" representing the mes- 
sengers of the churches, in two groups — 
on one side of the spire three, the number 
of God and heaven, and on the other side 
four, the numerical symbol of the earth. 
The shield is parted laterally by an embat- 
tled line (in heraldry " parted per pale, 
embattled"), and on the base are placed 
a shepherd's crook, a scroll and an ancient 
lamp, emblems of the ministerial office, as 
bishops of the flock, expounders of the 
word, and illuminators of the understand- 
ing. This part refers to the Board's 
" Manse Fund." The shield is supported 
on either side by leaves of palm, and the 
motto is, "iEdificate Sancturarium Domino 
Deo" ("Build ye a sanctuary for the 
Lord God"), the vulgate Latin of 1 
Chron. 22:19. 

In the lower left-hand corner is the seal 
of the Presbyterian Board of Relief for 
Disabled Ministers and the Widows and 
Orphans of Deceased Ministers. The cen- 
tre of the field is occupied by two figures, 
one that of an aged Levite (represented as 
a harvester) whose sickle lies at his feet. 
He turns his face and reaches out his arm 
regretfully to the harvest field that stretches 
towards the horizon from an open swath 
and within which are several sheaves of 
gathered grain, and a stack of standing 
sheaves. The venerable laborer turns a 
look of regret and farewell towards the 
ungathered harvest, as though unwilling 
to leave the Master's work. At his side, 
in the foreground, is a stalwart young har- 
vester. He holds the aged father by one 
hand, as though to draw him and lead him 
away from the field wherein he no longer 
can work. With the other hand he points 
to an embowered cottage that lies in the 
distance along a path. Above the door is 
the word " Rest;" at the side is a cornu- 
copia. The young Levite seems thus to be 
saying: " Father, the time for labor is 
ended. Come, enjoy the honorable ' rest ' 
and the well-earned ' plenty ' which your 
brethren and the Church will prepare for 
you. ' ' In the sky above the aged harvester's 
head hangs a radiant crown, a token of the 




heavenly reward that awaits him. The 
motto, " Take heed that ye forsake not the 
Levite," is from Deut. 12 : 19. 

Next is the seal of the Board of Missions 
for Freedmen. The " chief" (in azure), 
bears an open Bible (in gold) flanked 
on either side by books representing secular 
learning (in silver). Beneath the chief 
in the honor point of the shield is a radi- 
ant sun (gold). In the base is a gilt 
cage with open doors, from which a 
bird rises in flight toward the sun. The 
floral supporters of the shield are, on the 
dexter side, a wreath of corn ; on the sinis- 
ter, a wreath of cotton. For the crest a 
black hand rises from a roll of folded 
manuscript, holding aloft a lighted torch. 
The motto is "Ex cavea ad Sol em " — 
' ' From the cage to the Sun. ' ' This motto, 
with its symbolism, represents the idea of 
the Freedmen escaping (like a delivered 
bird) from bondage, and rising toward a 
higher and holier life, illumined by the Sun 
of righteousness and the Holy Bible, and 
informed by secular learning. The black 
hand and the uplifted torch show that the 
religious and secular light obtained by the 
Freedmen is diffused by them in turn among 
their fellows. 

The last seal is that of the Board of Aid 
for Colleges and Academies. On the central 
field is displayed a blue shield, which bears 

an orange (or terra cotta) colored Y or pall, 
the symbol of Chicago. Over all is bla- 
zoned an open Bible, above and behind 
which are placed a row of seven books 
representing secular knowledge, the whole 
radiating streams of light. On a red chief 
appear emblems of the heavenly bodies, 
the moon, Saturn and Jupiter with her 
satellites. For crest an open scroll upon 
which is an ancient lamp, emblems of light 
and learning. The floral supporters are 
blossoms and leaves of columbine. The 
motto is "Per Solem solum lucent" — 
" they shine by the Sun alone." The de- 
sign and motto interpret the ruling principle 
of the Board that secular learning receives 
its true ilumination from the Holy Bible. 
This is indicated by the grouping of the 
books in the centre of the shield, and also 
by the planetary bodies upon the chief. As 
the seal was adopted during the Columbian 
year, when the great Exposition was being 
held in Chicago, the home of the Board of 
Aid, the Chicago Y-shaped emblem, and the 
columbine flower were adopted in recogni- 
tion of this fact. 

At the foot of the open rectangular space 
in which are printed the names of editors 
etc., is the design on the seal of the Board 
of Publication and Sabbath-school Work. 
It is an open, radiant Bible, upon a pulpit 
cushion bearing the motto ' ' Sit Lux. ' ' 


These potent monosyllables won a con- 
spicuous and permanent place in our national 
history and literature, when our foremost 
warrior uttered them after his grand series 
of victories that saved our national union. 
That sincere utterance following the mag- 
nanimous terms of surrender proffered by 
him to the armies which he conquered 
made them friends. 

Did ever another successful warrior live 
for years equally loved, and die equally 
mourned, by those whom he led to victory 
and those whom he conquered ? Precious, 
potent, golden words! " Let us have peace." 

These same precious and potent words 
are given us in the Revised Version of the 
New Testament, in Rom. 5:1. "Being 
justified by faith, let us have peace with 
God." This is an interesting correction of 
the former reading, which was we have 

peace, instead of let us have peace. It is a 
correction, not of the translation, but of the 
reading from which the translation was 
made. Of the Greek manuscripts some had 
the Greek word §%ofiev and some egm/iev. 
Any reader can see that the two words differ 
only in the third letter, which in one is o 
and iu the other to. These in the Greek 
alphabet are named omikron (that is, 
little o) and omega (i. e. great <>). But in 
the Greek this makes all the difference be- 
tween we have peace, and let as have peace. 

Prof. Shedd, iu his commentary on 
Romans, published in 1879, in expounding 
Rom. 5:1, wrote: " We retain this read- 
ing (eyo/tex) upon dogmatic grounds, with 
the majority of commentators, although the 
subjunctive (ejrtujttey) is by far the most 
strongly supported. The writer [of the 
epistle] now mentions an actual and neces- 




sary effect of justification, namely, peace 
with God. This requires the indicative. 
The subjunctive mode, in the hortatory 
signification certainly, is entirely out of 
place here. The connection between God's 
act of justification and paace of conscience 
is that of cause and effect, and it would be 
illogical in the highest degree to exhort a 
person who has experienced the operation 
of the cause, to labor that the effect may 
follow. Given the cause ; the effect follows 
of course." 

A warm friend and admirer of Dr. 
Shedd, who read his commentary and first 
learned from it that there were two read- 
ings in the Greek manuscripts, was not satis- 
fied with Dr. Shedd' s statement and reason- 
ing, and wrote to him respectfully objecting 
to letting such a question be decided ' ' upon 
dogmatic grounds," and insisting that 
dogma should be derived from the text, not 
the text determined by dogma. He ob- 
jected to Dr. Shedd' s reasoning, admitting, 
of course, that when the sinner does exer- 
cise fa ith in Christ, and is therefore justified, 
peace is in fact established between him 
and God ; but of this the penitent soul is 
not always instantly assured, so as to expe- 
rience the sweetness of " peace of con- 
science." Many a soul, at that stage, needs 
a pastor's or teacher's assurance that God 
has no further controversy with him — needs 
the exhortation to accept the offered peace 
— to take it — to have it — to hold it and 
enjoy it. Just this is Paul's exhortation to 
his fellow-believers: " Let us hare peace." 
To the letter thus written to Dr. Shedd, he 
replied as follows: " I am much obliged to 
you for your criticism upon e%wfiev in Rom. 
5, : 1. That mode of explanation did not 
occur to me; and yet it is strange that it 
did not, since it is the most literal of all the 
meanings of the subjunctive mode. I 
wanted very much to retain e%a>[isv because 

in fixing the text I like to follow the uncials.* 
I agree heartily with you that the doctrine 
must never decide the matter, unless the 
particular doctrine is so evidently contrary 
to the general doctrine of the Scriptures 
that it must be rejected. Scripture must 
not contradict Scripture." 

It was quite like that great man to accept 
so sweetly a suggestion from one greatly 
inferior to him in learning. It was like a 
great optician, thankfully acceptiug from a 
child the lamp which he happens to need 
in a dark place. 

Our readers will recall the following anec- 
dote of Dr. Shedd' s early youth, in " The 
Remiuiscences of William A. Booth," in 
our June number, p. 456: " During the 
religious services of 1834 or 1835, among 
the inquirers was a young man named 
Shedd. He remained in a state of deep 
anxiety for a period of two or three weeks. 
I had conversed with him a number of 
times; so had Mr. Smith [the pastor] and 
the other elders. One evening I went to 
him in an inquiry meeting and found that 
he was still in doubt. I gave him the text, 
" Therefore being justified by faith we have 
peace with God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ" (Rom. 5:1). I passed on to an- 
other person with whom I wished to con- 
verse. The text made an impression upon 
him, and that night, after he left the 
church, he expressed a hope." 

It seems probable that he had already 
really accepted Christ, and entrusted his 
soul to him, and only needed the encourage- 
ment of that wise winner of souls with his 
gentle, steady voice and eye, to realize his 
privilege. Without then knowing the 
true reading of that text, he obeyed its sweet 
exhortation : '' Let us have peace." 

* This is a technical term applied to a class of 
manuscripts which Dr. Shedd, with other scholars, 
regarded as the most reliable. 


A venerable woman, whose husband was 
the pastor of a church in Massachusetts, 
once said to me : " I have sometimes sug- 
gested to my husband that his sermons 
would be more effective if they had in them 
more of those little touches of nature which 
a woman is more apt to put in than a 
man." Her telling me that convinced me 

that in that respect, as doubtless in many 
others, she was a help meet for the wise 
and good man with whom she lived in 
happy wedlock more than sixty years. 

That there are qualities and powers of 
our human nature which are distinctively 
masculine, and other powers and qualities 
which are as distinctively feminine, no man 




and no woman can doubt. Quite as evi- 
dent is it that powers and qualities which 
belong to both men and women are found 
in both in different proportions or with cer- 
tain modifications which distinguish them 
from each other. The strongest, most 
robust, most virile manhood loses nothing 
of manliness by being suffused with 
womanly grace and penetrated with the 
womanly spirit. On the contrary, all its 
power for good is thereby enhanced. That 
Massachusetts pastor's wife knew, with 
right womanly intuition, that this is espe- 
cially true of that mode of manhood which 
we call eloquence — that combination and 
exercise of manly powers and qualities 
which results in effective speech. In her 
time, and probably in her own mind, it 
was assumed that public speech was exclu- 
sively a masculine prerogative. She might 
be able to help her husband in his exercise 
of that prerogative. She might exert an 
influence upon him which would increase his 
ability to do what it would be unwise and 
indecorous for her to attempt to do herself. 
Probably just as good women, just as con- 
scientious and just as modest, now view that 
matter somewhat differently, and are sus- 
tained in their view by just as wise and just 
as conscientious interpreters of nature and 
Scripture as her husband. 

I am not purposing now to discuss the 
question thus suggested, and will here only 
say concerning it: " Let every woman be 
fully persuaded in her own mind." And 
let every man beware how he constrains any 
woman to take upon her heart and brain 
and nerves, burdens which he himself ought 
to carry. But the thoughts which I now 
desire to express concerning womanhood in 
eloquence do not have reference only to 
public discourse. Eloquence in the orator 
doubtless implies the possession of impor- 
tant thoughts and the power to utter them 
clearly and forcibly. It implies deep feel- 
ing and such spontaneous manifestation of 
it as begets correspondent feeling in his 
hearers. It implies a strong will which, 
infusing its mysterious energy into all his 
speech, blows over his hearers like a 
mighty wind, and sways them like the 
waving corn — sometimes transforming them 
into its own likeness and sweeping them on 
with it, a resistless tempest. But there is as 
genuine eloquence in conversation, in all 
labor of one mind to influence another 

mind. It is the power by which a single 
mind communicates truth clearly and 
vividly to another niind— the power by 
which one soul grapples another soul, and 
carries it captive by earnest persuasiveness 
— infuses its own energy into it, blending 
the two into one spiritual power. This 
form or mode of eloquence has never been 
held to be of the masculine gender. 


An eminent teacher of the last genera- 
tion had a lecture on " The hearer's contri- 
bution to the effectiveness of public speech." 
Another no less eminent teacher spoke of 
" eloquent hearing." Lord Macaulay 
quotes Demosthenes as saying that " the 
power of oratory is as much in the ear as 
in the tongue." Hearing is not a mere 
passive state. It is a voluntary and ener- 
getic act. It is a purposed and steadfast 
presenting of the mind over against a 
speaker's utterance — not merely holding it 
open that the speech may be poured in, 
but eagerly drinking it in with living thirst 
and appetite. The more attentively, earn- 
estly and responsively this is done, the more 
eloquent will any speaker be. The vivifying 
power of eager and sympathetic attention 
— its power to uplift a speaker above him- 
self into his subject, and then to pour him 
down upon the souls of his hearers, like 
rain upon the mown grass, is truly wonder- 
ful. In this happy power I think that the 
feminine mind and the feminine counte- 
nance excel the masculine. For such help- 
ful uplifting the clapping of men's hands 
and the thumping of men's canes and their 
cries of "Hear! hear!" have not half the 
power of intelligent women's attentive faces 
with the visible play across them of the 
lights and shades of thought and feeling 
which attentive women's faces are not apt 
to lack. 

Comparatively few women yet feel called 
to attempt public speaking, but all are 
called to be hearers of public discourse, 
and it is well that they should know that 
the earnestness of their hearing has a 
precious power to enhance the eloquence of 
the speech. 


As all the powers of genuine manhood 
are concerned in the composition and deliv- 
ery of a sermon or oration, all the powers 




and all the graces of genuine womanhood 
are exercised in eloquent conversation. Dil - 
igence and fidelity in study, continual read- 
ing of good books, daily exercise in express- 
ing thoughts which have arisen and truths 
which have been learned — such culture 
and discipline and exercise together with 
the spiritual culture which removes selfish- 
ness and clothes the spirit with purity and 
sincerity and holy earnestness, will seldom 
fail to secure a spontaneous development of 
conversational eloquence. Grace will be 
poured into the lips of the woman in whose 
tongue is " the law of kindness." 

Only two specific suggestions will I offer 
in respect to such self-culture: 

1. You can never become good talkers 
unless you are good listeners. Give to 
every one with whom you consent to have 
conversation honest and earnest attention. 
Thus only can you make sure of getting 
from him the best that is in him, and be 
equally sure that whatever is best in you — ■ 
whatever is truest and brightest and best 
worth saying — will come forth in its utmost 
beauty and power, when elicited and made 
to come forth responsively, as it may be 
even by one whose mind is far inferior to 
your own, to whom you have given such 
generous and helpful attention. 

2. In conversation, as in oratory, there is 
no other such charm and no other such 
power as truth. It is sad to see how easy 
and how common it is for the conversation 
of women and men to lose this power and 
this charm. Still sadder is the evident fact 
that the power of disguising one's thoughts 
and concealing deviations from one's pro- 
fessed principles is studiously cultivated by 
some. This is as foolish as it is sinful. 
The true and the beautiful cannot be put 
asunder without equally marring both. 
God has joined them together. In the long 
run, in a whole lifetime, the most influential 
person is always the one who is most truth- 
ful. Eschew all deceitful words and tones 
and looks. Let lips, eyes and face always 
speak the thing you houestly mean — " the 
truth and nothing but the truth." The 
powers of expression which God has given 
you, thus put to the honest use for which 
God intended them, will be naturally devel- 
oped to their highest capacity. In schools, 
in society, in beautiful homes, your speech 
will distil as the rain; your teaching will 
drop as the dew; and many gentle and wise 

words which you will have spoken, hidden 
deep in the hearts to which you spoke them, 
will continue to give comfort and strength 
and hope, when you shall have finished 
your course and shall sleep in blessiag. 

In the parlor of Wells College at Aurora, 
N. Y. , is a work of art, the sight of which, 
many years ago, has remained in my mem- 
ory, a perpetual joy. It is a symbolic 
marble statue. The face is abundantly 
expressive of womanly sweetness blending 
with an equally clear look of heroic deter- 
mination befitting the warlike helmet upon 
the firmly erect head and the sword as 
firmly held in the right hand. An open 
lily lies fitly upon the pure bosom ; the left 
hand grasps the folds of the robe otherwise 
hanging loosely about the graceful limbs, as 
if carefully holding it away from something 
which might soil its spotless whiteness ; the 
point of the sword touches the pedestal, 
and near it lies a mask. As your eye 
glances downward from that lovely and 
awe-inspiring face along the lines of the 
majestic figure, the graceful robe, the reso- 
lute arm, and the sternly pointing sword, it 
falls at last upon the significant inscription 
which the artist placed upon the front of 
the pedestal— VE RITA. 

It is an ideal statue of Truth. The 
mask at her feet tells of her unseen foe, 
Dissimulation, from whose face she has 
smitten it, and from whose polluting touch 
she carefully holds away her white raiment. 
There is no grander or more beneficent 
power in this world than a woman of per- 
fect truth, a graceful, educated woman of 
such absolute sincerity that dissimulation is 
baffled and unmasked by her simple and 
direct speech or her equally expressive 
silence, and shamed out of sight by her 
refusal of all contact. 

What a regeneration of social life will it 
be when only such women can be found in 
society! Women who will endure no flattery 
from men and tolerate no insincere profes- 
sion or pretension among themselves, will 
not only purify social intercourse, but im- 
measurably elevate its tone and enhance its 
power. In such a social atmosphere men 
will rise to nobler mauhood, and human 
speech, from lips of men and women, will 
become a power filling with nobler, holier 
meaning than we have yet conceived that 
deep word Eloquence. See Vol. xxi, p. 8. 

H. A. N. 






[Read to a meeting of ministers in Pilgrim Hall, Boston, and to the Presbyterian Ministerial Association oi Philadel- 
phia, and now given to the readers of The Church at Home and Abroad, at the request of its Editor.] 

I would not classify tenderness among the 
neglected graces of the ministry. But I 
think that it may justly he placed among 
those that deserve more especial mention. 
Daring my ministry, so far as I am able to 
recall at this time, I do not remember a 
single instance when the cultivation of this 
eminent grace was brought forward as the 
subject of a paper upon an occasion like 
this. This fact need not argue any lack of 
appreciation, for my acquaintance is exten- 
sive, and it shows me that as a class they 
live and think and act upon the refined and 
softened side of life. On the other hand, 
such lack does not argue that keen apprecia- 
tion of the vital importance of this quality 
to our success that seems fitting. 

Nor would I create an impression of ego- 
tism by now bringing this matter foward as 
though I were in personal possession of this 
charm above many, my brethren esteemed 
and beloved. Rather, on the other hand, 
would I have you infer the contrary, that a 
positiveness of conviction which is mine as 
a gift of nature, a brusqueness of expression 
with vigor of action, have betrayed me into 
sins against the grace which I advocate, so 
that I am now really upon the stool of 
repentance making amends for my shortcom- 
ings and overgoings in true ministerial style, 
by pointing out with emphasis to my inno- 
cent and guileless auditors what they should 
carefully avoid. Let this suffice for personals. 


It may be thought that ministerial ten- 
derness will develop itself by the necessities 
of the case. We are much among the sick 
where we learn to step on the ball of the 
foot and to speak in that soft and soothing 
voice which has no trace of the whine in it, 
but is the outgush of a robust and manly 
soul attuned to the enfeebled condition of 
the hearer, the softness taking a firm grip 
upon the patient's soul, the robustness of 
our manhood breathing vigor into his being, 
lifting his mental tone out of depression 
and sick-room monotony into an ozoned and 
invigorated atmosphere. We are much 
among the distressed ; we hear their tales of 
woe, of broken health and broken hearts, 
of dishonest friends and wayward children, 

of gnawing want and corroding care and 
cankered guile. We listen, if we be true 
men, not that we may allow the narrator to 
be refreshed by speaking, but we listen with 
our hearts that we may be true sons of conso- 
lation, that we may fulfil what Herbert says: 

"Be useful where thou Iivest, that they may 

Both want and wish thy pleasing presence still; 
Kindness, good parts, great places are the way 
To compass this. Find out men's wants and 
And meet them there. All worldly joys go less 
To the one joy of doing kindnesses." 

We are dealing constantly wilh the word 
of God, and its refining truths ; we are 
applying that truth to tender consciences, 
where the tear glistens and rolls and falls, 
where the voice trembles with emotion. We 
are comforters to the bereaved, to the bewil- 
dered by grief. We are among the chil- 
dren, to whom a kind word is a passport to 
the heart. Surely, if circumstances mould 
the man as they do to a large extent, we 
must of necessity be growing in tenderness 
year by year, mellowing not so much by 
age as by atmosphere. 


But I think that you will readily grant 
that such development in this excellence is 
not enough. At best it is only an inciden- 
tal, accidental, negative, unpremeditated, 
necessitarian tenderness, one that we cannot 
escape unless we demit the ministry. We 
need in addition to this a positive, deter- 
mined, persistent cultivation of this grace 
for its own sweet sake. We should study 
it, practice it, improve in it, intentionally. 

It is not hard to see the immense advan- 
tages that accrue to one whose tenderness is 
of the very essence of his soul over one 
whose tenderness has merely the quality of 
a stage costume to be used only when he is 
in character. Tenderness to be effective 
must not be a somewhat to be put off or on 
as occasion may determine, it must be part 
and parcel of the ingrained essence of being. 
This can only be the result of stern and 
intelligent self-culture. 


Think, first, of the wondrous pulpit 
power that this grace bestows. Soul speaks 
to soul. We know not how it is, but we 
know that it is. There is a subtle sub-con- 




scious transference of thought and impres- 
sion. Words make a conscious impression, 
but the drawing power of the pulpit is in sub- 
conscious experiences. Words may be full 
of love as they fall upon the ear, but if the 
essential heart be not more full of love than 
words can express, the listening soul rejects 
the vocal sounds and is not drawn to the 
man who speaks. On the other hand, 
where love is the essential life of the 
speaker, soul is knit to soul by this subtle 
fascination that lies below the threshold of 
objective consciousness. Better than organs 
and choirs and all the appointments of 
popular service, excellent as these are, is 
the man in the desk an incarnation of the 
Christ-love. Those may draw the audience 
within the speaker's range; he only can 
hold them there. Now, working from the 
subjective upward and outward through the 
objective, this tenderness will act upon the 
vocal chords and produce sweetness of 
modulation and expression; it will act upon 
the manner, as well as upon the tones, 
and will shape and form the gestures; it 
will portray itself upon the countenance, 
causing the eye to kindle and beam, spread- 
ing a glow of warm light over the face. 
Affected tenderness will produce those pious 
smiles and angelic facial raptures which the 
sub-conscious soul detects at once and softly 
repeats to itself the words of Shakespeare: 

"In man or woman, but far more in man, 
And most of all in man that ministers and serves 

the altar, 
I hate all affectation." 

Again, it will do away with that offensive 
impression of aboveness, of desire to drive " 
all before us. God's good people like to be 
led, they cannot be driven. God's bad 
people, and he has a host of them, are 
moved to do better, if moved at all, by 
tenderness alone. Such are hardened into 
further wrong-doing by the absence of it. 
In one word, a tender soul is a loving 
soul. God above finds out this quality in 
his servant and he pours his sweetest con- 
ceptions of truth into that mind. He 
keeps the mind in a tender frame, so that in 
those private driftings of imagination which 
we all indulge, whereas we might otherwise 
be theologically, or socially, or ecclesiasti- 
cally pounding some adversary, or lam- 
pooning him with ridicule, or cutting him 
up into ribbons with our sarcasm (day 
dreams that too often get themselves materi- 

alized) we are the rather thinking how we 
may soften asperities, harmonize differences, 
close up breaches of friendship, thus en- 
riching our vocabulary of gentleness and 
increasing our stock of loving suggestion. 
Man below, also, finds out our loving heart 
quality and, however poor we may be as 
preachers, the one word, " Oh, but he is 
so good," will cover a multitude of defects. 
Thus, then, tenderness is of the highest 
oratorical and homiletic quality. 


Then, secondly, reflect what a tremen- 
dous power tenderness is out of the pulpit. 
It enables us to attack hopefully the stub- 
born castle of the man-soul by the postern 
gate. The sinner's defenses are all on 
the other side. The world as he confronts 
it is cold and hard, selfish and oppressive, 
fawning where it has an end to gain, roar- 
ing where it has no interests at stake. 
Rebuffs and censures and blows are freely 
bestowed ; hard exaction is the rule. 
Every guard is up on this side. No one 
thinks of such a thing as defending self on 
the side of tenderness, for the assault is 
almost never made there. This is our post- 
ern gate, and we may drive it in and take 
the fort. " Will you send these goods up 
to-day?" said a lady to a shop-girl of 
whom she had just bought a garment, and 
whose spiritual history she well knew. 
"Yes, ma'am." "Are you sure, my 
dear, that you will not wear it out first?" 
" Why, what do you mean, madam? 
You do not know this house when you talk 
in that way." Her guards were all up 
instantly and her spirit was up, too. 
" But, my dear, went on the lady, " Jesus 
bought you and paid for you with his own 
precious blood, and here you are wearing 
yourself out before you take yourself to 
him." That was the battering-ram against 
the postern gate. It was driven in. She 
sobbed aloud, " No one ever spoke to me 
like that since mother died." Ah, men of 
God, this world is full of people out of 
whose experience tenderness died when 
mother was laid under the sod. They were 
children then, they are men and women 
now. They know by bitter experience that 
this is no mother-hearted world. They are 
dying for a touch of the mother-heart. 
Charity and mission organizations! — They 
scarcely turn the turf of this virgin soil. 




Their tenderness is official, a sort of per- 
functory do-something-for-Christ affair. It 
is measured by tape, weighed in scales. It 
is valuable in its way, but tenderness is a 
thing of soul more than of body, of the 
hungry, aching soul, the soul that may be 
made to sing like an angel under the mother- 
touch, or curse God like a devil for the 
lack of it. It is because so little of this 
gentle, loving ministration is seen in us, 
whereas so much was seen in Jesus, that so 
many men say now-a-days that they believe 
iu the Christianity of Christ, but not in the 
Christianity of the churches. No doubt 
this trite platitude is overworked and over- 
strained, but, after all said and done, here is 
the key to the social problem and its name 
is Sympathy. 


When we look at the quality of tender- 
ness we see at once that it is not effeminacy. 
If it were, then we who are men all over 
and men all through, every inch of us and 
every ounce of us, would be barred out by 
our pronounced masculinity. The world 
loves to say that religion is for women 
and children and the ministry is for men 
who are effeminate in quality, unequal to 
the rough and tumble of the world, which 
means, in the plain, not good enough for 
anything except to be clergymen. And 
when it sees one in the ministry whose 
intellect commands respect, whose hair is 
short, whose muscle is big, whose voice is 
resonant and whose garb is not a label of 
his calling, it is apt to say, in California 
phrase. " He ought to be in politics, he 
has no business to be hoeing small potatoes 
in the garden of the Lord." There are 
men whose phrenology, physiognomy and 
physiology mark them as gentle and retir- 
ing. They have a strong, sweet dash of the 
feminine. Some of them get into the min- 
istry. There they are beloved and lead 
quiet, happy, useful lives, sometimes going 
to the front. But inability to battle with 
the world keeps many such from reaching 
the front ranks. For every prominent 
pastor knows that the lawyer or the mer- 
chant has no severer tussle with men than 
the front-rank minister. It is, then, when 
men of strength and capacity school them- 
selves to a tenderness that is not theirs by 
nature that the quality shines out. Like 
Moses, they began life devoid of meekness, 

but out of their robustness developed it 
to an eminent degree. When such an one 
is assaulted by act or word and the hot 
blood leaps to the roots of the hair, suffusing 
the face with indignation, self-mastery, 
one prime element of tenderness, comes in, 
and instantly the blood sinks away again 
and the soft answer comes that turns away 
wrath; self-conquered he has conquered all 
onlookers, and just there he conquered the 
danger that threatened to end his pastorate. 
When deep grief enters and at the graveside 
as the coffin is lowered away among the 
flowers, that same strong masculine man 
slips his arm through that of the heart- 
broken husband and speaks comfortingly, 
tenderly, again the quality shines out 

I would suggest several ideas in this 
matter of cultivating tenderness. 

1. A careful study of Jesus in the Gos- 
pels. He was able to say the severest 
things in harmony with a soul of unexam- 
pled tenderness. He struck from the 
shoulder, as men phrase it, ringing, sting- 
ing, staggering blows, yet he was always 

2. A resolute will. Determine not to be 
betrayed into any unguarded utterances that 
have harshness in them. It does no good to 
smite vindictively with the tongue. We 
have an end to gain, viz., to win men to 
God, and keeping that uppermost in mind 
and working ever for it, we shall be less 
sensitive of self and thus learn the great 
art of not hearing, not feeling. 

3. God takes a hand with us in this work. 
Love is a fruit of the Holy Spirit and comes 
as a result of his presence and working. By 
discipline he makes us tender. He shows us 
our own vast need and ill desert and makes 
us considerate of others. Forgiven so 
many talents ourselves we have no itching for 
the windpipe of the man who owes us a few 
pence. Every strong man whom God 
loves finds his Gethsemane sooner or later. 
Then he learns in bloody agony this heav- 
enly grace by the things that he suffers. 
and through suffering is fitted for glorious 


" If none were sick and none were sad, 

What service could we render? 
I think if me were always glad, 

We scarcely could he tender. 
If sorrow never claimed our heart, 

And every wish were granted. 
Patience would die and Dope depart — 

Life would be disenchanted." 


MAP 1 




Colleges and Universities of the 
Presbyterian Church (Xorth) x 


The College Board published recently a 
little book of large interest. It is called 
" Colleges of the New West," and was 
written for the Board by William N. Black- 
burn, D.D., LL.D., president of Pierre 
University. Dr. Herrick Johnson says of 
the book: " This is the compactest and 
most suggestive bit of talk on far-west col- 
leges yet published It is brimful of 

facts and figures, hopeful, startling, con- 
vincing Some sure surprises will 

greet the reader: one, the overwhelming 
preponderance of higher Christian over 
secular education ; another, the infinitesimal 
proportion of pupils pursuing collegiate or 
university education, which does not look 
as if we were overstocked with colleges." 

Dr. Blackburn wrought with long 
patience in collecting facts, with learning 
in collating them, and with skill in present- 
ing them in such literary and cartographic 
form that the book captures the reader's 
interest and convictions. 

The four tables — Colleges and Universities 
in the United States, Denominational 
Colleges in the West, Illiteracy in the 

4sl Colleges and Universities in the United States. 




Uuited States, and Establishment of De- 
nominational Colleges in the West — and 

100 Pupils .if all Grades. 

Elementary, in Primary :ind Grammar Schools. 
Secondary, in High Schools and Academies. 
Superior, in Colleges and Universities. 

the maps and plates talk telling things to 
Christian minds. 

The book has been sent to all pastors and 
stated supplies named in the General Assem- 
bly Minute* of 1896. The cost of a copy, 
including postage, is ten cents; but the 
College Board will gladly send one free on 
application where it may in any way serve 
the cause of Western Presbyterian educa- 


[From the Now York Evening Post.] 

A good way to dissipate a great deal of 
the nonsense that is talked about the incal- 
culable benefits wrought by college athletics 
is to go to one of the huge gladiatorial 
games given under the auspices of modern 
culture, and narrowly observe, not the col- 
lege contestants, but the college spectators. 
There you get, by the thousand, the cigar- 
ette-smoking, nervous, hollow-chested and 
lily-livered youth whom noble athletics 
have been said to have banished forever 
from the modern student world. They 
watch the struggle with the keen interest of 
partisans, but also with the keener interest 
of gamblers, which, for the time being, too 
many of them are. The legs and shoulders 

of their favorite athletes are things to bet 
on, not to emulate. The inevitable and 
depressing impression one carries away is 
that of a lot of degenerate Roman nobles 
come to life again, laying their wagers on 
gladiators, any one of whom could level the 
whole of them at a sweep. In other 
words, the spectacle is got up as a luxurious 
affair, to lend excitement to those who are 
satiated with the ordinary amusements of 

Group I. 

The causes of such changes in student life 
are as deep as the responsibilities growing 
out of them are perplexing. Like society 
like college is probably as true as like people 
like priest. But no college is true to itself 
or its function that does not at least make 
a strenuous effort to combat ignorance and 
vulgarity in the society about it, even when 
bedizened by wealth. Luxury finds few 

75 Colleges in Group I. 




gates barred to it in this world, but it cer- 
tainly should not be allowed to enter only to 

98 Western Colleges of Four Denominations. 

vitiate the community where, of all others, 
intellect and character are best measured 
and most easily taken as the standard of 

Prof. John Bascom, of Williams College, 
in a letter in the Springfield Republican, 
sums up the whole matter of college games 
thus: " But the objection above all objec- 
tions is the moral one. This objection is not 
merely that these games are constantly sink- 
ing into plain brutality, are giving rise 
incidentally to gambling and to debauch, 
that their instinctive affiliations are down- 
ward, but the farther and graver objection, 
that they inevitably destroy in the minds 
of the young — and that, too, in our col- 
leges, to which we are looking for strength 
— the true moral proportion of events. 
Things trivial are made great, and this 
means that things great become trivial, 
temper is more difficult to manage or 
poses a more invincible obstacle to 
serious and progressive work of life 





that which is absorbed in exciting and arti- 
ficial events. This is the sporting temper, 
and it presents an insuperable barrier to sound 
thought. This vice once fastened on our 
college life will work inconceivable mischief. 
The vision of the mind, one's estimate of 
good, the feelings of the heart, will all be 
distorted and turned out of their proper 


Does education repress crime ? Certainly 
not in France. Victor Hugo contended 
that a school door opened was a jail door 
closed ; but the statistics of criminality in 
that country do not bear out his statement. 
Prisons, especially for juvenile offenders, 
seem to be multiplied there with the diffu- 
sion of knowledge. In this country, with 
all our educational facilities, crime is cer- 
tainly not waning; it is undoubtedly in- 
creasing. In England, however, the 
statistics are more hopeful. There are 
5,000,000 children in English schools, or 
more than three times as many as there 
were in 1870, and yet the number confined 
in Euglish prisons has fallen in the last 
twenty-four years from 12,000 to 5000; 
juvenile offenders now number 5000, as 
against 14,000 then. There are other 
factors to be taken into consideration besides 
education, of course, in these statistics, but 
it is undoubtedly true that a purely intel- 
lectual education is no effective safeguard 
against criminal tendencies, and that the 
latter will not be checked until we engraft 
moral teaching and conscience-training 
upon our systems of instruction. 

A liberal education, says Prof. George 
T. Ladd, includes the prolonged study cf 
(1) language and literature, (2) mathe- 
matics and natural sciences, (3) the soul of 
man, including the products of his reflec- 
tive thinking. — In October Educ. Rev. 

The Country College with [its dormi- 
tory and its curriculum and its constant 
contact and grinding of man with man has 
done, and must continue to do, a great work 
for our country. The professor who is con- 
tent to be a pedagogue and help form the 
thought as well as inform the mind, who is 
anxious to elevate the character, and save 
the souls, as well as supply food for the 
brain of his pupils, is the highest influence 
in Jsuch college life, and without him the 
stream grows sluggish, the stones are not 
carried along, contact is not fresh and force- 
ful. The small college with a faculty 
loving learning and serving God is the 
place in which college life reaches its freest 
and finest and fullest development. — N. Y. 



The Report of the Standing Committee on 
Ministerial Relief was received, and, after 
addresses by the Hon. James A. Mount, 
chairman; Rev. B. L. Agnew, D. D., 
secretary of the Board; and others, was 
adopted, and is as follows : 

The Standing Committee on Ministerial 
Relief respectfully submits the following 
report : 

The forty-second annual report (the 
forty-eighth year) of the work of Minis- 
terial Relief, and the twenty-first year of 
work of the Board as formally organized 
by the General Assembly in May, 1876, 
together with the minutes of the Board for 
the past year, have been submitted to your 
committee. The minutes of the Board 
have been neatly and admirably kept, and 
show that the directors of the great work of 
caring for the aged and disabled ministers 
of our Church, and the dependent widows 
of deceased ministers and helpless orphans 
of the servants of Christ, who have yielded 
their lives in the service of the Church, 
have given anxious and unremitting atten- 
tion to the sacred cause entrusted to their 
hands, and we cordially recommend the 
approval of these minutes. 

The report of the Board has evidently 
been prepared with great care. It gives a 
succinct history of the work of the Church 
in her attempts to relieve the sufferings of 
her venerated servants and the wants of 
the widows and orphans of those who have 
fallen battling for the extension of the 
kingdom of God. This report contains 
the Charter and By-Laws of the Board and 
a clear codification of all the deliverances 
of the General Assembly in directing the 
Board in its work, and the various regula- 
tions the Board has found necessary in 
doing the work entrusted to its hands. The 
ministers and elders of our churches, and 
especially the Presbyterial Committees on 
the Board of Relief, will find the report of 
the Board an invaluable compendium of the 

rules and regulations of the Board, to aid 
them in the sacred and delicate duties de- 
volving upon them from time to time in 
caring for those who, in God's providence, 
need the loving sympathy and material help 
of the great Church to which they have 
solemnly consecrated their talents, their 
energies and their lives. 

The Board has a rapidly increasing num- 
ber of families under its care. There are 
now 835 families on its roll. This is forty 
more families than it ever had under its care 
in any preceding year. Of the names on 
the roll, we find there are 317 ministers, 
468 widows, 20 orphan families', 3 women 
missionaries, 1 widow of a medical mission- 
ary, and 18 guests at the Ministers' House 
at Perth Amboy, in lieu of receiving an 
annual appropriation in money. One 
hundred and five of these 835 families are 
new names, 46 have been removed from 
the roll by death, 32 ministers, 12 widows 
and 2 orphans. There have been probably 
over 3000 persons aided by the Board dur- 
ing the past year. 

The Permanent Fund of the Board is 
steadily increasing and it now amounts to 

The receipts of the Board last year from 
all sources were $160,856.07, but the 
expenditures were $182,264.26. 

There is grave reason to fear that the 
churches have been depending upon the 
Permanent Fund to yield revenue enough 
to pay the annuitants of the Board, for 
ever since the Centenary Fund was raised 
nine years ago, the contributions of the 
churches have been steadily decreasing, 
whilst during these years the number of 
persons asking aid from the Board has been 
steadily increasing. The consequence is 
that the Board is compelled to report a 
debt at the close of its fiscal year of 
$20,911. In view of this condition of the 
treasury, the Board has been most reluc- 
tantly compelled to commence this year's 
work by withholding one-fourth of all 
appropriations except to those on the Hon- 
orably Retired Roll, who have been thirty 
years in active service in the ministry of 




our Church, until the churches furnish the 
Board with sufficient funds to pay all 
annuitants in full. 

The Board calls attention to the fact that 
it has made a change in By-Law, Art. iv, 
Sec. 5, which read as follows: " Legacies 
shall always be considered Permanent 
Funds, of which the interest only shall be 
used, except in cases where the testator has 
otherwise ordered." The By-Law now 
reads: " Legacies not specifically given to 
the Permanent Fund may be used by the 
Board in paying beneficiaries and current 

This change, if approved by the Assem- 
bly, will enable the Board to use unre- 
stricted legacies in paying the debt of the 
Board. It has in hand now enough of 
unrestricted legacies, not yet invested, to 
pay off all its indebtedness, and your com- 
mittee are of the opinion that it is not fair 
to the venerable men and the widows and 
orphans on the roll of the annuitants to 
place these unrestricted legacies in the 
Permanent Fund, to remain there, when the 
families on the roll are suffering for the 
necessities of life. 

The committee, therefore, recommend the 
adoption of the following resolutions: 

Resolved, 1. That this General Assembly 
approves of the change the Board has made 
in By-Law, Art. iv, Sec. 5, and authorizes 
the Board to transfer to the Current Fund, 
unrestricted legacies with which to pay its 
indebtedness and to meet special emer- 

Resolved, 2. That the Assembly approve 
the codified rules of the Board as found in 
the annual report on pp. 10, 11, 12 and 13. 
Resolved, 3. That our presbyteries direct 
every church session to appoint a committee 
to take the subject of Ministerial Relief 
under its special charge and to place upon 
this committee representatives from all the 
organizations of the church, especially en- 
listing the cooperation of the women, and to 
see to it that the leaflets furnished by the 
Board are distributed in the church prior to 
the time of taking a collection for this 
cause, and that sessions be instructed that 
their reasons will not be sustained by pres- 
bytery for not giving the people under their 
care a fair opportunity to contribute to this 
Board, unless their reasons are special and 

Resolved, 4. That this Assembly urges 

the chairmen of presbyterial committees to 
take unusual pains to call the attention of 
pastors and sessions to the pressing needs of 
this important Board, and impress them 
with the necessity of giving their congrega- 
tions abundant opportunity to contribute, 
and see that this column in the statistical 
report does not appear blank. 

Resolved, 5. That in view of the steady 
decrease for the past nine years in the aver- 
age amount contributed by the members of 
our Church to this Board, pastors and 
stated supplies of churches be directed to 
preach upon the sacred duty of our people 
making a more generous provision for dis- 
abled ministers and the widows and orphans 
of deceased ministers. 

Resolved, 6. That we have heard with 
deep regret of the failure of the health of 
the late corresponding secretary of this 
Board, the beloved Dr. Cattell, which made 
his resignation imperative. We rejoice to 
see the unanimous action of the Board in 
regard to his resignation, as published in 
the annual report on p. 23. Dr. Cattell 
has endeared himself to the whole Church 
by the tender, loving, earnest, faithful man- 
ner in which he has discharged the duties of 
his high and responsible office, and our 
prayer is that the God of all comfort may 
restore his health and cheer his heart with 
all the consolation of his holy religion. 

Resolved, 7. That we most heartily en- 
dorse the wise selection of Rev. B. L. 
Agnew, D.D., as the successor of Dr. 
Cattell. We commend the earnest spirit 
with which he has taken up the work and 
believe that through his devoted efforts the 
Board will be able to move forward to 
greater success, and also be able to render 
better service in aid of our beloved disabled 
ministers and their families. 

Resolved, 8. That Rev. James H. Mason 
Knox, D.D., LL.D, Rev. Samuel T. 
Lowrie, D.D. , Joseph M. Collingwood, 
Esq., Henry L. Davis, Esq., directors of 
the Board whose terms of office expire with 
this Assembly, be reelected, and that the 
vacancy caused by the death of Hon. John 
Scott, whose term expires in May, 1899, 
be filled by the election of Elmer Ewing 
Green, Esq., of Trenton, N. J. 

For the Committee, 
James A. Mount, Chairman. 
Attest: Wm. Henry Roberts, Stated Clerk. 

Phila., Pa., June 17, 1897. 





After reading the foregoing report, pre- 
sented to the General Assembly by the 
present honored governor of Indiana, and 
noticing the change in the By-Law of the 
Board of Ministerial Relief, authorizing 
the use of unrestricted legacies, perhaps 
you ask, Why is it necessary for the Board 
to withhold one-fourth of the appropriations 
granted to the annuitants under its care, as 
it is now doing ? The Board has used unre- 
stricted legacies to pay its indebtedness at 
the close of the fiscal year, March 31, 
1897, as authorized by the General Assem- 
bly, but since that time a new indebtedness 
has already accrued of $18,000, because 
at this season of the year the Board re- 
ceives very few contributions from the 
churches and the monthly payments go on 
as usual. It is impossible at present to tell 
what unrestricted legacies we may receive 
during the year, and it is impossible to 
forecast what amount of money will be 
turned into the treasury from the churches 
during the current year. If our unre- 
stricted legacies should be no more than 
usual, and the collections from the churches 
no more than we have been receiving for 
some years, the Board will close the year 
with a heavy debt. 

The churches are not contributing as 
much by nearly $25,000 a year to the 
Board as they did ten years ago, and our 
payments to annuitants are over $66,000 
a year more than they were ten years ago. 
Our Permanent Fund has increased greatly 
during these ten years, but the interest on 
that Fund does not nearly pay the annuities 
of the largely increased number of families. 

There must be a very great increase in 
individual contributions and church collec- 
tions to enable the Board to meet the 
demands made upon it by the various pres- 
byteries. The churches must waken up to 
a fuller realization of the magnitude of the 
great work the Board of Relief is called 
upon to do. Although the Board makes its 
payments in advance, it is painful beyond 
expression to every member of the Board to 
be compelled to withhold any portion of the 
annuities expected by the families dependent 
so largely upon this Board for their daily 
bread. Will not the people of God take 
this whole subject into the most earnest 
and prayerful consideration, and give more 

generously to the relief of God's needy and 
suffering servants ? Brethren, can you sleep 
sweetly when you know that hundreds of 
ministers' families know not how to pay 
their honest debts, or obtain their daily 
bread, when you are doing so little to relieve 
them of their unspeakable distress ? 


Have our churches been losing their 
interest in the great sacred work of the 
Board of Relief? It really looks like it! 
The Annual Report of the Board shows that 
the contributions from the churches have 
been steadily declining for nine years. The 
contributions to this Board nine years ago 
averaged thirteen cents per communicant, but 
they have been steadily decreasing, and last 
year only averaged seven and one-half cents 
per communicant! What does it mean, that 
our Church, which is one-fourth larger 
than it was nine years ago, should give one- 
fourth less money to this sacred cause than 
it did nine years ago ? What does it mean 
that contributions to the Board should so 
seriously decrease when we have had an 
addition to the roll of annuitants in that 
time of 271 families ? What does it mean 
that in nine years the roll of communicants 
in the Presbyterian Church has increased 
from 722,071 to 943,716, and that the 
contributions have decreased from $98,922 
to $74,091 ? If we had received during 
the past year a general average contribution 
of thirteen cents per communicant to this 
Board, we would have received $122,683, 
instead of $74,091 from our churches! 

This decline in interest in this cause is 
startling in the extreme! That there should 
have been a decline during the last four 
years of hard times would not be so start- 
ling, but that the decline should have been 
going on in good times as well is alarming. 


If sessions of churches will appoint the 
committees directed by the General Assem- 
bly in Resolution 3, as given above, and 
chairmen of presbyterial committees will 
carefully conform to the directions of Reso- 
lution 4, and pastors and stated supplies 
will all " preach upon the sacred duty 
of our people making a more generous 
provision for disabled ministers and the 
widows and orphans of deceased ministers," 
the worthy annuitants of the Board will 
soon be paid their appropriations in full. 



The Board was highly favored at the last 
Assembly in the appointment of the Rev. 
Dr. George F. Whitworth, of Seattle, 
Wash., as the chairman of the Standing 
Committee which reported upon its work. 
Dr. Whitworth, although " the days of his 
years by reason of strength are fourscore 
years," has as yet by no means found 
" their strength labor and sorrow." He 
is as young and active as many a man 
whose entire life is shorter than the time 
that Dr. Whitworth has spent in home 
missionary work. 

The report of a committee of which such 
a man was chairman, and a score of like- 
minded men members, is of no doubtful 
value, and its recommendations, afterwards 
adopted by the Assembly, are entitled to 
the highest respect. 

A few sentences may be properly quoted 
as introductory to the resolutions adopted 
by the Assembly. 

"the right arm of home missions." 
The Board of Church Erection may very 
appropriately be termed the right arm in 
carrying on the important work of Home 
Missions in which the heart of the Church 
is so deeply interested. The home mission- 
ary realizes the great value of the aid it 
affords, by enabling him to obtain what is 
often needed to complement the efforts of a 
weak church to secure for itself a habita- 
tion which shall give stability to his work. 
This is especially true in the destitute por- 
tions of the Great West and is most fully 
appreciated by the missionaries who there 
find in many instances that the little un- 
comfortable schoolhouse or the more limited 
accommodations of the settler's cabin are 
the only places where a congregation can 
be gathered. Sometimes a barn or a shed 
will furnish temporary shelter, or failing 
in these, the only resource which is left is 
to preach in the open air, it may be under 
the shade of a tree or the wider canopy of 
heaven. While such conditions exist there 
can be neither stability nor permanence and 

all movements to advance are crippled. 
To supply these wants is the office and 
the province of this Board. 


Originally intended to assist only in the 
erection of houses of worship, it now in- 
cludes another branch, to aid in the erection 
of manses (or parsonages) and so provide a 
home for the minister as well as for the 
church. This will be recognized as a 
natural, a very wise, and a most helpful 
provision. To avoid confusion or complica- 
tion between these two branches, the funds 
to be thus employed have been divided, so 
as to embrace three distinct departments of 
work, which are designated, as the report 
shows, as the " General Fund," the " Loan 
Fund," and the " Manse Fund," the Gen- 
eral Fund being the one especially provided 
by contributions from churches and individ- 
uals, including legacies. The Loan and 
Manse Funds differ in that they are perma- 
nent funds whose preservation depends upon 
the faithful returns from the churches of 
the loans which have been made. The 
increase of these funds is not regular, but 
additions are made at times through legacies 
and special contributions. 


1. That the presbyteries be requested to 
use increased carefulness in recommendations 
for aid so that the funds of the Board shall 
not suffer loss, but shall be so applied as to 
secure the benefits for which they are intended 
to the greatest possible degree. 

The urgent need of such a resolution as 
this grows out of the fact that the resources 
of the General Fund are so limited that it 
must necessarily be reserved for the most 
urgent cases. It was not intended when 
the Board was organized that it should 
serve simply as a source from which an 
additional subscription could be obtained 
by a church engaged in building, to the end 
that its edifice might be made a little larger 
or a little more handsome. It was not 
expected that any church able to erect a 




building in its own strength, even though 
the building should be small and plain, 
would come to the Board for help. On the 
contrary, the fund was distinctively for 
churches that, with every exertion if left to 
themselves, would have to go homeless. 
There is some reason to believe that this has 
been misunderstood, and that churches 
have applied which, with a little more 
self-sacrifice, could have completed for them- 
selves buildings adequate for their present 

Another reason for the caution implied in 
the resolution is that too many instances 
have occurred where buildings have been 
erected, and that too with aid from the 
Board, in places where a more careful and 
judicious investigation would have revealed 
the fact that there was no assured prospect 
of growth or even continuance. To expend 
in such fields the money contributed to the 
Board is really to waste the means that else- 
where might be productive of permanent 

2. That it be urged upon presbyteries, 
pastors and sessions to endeavor by all the 
means in their power to secure prompt pay- 
ment on loans and insurance premium* ; and 
that contributions for the cause, small though 
they may be, be secured from every church 
under their care or supervision. 

The committee upon examination found 
that the Board was seriously embarrassed 
and its work much increased by the tardi- 
ness of churches in fulfilling the obligations 
they had cheerfully and deliberately 
assumed when they received aid. 

It must be said with regret that there are 
too many instances where churches seem to 
feel that they can treat their obligations to 
the Board in a way that they would not 
dream of treating their responsibilities in 
any other direction. 

If a church is in debt to a savings bank, 
or an insurance company and defaults upon 
its interest it knows that it will soon be 
called upon in a most peremptory manner 
to refund, and that if speedy answer is not 
made, legal proceedings, with a sheriff's 
sale looming in the not very distant horizon, 
will be promptly inaugurated. 

But in dealing with the Board, these 
same churches too often presume that they 
may consult their own convenience in the 
matter of payment or non-payment and that 
the Board of Church Erection, dear, old, 

good-natured soul that she is, will not pro- 
ceed to any very decided measures. 

There is more than one instance under 
consideration at the present time in which, 
if the Board were almost any other institu- 
tion in the world, it would have long ago 
proceeded to take legal steps to enforce its 
claim. Of course the Board is most reluct- 
ant to take legal steps; it cannot bear 
to contemplate the possibility of having 
to collect by foreclosure proceedings ; its 
province is to build up, not to destroy. 
But ought not this very fact, coupled with 
the knowledge that if the Board does not 
receive its just returns, its beneficent woak 
for others is crippled — even if it does not 
itself become bankrupt, ought not this fact, 
we say, to prompt the churches that have 
received aid to be doubly prompt and punc- 
tilious in keeping their promises and paying 
back into the common treasury the money 
which is not theirs, but the common prop- 
erty, yes, the trust fund, of the whole 
Church ? 

It would seem that a Christian Church 
ought, above all other organizations, to feel 
the force of the old motto of kings and 
princes: "Noblesse oblige" — High rank 
imposes high obligation. 

3. That all presbyteries be requested to 
instruct their committees to consider carefully 
and look closely after the care of church 
buildings apparently abandoned, in order 
that if the work be finally relinquished, the 
Board's interest in the property may be pro- 

This resolution grows out of the fact that 
there are, from time to time, cases where a 
church fails to maintain itself; and its work 
is at last abandoned, notwithstanding it has 
invested its means in a building. Such 
failure is not, by any means, a proof that 
the church should not have been organized 
or that there has been a mistake in its 
management. Many villages are started 
in the younger States and after a while lose 
their vitality. The pine or hemlock forests 
which presented a promise of wealth, fail ; 
the mine proves less valuable than was sup- 
posed — or, more often, the railway line fails 
to connect them with the main channels of 
travel and commerce. The town grows 
smaller as people move away, and at last 
the churches must be consolidated or die. 
Such experience as this accounts for many 
of the churches on our Assembly's roll 




that report but one or two members — or 
make no report at all. The Assembly, by 
its resolution, reminds the presbyteries that 
where such virtual death has occurred, the 
fact should be recognized without undue 
delay, and the affairs of the organization 
should be closed up. 

Such prompt action would enable the 
Board in many instances to recover the 
amount that it had appropriated to aid the 
church in happier days. 

4. That all churches contemplating build- 
ing and needing aid from the Board shall 
first confer with the Board in regard to 
architectural plans, to the end tlmt they may 

be enabled to build edifices at once tasteful 
and economical. 

The Board has, through many years, 
been accumulating desigus, some of them 
by our best architects, of inexpensive and 
yet tasteful buildings. Specimens of these it 
is glad to send at a merely nominal expense 
to churches contemplating building, and if 
any of them commends itself to their wishes, 
working drawings and specifications can be 
furnished at a very low price. A church 
building may be necessarily small and inex- 
pensive, but there is no reason why even in 
that case it may not be made tasteful, 
attractive and churchly in appearance 


President Angell. 

Our readers will be particularly pleased 
to look upon the portrait of James Bur- 
rill Angell, LL.D. , the "^distinguished 
president of the University of Michi- 

gan, because of his recent appointment 
on a mission of great importance from 
the United States to Turkey. Friends of 
Foreign Missions and of Education will 
watch with great interest to learn the degree 




of success he may have in securing indem- 
nity for the destruction of property belong- 
ing to the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions. President Angell 
is looked upon as an authority on Interna- 
tional Law, and on a former occasion, in 
1880-81. he was given leave of absence 
from his duties as president of the Univer- 
sity that he might go as United States 
minister to China and commissioner for the 
negotiation of treaties with that country. 
He is now in his sixty-ninth year. He is a 
graduate of Brown University, was professor 
of modern languages in that institution 
from 1853-60, editor of the Providence 
Journal, 1860-66, and president of the 
University of Vermont from 1866-71. It 
was in 1871 that he undertook the responsi- 
ble duties of his present position. 

But we have another reason for calling 
attention to the portrait of President 
Angell at this time. Just now the minds 
of thoughtful men are turned with intense 
interest and anxiety to the problem of pro- 
viding the higher education in this country 
under modern conditions, particularly in the 
newer parts of our land. The attempt to 
establish and maintain colleges and univer- 
sities there by private enterprise and under 
distinctive Christian influences has not been 
altogether successful, and finds itself face 
to face with the great State universities as 
very important rivals. Shall the effort to 
build up the Christian college be aban- 
doned, and shall Christian people employ 
the thousands of dollars they might have 
spent in that effort in erecting buildings in 
connection with the State universities in 
which they can gather and influence the 
many hundreds of students from Christian 
homes who are constantly in attendance 
there ? Or shall both plans be carried 
forward ? If buildings are erected in 
connection with the State universities, Avhat 
shall be their character ? Shall they be 
for the purpose of providing instruction in 
the Word of God, and in philosophy, and 
perhaps other branches of learning ? Or 
shall they furnish simply a gathering-place 
for Christian students for mutual encour- 
agement and improvement ? 

One thing is certain : the influence of 
the Church ought to follow Presbyterian 
students to their college halls, whether those 
halls be at Slate universities or at institutions 
of a distinctively religious character. 

It was from a profound sense of the re- 
sponsibility of the Church in this matter 
that the General Assembly of 1896 in- 
structed the synods to make inquiry concern- 
ing the religious welfare of students in the 
State universities and other secular educa- 
tional institutions within their bounds, in 
order to make suitable provision for their 
religious welfare. A number of synods 
made report to the General Assembly of 
1897 of what they were doing in this impor- 
tant matter, and much earnest consideration 
was given to the subject by the Assembly's 
Committee on Education. The report from 
the University of Michigan was of special 
interest from the fact that the " Tappan 
Presbyterian Association " has provided 
" McMillan Hall " and " Sackett Hall " 
for the benefit of Presbyterian students there 
in attendance. President Angell is himself a 
Christian, and others in the faculty unite 
with him in exerting a helpful religious 
influence over the students. 

The action adopted by the General Assem- 
bly this year was as follows: 

1. The General Assembly recognizes with 
gratitude the interest already displayed by several 
of the synods in studying the problem how to pro- 
vide for the religious welfare of students in the 
State universities and other secular educational in- 
stitutions, and to bring the great truths and claims 
of Christianity to the attention of other students 
there in attendance. 

2. But the special conditions are so various in 
the different States, calling for local knowledge and 
judgment, that the Assembly does not deem it ad- 
visable to express its approval of any particular 

3. The Assembly therefore refers the whole 
question to the separate synods, with the earnest re- 
quest that they take such action in each case as 
may be approved by them ; the matter being, in 
the judgment of the General Assembly, of immediate 
and pressing importance. 

The General Assembly, however, expresses the 
hope that no plans may be adopted which can 
be properly interpreted as likely to lessen the in- 
fluence of our denominational institutions. 


It is the habit of the Board to meet in 
June of each year shortly after the adjourn- 
ment of the General Assembly, that it may 
elect officers for the year, estimate its 
resources, and determine in what way it can 
make the best use of them during the college 
and seminary year which will open in the 
fall. The month of June, 1896, found it 




with a larger number of students enrolled 
than ever before in its history. There was 
no human probability that the financial 
condition of the country would be materi- 
ally improved during the year. A decrease 
rather than an increase of contributions 
was to be expected. A debt of $16,675 
had been already inclined. Under these 
circumstances there seemed to be no alterna- 
tive but to cut down the appropriation to 
the candidates already under the care of the 
Board, and to decline to make any definite 
promise with regard to new applications. 
This was regarded simply as a measure for 
a serious emergency, and the churches were 
entreated to make their contributions suffi- 
ciently large to make possible an early 
return to the rate of $80 as a minimum. 
It was a gratifying circumstance that there 
was during the year a considerable increase 
in the number of contributing churches; 
but the amount contributed was somewhat 
less than during the previous year. No 
one can safely predict what will be the 
experience of the current year with respect 
to financial matters. A careful study of the 
present situation has brought the Board to 
the decided conviction that it would be 
better to accept fewer men and provide more 
generously for each than to take a greater 
number to whom only such inadequate help 
could be given as was afforded last year. 
This view was presented to the General 
Assembly of 1897, and received its endorse- 

At the recent June meeting the Board 
gave to the whole matter protracted con- 
sideration. It recognized the difficulty 
likely to arise from the disappointments which 
must necessarily be experienced in the pro- 
cess of reducing numbers; but it was per- 
suaded that the general judgment of the 
Church would be in favor of the policy 
finally agreed upon. It cherished the 
hope that increased contributions might pre- 
vent the disappointments now possible, and 
the further hope that presbyteries would 
exercise very much greater caution and limit 
their recommendations to cases in which 
there was the best promise of usefulness, 
the truest evidence of a call of God. The 
action taken was as follows : 

" Whereas, The General Assembly has 
approved the view taken by this Board in 
expressing to the General Assembly its strong 
conviction that the appropriations to collegi- 

ate and theological students should not be 
less than $80 per annum as a minimum, 
even though the maintenance of this amount 
should necessitate a reduction in the number 
of candidates received ; 

" Resolved, That the Board will now take 
the first step in this direction by at once 
advancing the rate to $70 for the year 1897- 
98, and most earnestly calls the attention 
of the Church to the entreaty of the Gen- 
eral Assembly that contributions be so 
increased that a reduction in the number of 
candidates in consequence of the higher 
appropriation of $80 as the minimum for 
the following year may be prevented. 

" Resolved, That the Board does not find 
itself in a financial situation to warrant it 
in making any appropriation for new candi- 
dates at the present time. It will take up 
the question again early in November." 


There seems to be much feeling on this 
subject at present. It is said with a good 
deal of ( mphasis in some quarters that we 
are educating too many ministers. Some 
have even suggested the propriety of tem- 
porarily closing the theological seminaries. 
What are the causes of this state of feel- 
ing ? Principally these two: 1. There are 
a number of ministers who are without 
charge, some of them with families depen- 
dent upon them, who find it difficult or 
impossible to secure settlement. 2. When- 
ever a vacancy occurs where there is even 
a moderate salary those in charge of 
the pulpit receive commonly a large 
number of applications for the privilege 
of a hearing. From these circumstances 
the conclusion is drawn that the supply 
exceeds the demand. Is this the fact ? 
In reply it may be said that a thing 
may be true in one sense, and yet very far 
from true in some other and perhaps a very 
important sense. 

Thus it may be true that we have at 
present more ministers than the Church is 
willing to support. On the other hand, we 
have not nearly enough ministers for the 
work given us to do and which is pressing 
itself upon our attention as something which 
should be done at once. We have not 
enough ministers for the work which should 
be instantly done in heathen lands nor 
enough to supply the destitutions of our own 
country. There does not seem to have been 




any inordinate increase in the number of 
candidates in proportion to the growth of 
the Church ; but rather the contrary. 
Thus in 1833 there were 233,580 communi- 
cants in the Church, and in that year the 
Board reported 450 candidates as under its 
care; or one candidate to every 519 com- 
municants. For the five succeeding years 
the proportion of candidates was still 
larger. In 1892 the proportion of can- 
didates was so much reduced that the 
Church had but one candidate for every 
648 communicants, counting in those not 
under the care of the Board. In 1894 
there were 1434 candidates, or one for every 
625 communicants; and in 1896 the same 
proportion prevailed within a fraction. It 
seems to be perfectly plain therefore that 
there has not been any undue pressing men 
into the ministry ; any undue disposition to 
volunteer on the part of our young men, 
but rather a falling back from the standard 
of former years. 

On the other hand, the Church has been 
holdiug back its hand from aggressive work ; 
the Mission Boards have to a large extent 
been compelled to refuse to commission 
men, and, on the home field, have reduced 
the appropriations for the support of those 
already in commission. But not only have 
the salaries of home missionaries been reduced 
and even left in arrears, the exigencies of 
the times have led other congregations to say 
to their ministers in some cases, " We 
cannot continue to pay you the amount 
hitherto given ;" — or the payments have 

become irregular and uncertain. It is not 
to be wondered at if, when thousands of 
men in all walks of life are temporarily out 
of employment, an increased number of 
ministers should be in the same predicament. 
It is not surprising that vacancies affording 
some prospect of an income sufficient to 
enable a man to live without incurring debt 
and to clothe and educate his children 
should be somewhat eagerly sought. We 
must not draw too large conclusions from 
such circumstances. If, however, the con- 
ditions of our times call for special circum- 
spection with regard to the enlisting of men 
for the holy ministry and to a restriction in 
the numbers admitted to its ranks, the 
restriction should first of all be applied to 
those who apply for admission from outside, 
and who do not come up to our standard. 
The reports from a prominent (j enom i na . 
tion show that not more than fifty per cent, 
of ordinations in that body are of fully edu- 
cated men. We admitted to the Presby- 
terian ministry from other denominations 
575 men in six years, an average of about 
ninety-six per annum. At the same time 
the presbyteries seem to have been ordaining 
about thirty-five imperfectly educated men 
of their own each year. We are not edu- 
cating too many of our own men. The 
lesson of the times is more hearty coop- 
eration with the Board of Education 
in its effort to keep the standard high, and 
A closing op the door against the imper- 
fectly educated who apply from without. 



The frieuds of our work among the 
Freedmen were greatly pained and shocked 
at the announcement during the session of 
the General Assembly, in May, to hear that 
the beautiful building at Anniston, Ala., 
known as the Barber Memorial Seminary, 
which had been occupied scarcely six 
months, as a boarding-school for colored 
girls, was burned to the ground. It is 
exceedingly gratifying to be able to state 
that there is a prospect that the building 
will be reiirected and finished during the 

summer and early fall in time for the 
resumption of the good work for which the 
institution was founded. 

As no specific details of the fire have yet 
been published, an extract from a letter of 
the president of the seminary to the 
Board about the burning will doubtless be 
read with interest : 

" On the morning of May 22," writes 
Rev. George B. Crawford, the president, 
" some time previous to 3 A.M., I was 
awakened by a rapping on our door. Par- 
tially dressing, I went with my wife and two 
of the teachers to the basement. The 
range was in perfect order, and the only 




sign of fire was the smoke that had 
awakened one of the girls. After some 
examination, the floor in one place was 
found to be hot, and a flame was detected 
through a small crack in the floor. By 
the time we got a hose connected, flames 
were seen in a room adjoining the kitchen, 
known as the bake-room. I turned the 
hose into that room, and soon put out all 
visible flames. Help arrived, and men 
said that the hose must be taken to the first 
floor. I allowed it to be taken, but on 
finding that there was no immediate danger, 
I had that hose taken again to the base- 
ment, and connected the hose on the first 
floor to the stand pipe, and for two hours 
we kept the fire in check so that no flame 
appeared. But the smoke was dense, and 
the fire was spreading under the floor, where 
we could not attack it directly, not know- 
ing where it was. After about two hours of 
work, the water gave out, and then I knew 
the building must go. In about half an 
hour after the water gave out, the flames 
burst from the building, and in an hour 
more Barber Memorial was an utter ruin. 
No other building was burned. Very few 
of the scholars lost their personal effects. 
The teachers, devoting themselves to the 
scholars and to the school property, have 
lost quite considerably. 

" For a long time, a portion of the north 
wing, where our rooms were, was free from 
smoke. Willing hands assisted my wife, 
and all our clothing and nearly all our fur- 
niture were saved. When it began to 
appear that the building might burn, I set 
men to clearing the office. My library and 
papers were saved. Men, both white and 
colored, worked bravely, endeavoring to 
save the building and its contents. Quite 
a considerable quantity was saved, but I 
have not yet seen in what condition it is. 
To-day I am better than I have been since 
the fire. My strength is returning, and I 
am feeling better. My throat is still in- 
flamed so that I have little voice. The 
girls were sent to their homes as soon as 
arrangements were made. We are thank- 
ful to our Heavenly Father for sparing all 
lives and providing for our needs. It is 
sad enough to live under the ruins of our 
former noble home and school, but though 
we do not understand, yet we believe God's 
hand was in it all. Out of seeming evil, he 
will bring forth his own glory." 


Two days after the fire, the Rev. George 
A. Marr, who superintended the construc- 
tion of the building thus burned, and who 
is a brother of Mrs. Barber, through whose 
generosity the building was erected, wrote, 
" I suppose the policies reserve to the com- 
panies the right to rebuild. They will avail 
themselves of this privilege if the building 
is in such a condition as to warrant them in 
thinking it the most economical way out of 
the difficulty. Otherwise they will make 
settlement. But in either case I have 
urged them to move promptly, so that we can 
have the building up by next fall. Conse- 
quently, in discussing the future of the 
school with its friends, I think it will be 
best to assure them that it will be in opera- 
tion pretty much as though this catastrophe 
had not occurred. Their zeal will not be 
chilled nor diverted." 

Mr. Marr immediately left Philadelphia 
for Anniston to take in the situation, adjust 
the insurance, and make preparations for 
the reconstruction of the building. On 
June 18, Mr. Crawford writes: " The ap- 
praisers found some salvage, but not enough 
to reduce the insurance companies' liabilities 
for the whole amount ($21,000), for which 
the building was insured. Mr. Marr has 
started a force of men clearing up the 
ruins. The dangerous walls have been 
pulled down, and considerable has been done 
in cleaning bricks and removing rubbish. 
Mr. Marr thinks that he will employ a 
skilled builder, who is available, and have 
him supervise the work, contracting only the 
stone and brick work. This will enable 
him to use all the building saved." 

On June 22, Mr. Marr, writing from An- 
niston, says: " I am about to leave Anniston 
temporarily, having succeeded in getting 
our insurance adjusted to the full amount 
in our favor. The debris of the burned 
building is partially removed, and arrange- 
ments for rebuilding have been made." 

Let us therefore give thanks to God that, 
although he has suffered this great loss to 
come upon us, he has not allowed the origi- 
nal promoters of this beneficent enterprise 
to be discouraged, and that we are all now 
fully assured that Barber Memorial, Phoe- 
nixlike, will soon rise from her ashes. In 
this doubtless the many friends of the 
Freedmen's cause will sincerely rejoice. 





The Board of Missions for Freedmen has 
for years desired that all the schools under 
its care should adopt a uniform course of 
study, and that each school, no matter what 
its grade, would bring its scholars up to a 
point where they could enter the same grade 
without conditions in some other higher 
school under our care. The theory was a 
good one, but circumstances seemed for a 
time to prevent its successful operation. 
Rev. Dr. Sanders has this year come to an 
understanding with six of our academies 
as to the course of study to be pursued in 
these schools, making them correspond with 
the preparatory course at Biddle University, 
according to them certain privileges and 
advantages not accorded to other schools. 
These six schools are published in the An- 
nual Catalogue of Biddle University under 
the heading, " Affiliated Schools of Biddle 
University. " The names of the schools 
are given and their locations, and the list of 
their teachers for the current year, and 
their total enrollment of scholars. 

The following is a list of affiliated schools : 

Richard Allen Institute, Pine Bluff, Ark., 
Rev. Lewis Johnston, President. 

Ferguson Academy, Abbeville, S. C. , 
Rev. Thomas H. Amos, A.M., Principal. 

Harbison Institute, Beaufort, S. C, Rev. 
G. M. Elliott, D.D., Principal. 

Immanuel High School, Aiken, S. O, 
Rev. W. R. Coles, Principal. 

Dayton Academy, Carthage, N. C, Rev. 
Henry D. Wood, A.B. , Principal. 

Brainerd Institute, Chester, S. O, Prof. 
J. S. Marquis, A.B., Principal. 

These schools, by mutual agreement of 
their Faculties and controlling Boards, are 
in affiliation with Biddle University on the 
following conditions: 

1 . That the school adopt and teach the 
preparatory course as selected of Biddle 
University, for such of the students as may 
desire to enter the Freshman class of the 
university, and that the minimum grade 
for passing in any study must be fifty-five 

per cent., and the minimum average in 
all studies sixty-five per cent, combined, 
without conditions, and all deficiencies, if 
any, made up. 

2. That any applicant from said school 
not otherwise disqualified, on presentation 
of a certificate signed by the principal, or 
other proper authority, of having taken the 
prescribed course and graduated, shall be 
entitled to enter the Freshman class of 
Biddle University, without being subjected 
to another examination. Provided, The 
questions for the fiual preparatory examina- 
tion be prepared and furnished by the uni- 
versity, and the papers containing the work 
of each student be returned to the secretary 
of the university within thirty days after 
such examination. 

3. That any student from an affiliated 
school of Biddle University, otherwise 
qualified to enter the Freshman class, may 
apply to the university for a special exam- 
ination immediately after entering, and if 
as a result of such examination an average 
of eighty-five per cent, or more be made, 
such applicaut shall be eligible to receive a 
scholarship in Class " A " of scholarships. 
Provided, Should there be two or more suc- 
cessful contestants, the one making the 
highest average shall be entitled to scholar- 
ship No. 1 of this class, the next below 
No. 2, and the next No. 3. 

4. That the principal or superintendent 
of the school is ex-officio a corresponding 
member of the Faculty of Biddle Univer- 
sity, and when present is entitled to a seat 
in the Faculty, but shall not be entitled to 

5. That the name of the school, also the 
names of the Faculty, and the total number 
of students, be published in the Annual 
Catalogues of Biddle University under the 
head of " Affiliated Schools." 

6. That Biddle University, represented 
by its president or some member of the 
Faculty appointed by him, shall have the 
right to visit annually these schools, and 
inspect their work for the information of 
the university. 



Mr. W. H. Herrick, our missionary in 
St. Louis, read a paper at the recent St. 
Louis conference on " Methods of Sabbath - 
school Mission Work in Cities." He says 
that the missionary should be able to adapt 
himself to a great variety of circumstances ; 
should be able to draw up contracts and 
plans for chapel buildings and even super- 
intend the work ; should be skillful in map 
drawing, and should study the topographi- 
cal changes in the suburbs and the popula- 
tion in the slums. He should be watchful 
of opportunities to go in and possess new 
fields, and yet use good judgment as to 
selection of fields. In one instance in St. 
Louis a district was watched for two years 
before entering, but after entering a church 
was organized in three months. The mis- 
sionary must know how to keep silence as to 
his plans until the proper time for divulging 
them. Iu one case Mr. Herrick had been 
quietly working up plans for beginning 
work in a certain neighborhood, only wait- 
ing until a church under whose care he 
wished to place the enterprise said, " Go 
ahead," when one of the members of the 
church mentioned the matter to a real 
estate ageut who happened to be an active 
member of another denomination and who 
induced his own church to step in. 

The preliminary work in canvassing in 
cities is not very different from that of the 
rural missionary, except that there are 
more dogs in the poorer districts of a city 
than in the country. The poorer the fam- 
ily, the more dogs. Politeness and patience 
are essential in canvassing. It may often 
be necessary to keep the temper in check 
and the foot on the doorsill, while pleading 
for Christ. The confidence of the people 
must be won. Promises must be made with 
care aud always fulfilled. The coopera- 
tion of the people should be invited. A 
frank, open hearing with kindly and practi- 
cal speech will gain goodwill. 

After organization it is often wise to con- 
nect mission work, in its wider sense, with 
the Sabbath-school work. This means 
more visitation, the gaining of more know- 

ledge as to the families in the district, and 
the addition of church services on Sabbath 
and midweek. If the enterprise is under 
the special care of a church, these matters 
should be looked after by the church; if 
not, the missionary should attend to them. 
It is always best to place a Sabbath-school 
mission under church care, with the stipula- 
tion that church services be arranged for as 
soon as possible. The missionary does not 
cease, however, to watch over them, visit 
them, and encourage the superintendent 
and other helpers. Above all, he should 
continually remember his schools in prayer. 
Mr. Herrick finds that one of the best ways 
of strengthening a mission Sabbath -school 
is by placing some weaker or more recently 
established school under its care, provided 
it is able to bear the responsibility. He 
also thinks that a missionary should some- 
times visit rich and educated people as well 
as the poor and ignorant, with the view of 
informing them as to his work and gaining 
their interest and help. His main work, 
however, is among the poor, not only in 
the suburbs, but in the slums, where the 
workers are few. On this point he pleads for 
more personal service from members of city 

The concluding portion of this excellent 
paper is as follows : 

Be careful about doing too much for your people 
for fear that you will pauperize them. 

Get them to help, if only a little. Even the poor- 
est can give something or aid in some way, such as 
a day's work or soliciting subscriptions. 

Even "the tot" can sell share, shingle or brick 

Systematic giving can be introduced, and is one 
of the best systems in vogue. 

By methods like these they can surprise them- 
selves and yourself too as to what they can do. 

One truly does not know what a mighty power 
the ' ' nickel ' ' wields. 

Do not give prizes, but make the people feel that 
they are working for the Lord and that the work 
itself is the best reward. Help them yourself with 
your counsel. 

Possibly the hardest of all is to get right officers 
and teachers. What! In the city? Yes. Why? 
Because the willing ones and the most competent 
ones are needed in the settled churches, and also be- 
cause "the laborers are few. " 

Secure them from the neighborhood if possible, 
thus gaining more effectually the interest of the 




Study of human nature is needed in all this. 
Work for harmony and to secure persons best 
adapted to the work in hand. 

Let there be perfect cooperation between the 
missions and the Home Mission Committee and 
Board. Work together as far as you can. 

The cause of Christ needs to be kept before the 
public more than the secular business of the world. 

Therefore use the papers at all times, both secu- 
lar and religious. 

Make friends with the proprietors, editors, or re- 
porters of leading papers and get their help through 
their columns. 

Breathe a prayer before starting out on any day's 
work for Christ's presence with you. 


Elder George H. Brewster, chairman of 
the Committee on Publication and Sabbath- 
school Work for the Presbytery of Mankato, 
Minnesota, reports : There were twenty 
nine churches in this presbytery in 1887. 
Three of these have since been dissolved. 
Of thirty new churches organized since, 
twenty-six have been organized from Sab- 
bath-schools started by our Presbyterian 
Sabbath- school missionaries. Sixteen out 
of the twenty-six have church buildings, 
costing from $600 to $2500 each. One 
has built a manse. Out of the increase of 
church membership, which is 2037 for the 
entire presbytery, 777 are from those churches 
which have grown directly from the Sab- 
bath-school missions. As to the increased 
expense to our Home Mission Board of 
this increased number of churches, I am 
not prepared to speak, but I do know that 
one result of this work has been so to help 
and encourage many of our weaker churches 
that they have become self-supporting. 
Again , these churches have been so grouped 
as to require as little aid from the Board 
as possible. I am informed that the amount 
expended by the Board of Home Missions 
in our presbytery is but little if any more 
than it was when this Sabbath-school work 
was begun. There are several Sabbath- 
schools at this time within the bounds of 
this presbytery tbat might be developed into 
churches if the finances of the Board were 
in such a condition as to permit them to take 
up new work. 


The following important recommendation 
to pastors and elders was adopted by 
Columbia Presbytery, N. Y., at its last 
spring meeting: " That every minister in 

charge of a church and every session be 
urged to give more careful attention to the 
religious instruction of the young, and to 
labor more prayerfully and hopefully for 
the early conversion of the baptized chil- 


The Presbytery of Steubenville, at its 
last spring meeting, resolved to give a beau- 
tiful silk banner to that Sabbath-school 
within its bounds which should contribute 
the highest amount per member to all the 
Boards of our Church, coupling this notice 
with an earnest appeal for liberal contribu- 
tions to the cause of Presbyterian Sabbath - 
school missions. 


At its last spring meeting, the Presbytery 
of Choctaw, I. T., expressed its thankful- 
ness to the Board of Publication and Sab- 
bath-school Work for generous gifts to the 
Sabbath-school work within its presbytery, 
urged the appointment of a Sabbath-school 
missionary to labor in its bounds, and 
adopted a strong resolution urging the 
importance of the study of the Shorter 
Catechism in every Sabbath-school as cal- 
culated to store the mind with precious 
truths, and save the young people to our 
branch of the Church of the Lord Jesus. 


Our missionary, Mr. G. W. Van Sickle , 
writes: I am sure that nothing coming from 
the field does you more good than to hear 
that your schools are the means in the 
Lord's hands of converting souls. I visited 
our Palatka Heights school, and found the 
superintendent rejoicing to know that several 
of her scholars, who on entering hardly 
knew what a Sab bath -school was, were con- 
verted and ready to unite with the Presby- 
terian Church at Palatka. Out of our 
revival work at Richland still comes good 
news. A married woman, a stranger to 
grace, has taken hold on Christ, and is 
teaching her children to do likewise. At 
Campbell's Station, where there was much 
sectarian bitterness, we organized a school 
notwithstanding, the people appreciating 
the unselfish spirit in which the Board does 
its work, and uniting in the movement. In 




another neighborhood we found more than 
forty girls between the ages of rive and 
thirteen. The people had just finished 
a new school house for the public school, 
but had no Sabbath-school. We suc- 
ceeded in convincing them that it was 
wrong to let Satan go on with his work of 
destruction, and they went forward, enthu- 
siastically putting a good Presbyterian 
woman at the head, and a Sabbath-school 
was organized. 


Our missionary, Mr. Charles R. Lawson, 
sends the following interesting account of 
an organization in Douglas county in the 
extreme northwestern part of Wisconsin : 

On Friday, the 9th of April, I arrived by train 
at a point called Nutt, at which I found a settlement 
of about ninety inhabitants, a saw mill being the 
principal industry of the town. I visited the day- 
school and was informed that they had no Sabbath- 
school and never had any preaching. Many of 
the children had never seen a preacher, so I was 
quite a curiosity amongst them. After giving 
them a short talk, I distributed some picture cards 
and literature and told them to come to the evening 
meeting and bring their parents with them. I then 
visited the families of the locality, giving them a 
personal invitation to attend our service. Fearing 
the schoolhouse would be too small to contain all 
who might come, we had an upper hall of the store 
and post-office arranged with planks for seats. 
This hall was frequently used for dancing ; the 
whole community seemed to be given over to danc- 
ing. I heard the little children talk of dancing at 
the dinner table. At 7.30 P.M. about all the in- 
habitants of the town were present in the hall and 
comfortably seated, and, after the usual singing, 
reading of the Scriptures and prayer, they listened at- 
tentively to the discourse, which lasted over an 
hour. The Spirit of God was with us and I am sure 
many were blessed. 

We then organized a Sabbath-school, and after 
the benediction I heard many of the children and 
young people singing our hymns as they took the 
different roads to their respective homes, carrying 
their lamps with them, and, I trust, carrying the 
lamp of truth in their hearts to guide them to the 
home of love and rest above. 


The Rev. G. G. Matheson, Sabbath- 
school missionary in Red River Presbytery, 
Minn., reports seventeen new schools organ- 
ized during the past twelve months, having 
fifty-six teachers and 561 scholars; also 
seven schools reorganized, with twenty-five 
teachers and 206 scholars. He gives in- 

teresting sketches of his work. Thus at 
Hermon in Grant county, where he had 
previously organized a school, he organized 
a church of twelve members, which in the 
course of the year grew to a membership 
of thirty. The church building is one of 
the best in the presbytery. It was built 
some years ago by the Baptists at a cost of 
$4000, but was sold to the Presbyterians for 
$875. There are now three mission schools 
sustained by this little church. Mr. Mathe- 
son goes on to say : 

In the month of July I went to Bermidji, Bel- 
trami county, and organized a church of eleven 
members. We at once began the work of building 
a church, which I am pleased to report is ready 
for dedication. 

It is with great pleasure that we add to the list the 
work at Baker. Two years ago the church of 
Alliance was organized with thirty- five members. 
At the close of one of the meetings a kind friend 
gave Mr. McEvers, one of the elders, a dollar, say- 
ing, " Let this be the beginning of a church build- 
ing." Like all money given to the Lord, that 
dollar became a magnet around which dollar after 
dollar kept coming, until about $700 was in hand. 
In June last a lot was secured, being the kind gift 
of Mr. Bomgardener, and the work of building 
began. On September 20 it was my great pleasure 
to be present at the dedication of a handsome 
building, capable of seating at least 250 people. 
This church was dedicated free of debt. 

During the month of November I assisted Bev. 
Mr. Acheson of E. Grand Forks in a course of 
meetings. Although we did not see all the results 
desired from those meetings, yet several professed 
conversion and a number of God's people conse- 
crated themselves to a closer walk with God in the 
future. We are pleased to mention in connection 
with the work at E. Grand Forks the erection of a 
substantial and comfortable parsonage. 

In the month of January we began a series of 
meetings with Bro. Douglas in Maine, being as- 
sisted by Bro. Astwood. The results were twenty- 
four baptisms and twenty-three persons united with 
the church — twenty-one on confession of faith and 
two by letter. 

We also held a week's meetings with the church 
at Maple wood, in which six professed conversion. 

On March 7, I held a communion service with 
Mr. J. F. McLeod, the student in charge of the 
work at Herman. At this service I baptized four 
persons and took ten into the church, eight on con- 
fession and two by letter. Seeing the deep spirit- 
ual interest manifested, I remained over and 
preached the following Sabbath and received three 
more persons into the church on confession of faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ, one of whom I baptized. 

I also had preaching points established regularly 
with six of my schools during the summer months. 

Through the Department I received several boxes 
of second-hand clothing, which I distributed to 
needy persons on my field. 

In doing this work I traveled 7381 miles, visited 
456 families, delivered 158 addresses and dis- 
tributed nearly one million pages of good literature. 



Current Topics at the Board's Rooms. 

The echoes of the Foreign Mission inter- 
est at the Winona Assembly continue to 
strengthen the hope that we shall see this 
year a growing attention in all our churches 
to the claims of this cause. Dr. Chapman 
voices the opinion that the Holy Spirit is 
plainly leading in this direction. The new 
and very cordial arrangement with the 
Woman's Boards regarding the Young 
People's Societies is felt to augur good for 
the work. Naturally the reports from the 
mission fields relative to the effect of the 
great "cut" in appropriations absorbs 
much thought on the part of the secretaries. 
While in general the keynote of these 
reports is "disaster and dismay," those 
from Syria and Jaj:>an have a decided ring 
of hope from the advanced responsibilities 
assumed by the native churches. The story 
of His Excellency, Li Hung Chang's care- 
ful perusal of the New Testament has 
awakened a new spirit of prayer in behalf 
of that great statesman and the empire he 
represents (see Dr. Coltman's letter, p. 82). 

The Missionary Congress at Poughkeepsle. 

The Synod of New York has reason to 
congratulate itself on the eminent success 
which attended its fifth annual conference, 
held in June, at Poughkeepsie, for the deep- 
ening of interest in the great benevolent 
enterprises of the Church. For the success 
of this conference, as of those which have 
preceded it, much is due to the chairman of 
the Synod's Committee on Foreign Missions, 
Rev. J. Balcom Shaw, D.D. The pro- 
gramme was a strong and comprehensive 
one; the speakers brought forward were 
among the foremost representatives of the 
aggressive movements of our Church at the 
present day; the whole management was 
excellent, and the spirit of the conference 
was high in proportion. 

The Foreign Missions Day was an excep- 
tionally effective occasion. Addresses from 
Drs. Ellinwood and Marshall and the 
Hon. Darwin R. James, representatives 

of the Board; from Dr. Hunter Corbett 
and other valiant missionaries, workers 
and speakers, and from Dr. G. F. 
Pentecost, made the exercises of this day 
memorably impressive. The presence and 
eloquence of Dr. J. T. Gracey, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and the 
efficient president of the International Mis- 
sionary Union, was an incident of marked 
significance, and added greatly to the inter- 
est of the occasion. Altogether it was one 
of the best Foreign Mission meetings which 
has been held within the bounds of our 

Too much value can scarcely be attached 
to these synodical conferences for the promo- 
tion of missionary enthusiasm throughout 
the Church, and yet convention enthusiasm 
will not pay Board's debts, nor raise the 
anchors that detain our would-be missiona- 
ries in the home land, nor set in motion the 
institutions in the foreign field which 
diminished appropriations have indefinitely 
side-tracked ; unless such enthusiasm imme- 
diately move those in attendance to the 
most effective kind of work among our 

A Unique Bible. 

An edition of the Scriptures in the 
Uganda language has recently been issued 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
of very unique proportions. It is only three 
inches wide and three inches thick, but very 
long. This size is adopted that, to protect 
it from the destructive white ants in Cen- 
tral Africa, it may fit into a certain size of 
tin cracker boxes of an English firm, which 
are extensively used in Uganda families. 
The box is just large enough to take in 
this Bible with a small prayer book and 
hymnal, and a little Biblical history. This 
little library is certain to have a powerful 
influence in the development of Ugandese 
Christian character. 

riarvels of Grace. 

Rev. Robert P. Wilder, writing from 
India, pictures in a few words the terrible 
struggle Hindu converts pass through in 





taking an open stand for Christ among their 
countrymen. He says: 

Many people at home think that when a man is 
baptized our work for him is nearly if not quite 
done. But you know that he needs far more care 
after baptism than before. Friends pull at him. 
He feels the change of environment, and becomes 
somewhat lonely. He is shocked by some profes- 
sors who are not possessors of religion. Doubts 
arise. He is shunned, hated, mocked at, and non- 
Christians refuse to employ him The three 

Brahmins who were baptized are still in the faith, 
though opposed by fears within and foes without. 
We praise God for them. But no one knows how 
many hours have gone in praying for, rebuking, en- 
treating and counseling them. All three are work- 
ing for their support. One receives so little that I 
assist him slightly, but if he passes his examination 
in March, he will be entirely independent. Will 
you not join us in prayer for him? Three other 
Brahmins are asking for baptism, also one Mahratta. 
The struggle is terrible. Oh, the power of Christ ! 
If people desire to see marvels, please send them 
out here. What greater marvel is possible than 
the conversion of a Brahmin ! 

rtonuments to Heroes. 

The whole country has witnessed with 
applauding attention the dedication of a 
noble monument to 
its hero-general on 
the shores of the 
Hudson. An oc- 
casion of lesser but 
like significance oc- 
curred a few weeks 
later in Boston, 
when a costly me- 
morial was erected 
to the memory of 
the brave Robert 
G. Shaw, who fell 
at the head of a 
regiment of colored 
soldiers in the storming of Fort Wagner. 
Says the Century, in recording this event: 

"It is fitting that the art of the new 
world should culminate in this tribute to 
one who dedicated his pure young life to his 
country, to freedom, to the uplifting of a 
people in bondage, to the ennobling of the 
whole race of man." 

Well said, we most heartily respond. 
But then, we ask, Are not the young men 
and women who have fallen on the very 
shores of Africa, storming the citadels of 
heathenism at the head of the forces sent 
out by the Church, deserving of just as much 

Rev. A W. Marling. 





gat ^:'- 



Mrs. G. A. Laffln. 

praise and costly 
commemoration? Is 
it not for the ele- 
vation of the same 
race and equally 
for the ennobling 
of mankind for 
which the Boston 
hero died that they 
too have so cheer- 
fully sacrificed 
their lives ? No 
martial music, no 
smell of gunpow- 

der, no artistic tablets of brass are called for 
to celebrate their 
noble deeds. But 
let the Church 
prove its full ap- 
preciation o f its 
own heroes and he- 
roines, the living 
as well as the dead, 
by liberal gifts of 
its sons and daugh- 
t er s, and its 
wealth, to extend 
the redemption of 
Africa's millions. 

Rev. A. C. Good, Ph.D. 


The missionaries in Central China were 
looking forward eagerly to the coming of 
Mr. Speer, hoping to receive through their 
intercourse with him " that fullness of 
Christ which will, with united prayers, fill 
us with joy, and a blessing be poured out 
upon us as missionaries and people." 

An Anglo-Chinese college has been 
opened in Hangchow, entirely under Chinese 
auspices. An earnest, Christian young 
man (Chinese) is a prominent teacher, and 
our missionary, Rev. E. L. Mattox, has 
been asked to aid in outlining the curric- 
ulum of study and in giving instruction. 

At the quarterly communion in April at 
Chining Chow, China, two women and six 
men were baptized and partook of the holy 
communion for the first time. Several of 
their relatives and acquaintances show an 
awakened interest in Christian truth. 
Medical work has started some of them 




Mr. Doughty, of Hiroshima, Japan, 
writes: " The number of inquirers and those 
preparing for baptism is greater than at 
any time within my experience. We are 
much encouraged on account of the revival 
of interest in Christianity among the people 
generally. It is hard to have to cut the 
work just when it is looking up so." 

Messrs. Dodd and Denman and their 
families report their arrival at Chieng Hai 
in February. Mr. Denman writes: " I 
spend nearly all the forenoon in my so- 
called dispensary, a little cubby-hole 
beneath the house." Mr. and Mrs. Dodd 
are off on a tour. Converts are coming 
into the Church right along. 

Rev. G. P. Pierson, writing from Japan, 
gives this bright picture: " In almost every 
other place it is sowing time, but here in 
the Hokkaido it is reaping time. Almost 
every man you speak to has some Christian 
knowledge or tradition; he has heard ser- 
mons in Tokyo; his wife was in a Christian 
school ; he has been been taught English by 
some missionary iu the provinces ; his brother 
is a preacher, or his sister a Bible woman; 
his son perhaps is a Christian." So the 
truth spreads and takes root. 

Mr. Pierson also says: "There seems to 
be more unity among our Tokyo preachers 
aud churches than has been for five or six 
years. The faithful have been confirmed 
in their faith; those who have left the 
Church for business, or those who have 
gone over to Unitarian principles, have not 
attracted much of a following." 

A young Japanese student some years ago 
was so much exercised over the property 
quarrel between his father and uncle, that 
he went to the grave of his grandfather and 
from temple to temple, praying that this 
disgrace might come to an end. Among 
other places visited, he attended a Christian 
Church, and received a deep impression 
from a sermon by Rev. Mr. Taylor. 
Gradually the seed thus sown took root, 
and now, after some years, he is in Mr. 
Brokaw's Bible class, and seems readv and 
anxious to live for Christ. 



Fifty years ago, on March 22, 1847, Dr. 
and Mrs. Mattoon and Dr. House arrived 
in Bangkok. From that year dates the 
beginning of the Siam Mission of our 
Church. It is worth while to look back 
over the half century and consider the prog- 
ress that has been made. 


During the first four years the king was 
intensely jealous of the influence of the 
missionaries. The people were forbidden 
to accept the Christian religion under pain 
of death. The native teachers were seized 
and thrown into prison. So great fear was 
aroused by this hostility that the other 
natives employed by the missionaries all 
deserted them, and the people even refused 
to sell them food. In this extremity they 
cried to God for help, and thought it would 
be necessary to abandon the field ; but while 
they were waiting for a ship to carry them 
away the king was attacked with a malig- 
nant disease and soon died. His brother, 
who succeeded to the throne in 1851, invited 
the missionaries to his palace, manifested 
the utmost friendliness and permitted the 
ladies of the mission to teach the women 
in the royal harem. 

Dr. Stephen Mattoon. 




Rev. S. E. House, M.D. 

The situation was completely changed. 
Princes and nobles came to visit the mis- 
sionaries; teachers and servants returned to 
their work ; throngs of people came to ask 
for books and religious instruction; overt 
persecution entirely ceased. 

This happy condition of affairs continued 
until two years after the establishment of 
the Laos Mission. In 1869, the king of 
the Laos began to persecute the native con- 
verts, and he put two of them to death. 
Strict orders were given to the people to 
have nothing to do with the missionaries, 
and they were preparing to flee for their 
lives, when the king was smitten with disease 
and died in a few days. 

Again, in 1882, a royal proclamation 
was sent throughout the provinces forbidding 
the people to come to the missionaries for 
any purpose, and threatening with severe 
punishment any who should profess the 
Christian faith. Consternation seized upon 
the native Christians. It seemed for a 
time that the work must stop. But again 
the sudden death of the king put an end to 
the persecution. 

In recent years the relations between the 
ruling class in Siam and the American 
missionaries has been most cordial. On all 
proper occasions the king has expressed his 
appreciation of our work, and several times 
he has contributed to the support of our 
schools and medical work. He has also 
given valuable sites for mission stations at 

a nominal rent. On our tours in the coun- 
try provinces, the governors receive us into 
their houses, invite us to eat with them, in 
some instances even invite us to preach in 
their houses and send out word to the people 
to come and hear. When we go to the court- 
house, frequently the judges will adjourn 
court and invite us to preach in the court- 
room. Last year, at the great annual fes- 
tival held at the largest Buddhist temple in 
Bangkok, a large pavilion was erected for 
the use of the princes, where scientific lec- 
tures were delivered in the evening during 
festival week. One evening an American 
missionary was invited to preach the gospel 
in that pavilion, and the highest princes and 
nobles of the kingdom assembled and lis- 
tened attentively to the preaching. Relig- 
ious toleration has been proclaimed by the 
king, and the governors frequently urge us 
to open mission stations in the capitals of 
country provinces, sometimes offering to 
erect the necessary buildings at their own 


Like the rulers, the common people have 
completely changed their attitude toward 
the Christian religion. At first, they were 
suspicious or openly hostile ; and when they 
were convinced, by the cure of disease and 
the relief of suffering, of the good inten- 
tions of the missionaries, the interest which 
they manifested was chit fly that of curios- 
ity, and the permanent fruits of the work 
were gathered but slowly. Twelve years 
passed before the first Siamese convert pro- 
fessed his faith in Christ . Now, in many 
places, there seems to be a genuine hunger 
for the word of life. Persons have come 
five or six days' journey on foot to meet 
the missionaries on their tours and listen to 
the preaching. Formerly, Christian books 
were given away ; it was not thought 
possible to circulate them in any other way. 
Now, about fifty thousand are sold to the 
people every year, and we have many 
proofs that they are read with interest. 
Prejudice against missionaries because they 
are foreigners has almost ceased. Our 
medicines and medical treatment are wel- 
comed almost everywhere. The introduc- 
tion of the railway, the electric car, and 
other features of western civilization have 
impressed the people with the superiority 
of foreign customs, and changed their 




opinion of the foreign religion. The 
Buddhist priests are, in many cases, modi- 
fying their religious teaching to suit this 
change in public sentiment. The old 
Buddhistic indifference is breaking up, and 
the hearts of the people are preparing to 
receive the truth. Already among the Laos, 
intelligent Buddhists are found ready to 
admit that Christianity is destined to be- 
come the prevailing religion of the country, 
and thoughtful men among the Siamese 
are beginning to recognize the signs of the 


Manifest progress has been made in the 
development of the various agencies for 
carrying on mission work. We have the 
entire Bible translated and published. Our 
mission press in Bangkok is sending out 
about four million pages of books every 
year, and they are carried to the farthest 
bounds of the kingdom. Our educational 
work is carried on by means of a uniform 
system of schools with a thorough course of 
study, culminating in the Christian high 
school in Bangkok, the special object of 
which is to train Christian young men for 
Christian work. 

The^'medical work has also been firmly 

established. Hospitals and dispensaries are 
established at the country stations. Itiner- 
ating medical missionaries carry the blessing 
of healing on their tours to distant regions. 
Several Christian graduates from the high 
school and others have studied medicine, 
and are now either self-supporting physi- 
cians or are serving as assistants to the 
medical missionaries. Their success in this 
work will encourage other young men to 
join the ranks of the medical profession. 

The organized Christian Church is a 
powerful agency in this work. The First 
Church of Bangkok is now fully self-sup- 
porting, with an educated native pastor, and 
its members also give liberally to the 
support of the gospel in distant parts. 
Among the Laos several churches are self- 
supporting, and a large band of native 
evangelists has been trained and sent out 
to preach and develop new churches. 


The progress indicated by this backward 
glance encourages us to hope for large 
results and great changes in the near future. 
Every opportunity that we could ask is 
placed before us in Siam. In the plans 
that have been laid and the lines of devel- 
opment that have been followed hitherto, w 

Korean Rice Shop. 




aim at nothing less than the win- 
ning of the whole kingdom for 

In the city of Nakawn, the cap- 
ital of one of the finest provinces 
of the country, the centre of a pop- 
ulation of more than three hun- 
dred thousand souls, the eagerness 
of the people to hear the gospel 
has been most remarkable. It is 
only five years since work was be- 
gun in this province, and already 
we have a flourishing church of 
fifty-two members, with two faith- 
ful native elders who take turns in 
conducting the Sabbath services. 
A considerable number of inquirers 
have also applied for baptism and 
have been placed on probation. If 
the work could be pushed per- 
sistently now, there is every indi- 
cation that half a dozen churches 
could be organized in this province 
within a few years. To do this, it 
is necessary that missionaries re- 
side and live in Nakawn, but 
thus far the funds are lacking. 


Many of our churches observing the old 
order of topics for the Monthly Concert 
will be remembering Korea in this month 
of August. No field at this time is more 
worthy of attention in the Church of 
Christ, or deserves to be more fervently 
remembered in the prayers of this Church 

Korean Village. 

Korean Mother and Children. 

than the whole Korea Mission. The An- 
nual Report speaks of the past year in this 
Mission as "one of exceptional progress." 
Missionaries have been overtaxed in their 
efforts to meet the demands of the people 
for the preaching of the gospel. This is 
especially so in the northern portions of the 
country, in and around Pyeng Yang. All 
over that section the gospel seems to be 
springing up amazingly. A recent 
letter from Dr. Wells speaks of a 
visit which he made one hundred 
miles north from Pyeng Yang, 
where gold mines are opening in 
charge of an American company. 
Dr. Wells writes: "A delightful 
circumstance in connection with my 
trip was the Christian carpenters I 
met there, whose firm example and 
steady observance of the Sabbath is 
doing good work for our cause." 
This is a fair illustration of the sta- 
bility of the Korean Christians, and 
their activity in spreading the gospel 
wherever the providence of God lo- 
cates them. Dr. Underwood writes, 
under date of May 4: " Work in 
Korea looks up as well and far 




better than we could possibly have 
hoped. We from around Seoul 
have not written as much as from 
the other stations, but our work 
there is as prosperous as any, and 
calls as loudly for workers. Since 
the last annual meeting I have 
been privileged to baptize more 
than 110, and to receive about 
400 catechumens. In all circles 
the work goes forward and along 
all lines. Mrs. Underwood has 
her hands full of women's work 
with a daily dispensary and from 
five to seven weekly meetings for 
Bible instruction. These and lit- 
erary work have kept our hands 
full. I have the entree of the 
palace, and every time before I go 
to the country, or when I come 
back, his Majesty sends for me, 
and generally inquires how the 
Christian work is going on. This, 
too, in heathen Korea." 

Sad news comes from Syria of the 
sudden death of Rev. N. Stuart, of the 
Irish Presbyterian Mission, in Damascus. 
He seemed but just beginning a mission- 
ary service of richer promise than usual 
at Nebk, a solitary post some distance 
from his associates in Damascus. 

Mr. Stuart had an exceptionally genial 
and happy disposition, which made him 
a favorite with both foreigners and Syrians, and 
an unflagging zeal in his work and remarkable 
pulpit power, which made his ministrations most 
effective whether he spoke in Arabic or English. 

I 'am sure it is not only among his own associates 
in Damascus, but throughout our own mission 
circle that the sense of sorrow and personal bereave- 
ment will be felt from the sudden loss of a beloved 
and respected associate in our common work for 

W. S. Nelson. 
823 Locust Ave., 
Walnut mils, Cincinnati, 0. 



May 31 — From San Francisco, returning to the 
East Japan Mission, Rev. William Imbrie and 
Mrs. Imbrie. 

June 5— From New York, returning to the 
Western Persia Mission, Dr. Mary E. Bradford; 
returning to the Eastern Persian Mission, Dr. Mary 
J. Smith and Miss Annie Montgomery. 

June 8— From San Francisco, to join the Korea 
Mission, Miss Margaret Best. 

Korean Noblemen in Court Dress. 

June 19 — From New York, returning to the 
Lodiana Mission, Professor J. G. Gilbertson, and 
Mrs. Gilbertson. 

June 23 — From New York, returning to the Ga- 
boon Mission, Rev. W. C. Gault and Mrs. Gault, 
and Miss Louisa A. Babe. 


May 8 — At New York, from the Lodiana Mis- 
sion, Mrs. W. J. Clark. 

May 10 — At San Francisco, from the Canton 
Mission, Rev. E. P. Fisher. 

May 21 — At San Francisco, from the West 
Shantung Mission, Rev. W. B. Hamilton and 

June 6 — At San Francisco, from the West 
Shantung Mission, Rev. W. O. Elterich and family. 

June 6 — At New York, from the Brazil Mission, 
Rev. Woodard E. Finley, and Rev. James B. 

June 8 — -At San Francisco, from the Central 
China Mission, Rev. George F. Fitch. 

June 9 — At New York, from the Lodiana Mis- 
sion, Rev. J. A. Orbison and family. 

June 14 — At New York, from the Eastern Per- 
sia Mission, Rev. J. G. Watson and family. 

June 17 — At New York, from the Syria Mission 
Rev. W. S. Nelson and Mrs. Nelson. 




Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

August— The Reflex Influence of Foreign 

(a) Development of the missionary movement. 

(b) Reflex commercial influence. 

(c) Reflex intellectual influence. 
(ili Keflex spiritual influence, 
(e) Causes of spiritual decline. 

"Modern Missions in the East." Edward A. 
Lawrence. Harper & Bro. §1.75. (This may 
be purchased from the Foreign Missions Library, 
156 Fifth avenue, New York, for §1.50 postpaid.) 

"Foreign Missions After a Century." Jas. S. 
Dennis. Eevell. §1.50. (This may be pur- 
chased from the Foreign Missions Library for 
$1.15 postpaid.) 

" These for Those : Our Indebtedness to Foreign 
Missions." Wm. Warren. Hoyt, Fogg & Breed, 
Portland, Me. 

"The Ely Volume on Missions and Science." 
Chas. E. Swett, 1 Somerset street, Boston. By 
mail $1.50. 

"Report Centenary Conference, London," Vol 
I, "Commerce of Missions," pp. 111-136. "Reflex 
Spiritual Influence," pp. 93-106. These two valu- 
ble volumes may be had for W^cents the set. Con- 
gregational Publishing Society, Boston, Mass. ) 



Looking down from the high level of the 
blessed work of the gospel in the regenera- 
tion of the soul and the building of Christ- 
like character, let us remember that our 
scheme of topics includes the whole subject 
of Foreign Missions in all its related parts. 
There is a clear logic of events which 
marks the life of a heathen whose transfor- 
mation of his inner spirit awakens the desire 
and purpose to improve his outer condition. 
Therefore it is that the increasing spread of 
Christian missions opens new and widening 
doors through which the commerce of 
Christendom enters the markets of the world. 
The civilizing effects of the gospel are the 
immediate cause of the demand for the 
products of civilization which mark the 
world of commerce. Wherever the gospel 
has gone, there the ships of the merchant- 
man have followed. 

Three ways may be mentioned in which 
Christianity has proved helpful to the com- 
merce of Christendom. First of all, the 
new creature in Christ comes to desire the 
accompaniments of a more refined life. He 
is naked and would be clothed. He is a 

dweller in thatched huts and would have a 
home of better pattern. This means fur- 
niture and better accommodations and facili- 
ties with which to rise to that level of life 
which he discovers is the normal mode of 
living for the Christians who come to his 
shores. Thus new markets open for 
Christendom. Says President Seelye, of 
Amherst: " Civilization is, in a most im- 
portant sense, a gift rather than an acquisi- 
tion. Men do not gain it except as stimu- 
lated thereto by some incitement from above 
themselves. The savage does not labor for 
the gratifications of civilized life, since 
these he does not desire. His labors and 
desires are both dependent on some sinritual 
gift which quickens his aspirations and calls 
forth his toil." The gospel is this gift. 

The second feature is the inspiration to 
exertion. Many heathen lands are marked 
by fine climate and fruitful soil; but the 
people were slothful. The spontaneous pro- 
ductions of the soil supplied their simple 
wants. The methods of government, ac- 
cording to which a ruler appropriated to 
himself anything attracting his fancy 
among the possessions of his people, did not 
tend to excite in them an ambition to secure 
more than a sufficient livelihood. It was 
difficult to inspire these people with desires 
calculated to excite their exertions for the 
production of wealth. This increase of 
activity develops increase of ability. Under 
the quickening influence of the gospel men 
have become active, inventive, vigilant, en- 
terprising. The latent possibilities of the 
soil have been developed. Local trade has 
rapidly increased, and the ships which have 
carried cargoes to supply the new demands 
of the people rising to higher levels of life 
have begun to carry back the product of 
native toil. A striking illustration is the 
development of the sugar interests in the 
Hawaiian Islands. In 1820 the mission- 
aries began their work. Steadily the people 
acquired the qualities of the Christian life 
and the features of Christian civilization. 
Between the years 1853 and 1873 the 
value of the trade between San Francisco 
and Australia was nearly $20,000,000. 
The American duties on sugar and rice 
amounted to $300,000 annually. In the 
year 1873 the value of the imports from 
the United States to the islands exceeded 
$1,000,000. In 1876 a reciprocity treaty 
was signed between our country aud the 




islands, greatly stimulating commerce. In 
the year 1881 the number of vessels touch- 
ing at the ports of the islands was 258, of 
which 181 were from the United States. 
This instance is but one of many that might 
be given. The Japanese have risen under 
the stimulus of Christianity to a place of 
such importance among the nations as to 
develop a transpacific commerce of vast 

The third feature of this influence is 
perhaps the most interesting, as it involves 
morals and character building. As Chris- 
tianity becomes established, there follows a 
new code of morals in trade, an honesty 
in fulfilling contracts, and a concern for 
integrity in representations concerning 
goods, all of which makes possible healthy 
and reliable commercial relations. To 
have a true civilization even in material 
interests there must be a fine moral quality 
in the social fabric. This is not found 
where the gospel is not known. Says Sir 
Bartle Frere: " Civilization cannot precede 
Christianity. The only successful way of 
dealing with all races is to teach them the 
gospel in the simplest manner possible." 
An instance in point is the cunning decep- 
tion of the native Africans in the ivory 
trade. They would picture the character 
of the ivory as being of great value, and 
by detailing the difficulties involved in 
securing it, would receive advance payments 
of more thau the ivory was worth. Such 
methods threatened to destroy all commerce, 
but with the conversion of many of the 
natives these deceptions ceased, and com- 
merce revived. The islands of the Pacific 
furnish abundant illustrations of the way the 
ferocity and treachery of the natives ren- 
dered the dangers of commerce so great as 
to make it impracticable. A touching inci- 
dent of those days is recorded in " The 
Story of the Morning Star." The mate 
of a whaling ship, a Mr. Whalon, .fell into 
the hands of the natives of the Marquesas 
Islands. It was decided that he should be 
eaten by the cannibals. A native Christian 
from the Sandwich Islands, Kekela by 
name, ransomed him from the savages by 
giving his new six-oared boat as the price. 
President Lincoln heard of the incident, and 
sent a valuable present to Kekela, who 
wrote the following words in his grateful 
reply: "As to this friendly deed of mine, 
its seed was brought from your great land, 

by certain of your countrymen who had 
received the love of God. It was planted 
in Hawaii, and I brought it here that these 
dark regions might receive the root of all 
that is good and true, which is love. ' ' 

It might be suggested that these products 
come from contact with civilization, and can 
scarcely be claimed as the direct result of 
Christianity. But the testimony upon this 
point is most conclusive. The English 
Journal of the Society of Arts, in its number 
for June, 1879, publishes the following 
statement: " At the Edendale Mission, 
seventy monogamous Zulus live in houses 
like Europeans, with furniture in and gar- 
dens around them. They have a school 
and stone church, built by the men them- 
selves, while three hundred thousand of the 
same race live within the frontiers of Natal, 
having been nearly half a century in con- 
tact with English civilization, yet without a 
bed to lie on, a chair to sit on, table, or 
domestic implement of any kind." The 
same journal mentions a still more striking 
fact : " In the colony of Lagos, in western 
Africa, some of the natives have acquired 
wealth, and desire to imitate English habits. 
One man built himself an elegant house, 
furnished after the most approved modern 
fashion; yet neither he nor his family 
occupy it, but live in an adjoining hovel." 
It may therefore be considered fairly demon- 
strated that it is Christianity that explains 
the development of that civilized life which 
realizes anything like stability in the condi- 
tions which increase commercial relations. 

There is a reverse side to this subject 
which should not be passed over. We are 
considering the benefits which accrue to 
commerce by the spread of the gospel. It 
is not for us to consider at length the influ- 
ence of commerce upon the work of mis- 
sions. That influence, however, is far from 
an unmixed good. The same ships that 
carry missionaries and Bibles often carry 
rum, and merchants bereft of moral charac- 
ter, rated as citizens of Christian countries, 
many who will not hesitate to sell manhood 
for money. Tne effect of these evil forces 
upon the work of the missionaries will be 
at once apparent. Christianity confers 
great benefits upon commerce, and then 
must counteract the evils that are incidental 
to the development of commerce. 

The important fact to be emphasized, 
however, is that if we are to sum up the 




various motives that stimulate men to send 
the gospel to those land that are in dark- 
ness, one of them, not the highest, yet 
potent with many, is the fact that the com- 
merce of Christendom is certain to be 
advanced by the spread of the gospel in 
heathen lands. Thousands of dollars are 
turned back into the coffers of Christian 
business men for the hundreds that have 
been given to send the gospel to those who 
had it not. If we had no higher motive, 
this alone would justify Christian missions; 
but when to this we add the splendid 
trophies of divine grace in the eternal sal- 
vation of immortal souls and the blessed 
redemption of the race unto God, with 
something of Paul's appreciation of the 
constraining love of Christ, we may well 
cry : ' ' Woe is me if I preach not the 




" And the sons of strangers shall build up 
thy walls."— Isa. 60: 10. 

What would the religion of Moses and the 
prophets be to-day, if it had not been taken 
up and brought to its fruition through the 
faith and works of the Gentiles ? The rela- 
tion and influence has been mutual. Out 
of Judaism has come Christianity; but 
Judaism became full-blown Christianity 
only when the Gentiles were enlisted in its 
service. So prophecy itself foretold. The 
universal city of God was to be erected not 
by Hebrew hands alone or mainly, but into 
its construction were the labors of all peo- 
ples to go ; and the prophetic vision beheld 
in the greater future in which we live the 
contributions which " the sons of the stran- 
gers " would make to the upbuilding of the 
Church. So it has ever been and so it is 
to-day. The extension of Christianity has 
been its construction. Its missions have 
been its preservation. Its work abroad has 
secured its strength at home. The apostolic 
age itself illustrated first of all the reflex 
influence of missions. Had the original 
disciples remained in Judea, they would 
have founded only a Jewish sect. They 
realized what Christ's teaching was and 
what his redeeming work meant, through 
the problems which they were made to face 
when they began to take it to the nations. 

It was not a chance result that St. Paul's 
work led the way in the development of 
Christianity. Only in a missionary career 
could apostolic theology unfold its contents. 
Otherwise it would have stagnated. It might 
have had no more theology than is found 
in the epistle of James. Its foreign work 
was its very life. And, apart from its theol- 
ogy, the strength of the new religion was 
soon found in the new centres which it 
made for itself in " strange cities." At 
first it seemed to the Gentiles simply an- 
other phase of Jewish superstition. But it 
soon shook off the disguise. It was a uni- 
versal religion and proved itself such by 
enlisting in its service men of every race. 

Thus, internally and externally, apostolic 
Christianity was built up through its diffu- 
sion. It was unfolded through its dissemina- 
tion. The more it spread extensively, the 
more fully it was revealed intensively. 

The same reflex influence of its spread 
abroad has marked also its subsequent his- 
tory. Its progress through the centuries 
has been in a true sense a development; the 
ever-clearer unfolding and application of 
that which was contained in it from the 
beginning. But the progress has been 
secured through the entrance into its service 
of many types of mind. The Greek, the 
Roman, the Teutonic, and the various 
nationalities of more mixed character which 
the modern world has produced, have in 
turn contributed to its explication and its 
comprehension. Different ages, marked by 
special tendencies, have brought forward 
fresh manifestations of the old truth. The 
interaction of old truth and new supporters 
of it may be seen throughout our entire his- 
tory. The process has always been a com- 
plex one. Without the original revelation, 
the successive types of mind would have had 
nothing to work upon. But without their 
activity the truth would have remained 
unutilized and undeveloped. It would not 
have been, as it has, embodied in creeds and 
institutions, in laws and customs, in society 
and in life. 

Of course, we may expect that the same 
process is continuing and that modern mis- 
sions will prove to be the instrument of the 
healthy growth of the Church at home. 
There are certain directions in which we can 
plainly see that they already are. Thus 
their influence on the theology of the 
Church is strongly conservative. Rational- 




ism cannot support foreign missions with any 
enthusiasm. It has no vital message for the 
heathen. And the facts of modern heath- 
enism drive Christians to Bible truth. 
Missions bring to light the universality and 
enormity of sin; the fruitlessness of man's 
efforts at self-salvation; the need of super- 
natural power to lead men out of darkness 
into light; the adaptations of the gospel of 
the cross to the needs of all mankind. 
Hence zeal in missions is generally found in 
orthodox communions. It has been on the 
basis of historical Christianity that the 
great triumphs of foreign missions have 
been won. Missions have much the same 
effect on the Church as a whole that evan- 
gelistic work has on the faith of the individ- 
ual Christian. In his study he may doubt 
and speculate; in the harvest fields, his 
doubts are forgotten and his speculations 
are vanquished by hard facts. The his- 
tory of foreign missions has been a constant 
redemonstration of the supernatural ness of 
Christianity and of the truth of Bible doc- 
trine. At the same time, foreign missions 
have been enlarging our conception of 
Christianity. It has made us see new 
meaning in the Bible. We wonder that 
good men ever read the Book, as we know 
they did, without addressing themselves to 
the world's conversion. Its whole emphasis 
has changed to us. We see in it a pro- 
gramme for human salvation which our 
fathers did not see. And therewith, still 
under the reflex influence of foreign missions, 
we notice its bearing on the vexed problems 
of human society which are now every- 
where coming to the front. Many of these 
can be studied better on foreign than on 
home soil. Social amelioration of man's 
present condition, side by side with faith in 
Christ as the Saviour of the soul — these are 
felt to be the twofold message of the gospel 
as it is carried to degraded paganism. If 
so, doubtless the same twofold message is 
meant for the home Church as well ; and we 
are coming to see that the Bible has had in 
it the double message for both worlds all 
the time. Through foreign missions also 
we have become familiar with other relig- 
ions; and if this has produced in some 
unchristian skepticism concerning the abso- 
luteness of Christianity, its final effect is 
evidently destined to be just the opposite. 
At first sight the resemblances between 
Christianity and other faiths naturally im- 

pressed the observer. But close acquaint- 
ance with the latter, and a more critical 
examination's already producing the old con- 
viction, only more intensified and enlarged, 
that Christianity alone meets fully the needs 
of all men and must triumph over all com- 
petitors. Out of the broadened knowledge 
of the world of religion a larger conception 
of the truth of the Bible and of the mis- 
sion of the gospel is plainly emerging. 

But, to look at the matter from the most 
practical side — the foreign mission work 
reacts on the piety of the Church at home. 
It obviously must. It is in necessary alli- 
ance with prayer, with Bible study, with 
faith in the promises, with strong church 
organization, with religious enthusiasm. It 
draws out the liberality of the people. It 
informs the popular mind. It quickens the 
pulse of the Church and stimulates its devo- 
tion. What would the Church do without 
such a stimulus to its best life ? The home 
field even in the United States would be too 
narrow. It would not give an outlook 
broad enough to awaken the full intelligence 
or the full sympathy of the Church. Years 
ago, in the early history of our northwestern 
States, a home missionary, presiding over 
a small church, insisted on taking from it 
gifts for foreign missions. When some 
doubted the wisdom of his action, his reply 
was, ' ' We in the Northwest need a Chris- 
tianity which is strong enough to convert the 
world." His point was a good one. If 
we did not have foreign missions, we would 
be compelled to hunt for them. They are 
necessary for the completeness of the 
Church's life and for the full vigor of her 
piety. She does her home work all the 
more strongly when she is trying to convert 
the world. 

These considerations are general. Other 
and more detailed illustrations of the reflex 
influence of missions might be given. They 
have enriched the world even according to 
the most material standard. They have 
opened new peoples for commerce and 
brought new treasures to the storehouse of 
Christendom. They have enriched Chris- 
tendom's intellectual possessions. In 
science, in art, in literature, their benefit 
has been felt. The missions of the Church 
have probably contributed more to the prog- 
ress of human life within the bounds of Chris- 
tendom than any other single agency. An 
appeal might be made for their support 




based solely on their commercial value and 
addressed even to the selfish instincts of 
trade. But of these material considerations 
we need say little. The larger fact is that 
they do so much for the Church and for 
Christianity; and as we think of the great 
nations which are now beginning to be 
evangelized, and of the contributions which 
they are surely destined to make to the fur- 
ther comprehension and application of the 
religion in whose service Greek, Roman, 
Teuton, Saxon, American have already 
found their prosperity, we cannot conceive 
that any one should hesitate to believe that 
foreign missions are the prime condition of 
the Church's progress. Verily we get more 
than we give. " There is that scattereth 
and yet increaseth." There may be doubt 
and strife confronting the Church at home, 
but she may console herself with the prom- 
ise that " the sons of strangers shall build 
up thy walls; and their kings shall minister 
unto thee." 




The widest hand that science has yet spread 
out in the universe is the great law of the 
conservation of energy. Let us have the 
courage to spread it out palm upward 
toward God. 

This law of conservation of energy, of 
action and reaction, of compensation, of re- 
flex influence, has its highest manifestation 
in mission work, the highest work known 
among mortals. This is the substance of 
the law; these outer puttings of it are only 
the shadow. This spiritual substance of the 
law is the reason, the final cause of its 

The Reflex Influence of Missions is Seen 
in Commerce. — The commercial movement of 
divine saving truth has all the certainty of 
God's everlasting purpose of redeeming 
love. Its every step is a blessing, its every 
word a treasure, its every breath a benedic- 
tion. First, it is a perception, then a con- 
ception, then an idea, then a conviction, 
then a purpose, then an infection, then a 
contagion, then a revolution, then a civiliza- 
tion. The desert blooming and fruiting like 

■ Portions of an address delivered at the [nterde- 

miminational Rally in Carnegie Hall, January 15, 
L897, reported in The Independent. 

a garden fills the ships and storehouses of 
the world from its waving harvests. Thus 
the prayer of the believing child and the 
tears of the believing missionary increase 
the commerce of all seas and appear on the 
balance sheet of the world. 

It cost less than $1,200,000 to Christian- 
ize the Sandwich Islands. We now have 
from $5,000,000 to $8,000,000 of com- 
merce, making in net profit annually about 
as much as the entire cost of Christianizing 
them. From the South Sea Islands, Eng- 
land annually receives ten pounds for every 
pound she expends there. From Micronesia 
the United States receives annually more 
than $40 for each dollar spent on missions 
there. An immigrant is valued in Wash- 
ington at $800. Each missionary in the 
South Sea Islands is worth to England 
$10,000 each year. 

It cost the United States to support the 
Dakotas an average of $120 each year, 
while it costs to care for the Christian 
Dakotas less than $7.80 each per year. 
Comment is unnecessary. I saw a Digger 
Indian in the Yosemite Valley, under the 
civilizing influence of that most sublime 
scenery, get his breakfast out of an ant's 
nest with a sharp stick. And he could 
clothe himself for twelve months on ten 
cents worth of cotton. You cannot carry 
on a commerce with such people. When 
these barbarians are converted then they 
want something. Their wives want bonnets 
and shawls and shoes and gloves and rib- 
bons, and their children want books and 
pictures. Then they will work, then they 
must work. It is the Christian family with 
its multiplied wants that spurs up and keeps 
up the average man. Then you can trade 
with him. He wants something. This 
means commerce. The annual business of 
England is $100 for each person ; of France, 
$50; of the United States, $50; of China, 
less than $5 ; of Africa, $2. 25. When we 
have Christianized the heathen natives and 
brought their wants and activities up to the 
level of Christian nations, we will have 
added many billions to the commerce of the 
world. Missions have never drawn from 
the world's pocketbook ten per cent, of 
what they have put into that pocketbook. 
Their reflex influence appears on the balance 
sheet of the races. 

The Reflex Influence of Missions is Seen in 
Science. — I can only catalogue a few of the 




rich results in this department. The field is 
as old as Christian thought and as wide as 
the outmost circle of civilization. 

That plain old science of geography, that 
plowboy among the sciences, so thoroughly 
of the earth earthy, is almost, like philology 
and ethnology, a missionary science. Much 
of its ancient domain has been recovered, 
and nearly all its modern domain has been 
secured by missionaries. Livingstone 
remade the map of Africa, swinging the 
Mountains of the Moon across the continent 
the other way. Dr. William Thompson has 
recast the map of Syria and unfolded the 
valleys and plains of Palestine. Mr. Col- 
ton, the chart maker, says : " There is 
scarcely an exploration in any land that 
does not acknowledge its indebtedness to 
missionaries." Carl Hitter, the celebrated 
geographer, says he could not have written 
his great work but for the material furnished 
by missionaries. Dr. Krapf made discov- 
eries that led Speke and Grant to the sources 
of the Nile so vainly sought ever since the 
days of Ptolemy, discoveries without which 
those sources might not even yet have been 

Philology, the search-light of the sciences 
thrown back on antiquity, that throws its 
X-rays upon the body of a language and 
reveals the hidden secrets of its remote past, 
is strictly a missionary science. Nearly all 
known languages have been mastered by 
missionaries. They have reduced many 
merely spoken languages to a written form. 
They have compiled dictionaries, braided 
grammars, translated literatures, and un- 
covered whatever wealth the languages have 

The Reflex Influence of Missions is 
Seen in Increased Intellectual Activity. 
— This mission work stirs the thoughtful 
man to his very depths by its very vastness. 
It crowds in upon the soul through every 
opening and along every avenue. It ap- 
peals to every motive. It fans the flame of 
devotion by the anguish it shall assuage, by 
the sorrow it shall soothe, by the blessings 
it shall bestow, by the light it shall dissem- 
inate, by the hope it shall inspire, by the 
purity it shall beget, and by the heaven it 
shall bequeath. 

Christianity is inherently missionary. It 
embodies the bloody sweat. It is the divine 
truth breaking into the world. Christ is 
one sent. He is on an errand. He comes 

needed but uninvited. He crowds himself 
upon the race when nothing awaits him but 
a manger and a cross. He intrenches in a 
hostile world and undertakes its subjuga- 
tion. He is seeking the lost. He has the 
alertness of a hunter. We are to have his 
spirit. Thus the New Testament Church 
is the mightiest missionary society ever 
launched upon the sea of the centuries. If 
you cannot keep step with this cause, be- 
ware, you will be left in the wilderness 

Christ always marches at the head of his 
Church. Let a man become possessed of the 
spirit of the Son of God, and it will inten- 
sify and enlarge his nature. When the evil 
spirit possesses a man it deforms and en- 
slaves him and reduces his individuality. 
In demoniacal possessions he is the tool or 
instrument used by the demons. They act 
and speak for him, saying, " Our name is 
legion. Let us alone." But when the 
Spirit of God possesses a man his individ- 
uality is enlarged, ennobled, crowned with 
dominion. He is able to stand against all 
adversaries; weapons and fagots are pow- 

The Reflex Influence of Missions is Seen 
in the Development of Exalted Character. — 
The greatest creation in the world is man. 
" What a piece of work is man ! how noble 
in reason! how infinite in faculty, in form 
and moving how express and admirable ! in 
action how like an angel, in apprehension 
how like a God!" The arts that touch 
and handle him must be the highest arts. 
The forces that exalt his nature must be the 
divinest forces. The inspirations that en- 
noble him must be of infinite value. Man- 
hood, exalted manhood, is the most costly 
thing in the world. To produce man with 
noble character is the one problem at which 
God has toiled all the ages. 

This work, this mission work, produces 
the greatest crop of exalted characters 
everywhere. It is not a question of race, 
but of grace. It is not a problem of good 
blood, but of the divine blood. God is not 
hunting good clothes, but great needs. Our 
lostness attracts him and he hunts for us, 
leaving the ninety-nine. We become attrac- 
tive to him by our very repulsiveness, our 
sin. All he asks is, " Do they need me ?" 
" Will they receive me '?" Then he under- 
takes to make out of us new creatures, 
saints and angels. I sent a native preacher, 




a Chinese, to his work in the Fuchow Con- 
ference, who had this in his history. After 
he was converted and had studied the New 
Testament not a little, he felt called to 
preach, to tell his countrymen the good 
news. When he had fully settled that as 
his duty, he went into the crowded street 
and got upon a little box and began preach- 
ing. Soon a mob gathered, knocked him 
down from his box, beat him with a bundle 
of bamboo rods, dragged him through the 
city, and threw him over the wall for dead. 
He came to, went down to a little brook and 
washed off the blood and dirt. Then he 
prayed, saying, " Lord Jesus, what wilt 
thou have me to do ?" Then he went 
straight back to the same street, got upon 
the same box, and preached again. Again 
the mob rallied, beat him, dragged him out 
and threw him over the wall for dead. 
Again he revived, washed away the blood 
and dirt, and said, " Lord Jesus, what wilt 
thou have me to do ?' ' Back he went to 
the same little box and preached as before. 
Again the mob rallied and beat him down. 
The magistrate, fearing to answer for his 
death, sent the police and took him from 
the mob and put him in a jail, that faced 
on a little open square, on which the mob 
gathered, howliug and throwing up dust. 
He went to the little window, put his hand 
out through the grating and beckoned for 
the mob to be quiet. When they quieted a 
little he pressed his bruised and bleeding 
face up against the gratings, and said : 
" None of these things move me, neither 
count I my life dear unto myself, so that I 
might finish my course with joy and the 
ministry which I have received of the Lord 
Jesus to testify the gospel of the grace of 
God" (Acts 20: 24). The old martyrs did 
no better than that. Even Anglo-Saxons 
could do no better. This man wanted to be 
sent to that people as his regular work. 

It is worth more than all it costs to have 
the home Church feel a kinship to these 
heroic souls. When a country cannot pro- 
duce among her own sons men willing to 
die for their liberties, but must do their 
fighting by mercenaries, then that country 
has lost its liberties, and has nothing left 
worth dying for. When a Church reaches 
the state where she cannot furnish missiona- 
ries and keep in sympathy with her mis- 
sionaries, she has reached a point where she 
has nothing worth propagating. It is the 

spirit of heroism and sacrifice that insures 
spiritual triumph. No man is worth much 
in the spiritual world who has not convic- 
tions which are more to him than all else, 
who would not rather die than recant. No 
Church can long remain a conquering force 
which has not the missionary spirit and does 
not understand the word of Jesus, "As the 
Father hath sent me, even so send I you. ' ' 
It is not all loss to sacrifice for God. 
Often all else is loss. We come to our best 
uses in the furnace. The old refiner of 
gold had the secret when he said he kept the 
gold in the crucible and turned on the heat 
till be could see his own face in the metal. 
So God refines the gold that shall decorate 
his temple yonder. He keeps us in the 
crucible and turns on the heat, taking our 
money or our children for this work, till he 
can see his own image in us. 

When I have seen missionaries going on 
shipboard, turning their backs on this great 
land of liberties and libraries and blessings 
and friends, leaving aged parents whom 
they may never see again, I have thought 
these were in the furnace, and would come 
out diamonds for the highest uses. When I 
have thought of missionary mothers taking 
their little children, that must have the 
change of years of a temperate climate 
free from malaria to save them from imbe- 
cility, taking them down to a steamer about 
to sail for the far-away homeland, and 
looking over the strange faces of passengers 
to find some woman to whom she can 
entrust them during the long voyage, some 
woman to care for them if they sicken on 
the sea, and thus send them to strangers to 
train and educate them, and at night listen 
to their prayers which the mother has taught 
them ; as I have thought of these sacrifices, 
bravely made for the sake of the Master, I 
have felt that the temperature is at least up 
to the point where the white diamonds are 
made for the diadem of the King. This 
missionary work is worth more than it costs 
for the heroic martyr spirit with which it 
inspires the Church. 

The Reflex Influence of Missions Inspires 
the Hope of Sjieedy Triumph. — The ages 
have passed slowly in the darkness, but 
the Church is now kindling her beacon 
fires on the mountain-tops everywhere. 
The Christian Church, through her mis- 
sionary operations, has been patiently pre- 
paring the way for illumining the world. 




The stations have been planted, churches 
built, schools opened, presses started, dic- 
tionaries compiled, grammars braided, litera- 
ture created, great lines of communication 
secured, railroads, steamships, telegraphs, 
printing presses, Bible societies — everything 
seems to be in readiness. Millions of 
believers have a rich experience and good 
theology and increasing zeal. Our high 
schools and colleges and universiteis are 
making ready a great army competent 
to teach the word, fortunes beyond the 
necessities of their owners are being 
accumulated by the hundred millions; all 
things now seem ready. My faith is 
humbly and hopefully looking to see the 
Holy Spirit come upon the churches, and 
flash along all these lines, lighting all 
lands. Already I see light shining on the 
summits of the Himalayas, and pouring 
down upon the upturned faces and the up- 
lifted hands of millions in the valley of the 
Ganges, and streaking over the plains of 
China, and streaming over the islands of 
Japan and flashing like heat-lightning 
over the Dark Continent. The time is 
not far distant when a nation shall be born 
in a day, and the whole earth shall be cov- 
ered with the knowledge of the Lord, as 
the waters cover the great deep. 


Not long since the New York Herald 
published a letter from Commander Charles 
O'Neil, of the U. S. Navy, in which he 
spoke most emphatically in praise of the 
American missionaries in Turkey. In an- 
swer to a letter from one of the correspond- 
ing secretaries of the Board of Foreign 
Missions, Commander O'Neil has made this 
further expression of his sentiments: 

My experience with the American missionaries 
in the Ottoman empire was most favorable to 
them, and whenever the occasion presents itself I 
do not hesitate to commend them and their work. 
I can always be relied on and referred to as a warm 
friend and ally of our countrymen and women who 
are laboring in the cause of Christianity and educa- 
tion in Turkey ; they have done and are doing 
noble work, the far-reaching influences and value 
of which cannot be overestimated. I am happy 
to number among our missionaries many valued 
friends, and it is a source of great gratification to 
me to have been able, even in a slight degree, to 
strengthen their hands, and show to Turkish 

officials and others that our government regards 
them with special favor, and is solicitous for their 
safety and welfare. 

Another statement in very emphatic lan- 
guage and of high value regarding mission- 
ary work is made by a German military 
officer in a recent volume on " German 
Southwest Africa." The paragraph, trans- 
lated in the Chronicle of the London Mis- 
sionary Society, is as follows: 

What merchants, artisans and men of science 
have done for the opening up and civilizing of this 
country, is as nothing compared with the results of 
missionary work. And this work means so much 
the more, because all self-regarding motives, such 
as always inspire the trader or the discoverer, and 
are to be found even in the soldier, are absent in the 
missionary. It must be an exalted impulse which 
leads the missionary to give up comfort, opportuni- 
ties of advancement, honor and fame for the sake of 
realizing the idea of bringing humanity into the 
kingdom of God, into sonship to God, and to in- 
still into the soul of a red or a black man the mystery 
of the love of God. Self-interest is put aside, and 
the missionary becomes a Nama or a Herero. He 
gives continually, not only from the inner treasure 
of his spiritual life and knowledge ; in order to be 
able to do that, he must unweariedly play now the 
artisan, now the farmer, now the architect ; he must 
always give presents, teaching, improvements, 
never take ; he must not even expect that his self- 
sacrifice will be understood. And to do this for 
years, decades even, truly requires more than 
human power, and the average mind of the 
European adventurer, hardened in self-valuation 
and self-seeking, cannot understand it. I used not 
to be able to understand it ; you must have seen it 
to be able to understand and admire. 


Rev. F. J. Coan writes from Oroomiah station 
of the evangelistic work during the winter and 
spring which has been wonderfully blessed of God. 
The field reported on includes, besides the large 
plain of Oroomiah, the smaller ones of Tergawar 
and Sulduz, where are located thirty-nine organized 
churches, which are more or less in close touch 
with 120 villages. The evangelistic work has been 
chiefly carried on by Mr. Coan, with the assistance 
of three native evangelists, Rev. E. 0. Eshoo, 
Rev. Shimoon Babilla and Rabi Vartan. Messrs. 
Shedd and Labaree have aided in this work as 
other missionary claims have permitted. Mr. 
Coan writes : 

At no time in the history of the Oroomiah station 
have we had cause for as much encouragement and 
gratitude to God as during the past winter, in the 
remarkable spiritual awakening all over the plain. 

After the visit of Mr. Speer last fall, a spirit of 




deep and earnest prayer was aroused in the station 
The week of prayer was set apart for a special 
study of the Holy Spirit's work, with daily 
services in English, to which the native breth- 
ren who knew the English language were cor- 
dially invited. The spirit was very near to us 
in all these meetings, which were richly blessed to 
all attending them. Daily prayer meetings in the 
station have been kept up since, in which those who 
were laboring in the villages were especially re- 
membered at the throne of grace ; and in more 
than one instance have there been signal answers 
to prayers offered. 

In spite of some discouraging conditions at 
the opening of the winter, these several months of 
untiring and unremitting work developed the fol- 
lowing signal encouragements : 

Never before has there been so deep a thirst for 
the word of God, such a desire to hear it preached 
in all its simplicity, and such a ready response to 
all its claims. With the exception of one place, 
there has been practically no opposition to our 
work. The bishops and priests of the Old Church 
as well as of the Roman Catholic churches have 
simply stood helpless at the stampede of their con- 
gregations to the evangelistic services, feeling that 
it was useless to interfere. Not only so, but in 
some places their people have been told to attend 
this preaching without fear, as they would there 
hear the word of God. In one village, where I 
was holding special services, the priests were some- 
what inclined to oppose the work, but the son of 
one of them reproved him, and not only attended 
the services himself when he could, but dismissed 
the school where he was teaching so that his 
scholars might also attend. The brother of the 
metropolitan bishop, residing in one of the districts, 
was himself most friendly, and was glad to attend 
where the word was preached. 

Another element contributing to the success of 
this movement was the spirit of unity which has 
greatly increased among the Syriac peoples since 
the organization of the national council last 
summer. This council is doing valuable work in 
preventing the numberless petty discords that were 
injuring the nation. They take up all cases of dis- 
pute, and are inclined to render fair decisions, and 
prevent the matter going to the Moslem courts. It 
is estimated that this council has since its organiza- 
tion saved the Nestorian people over f 20, 000 in 
fines and extravagant expenditures. 

But, while all these causes contributed to the 
help of the movement, we recognize that prayer 
and the presence of the Holy Spirit in an unusual 
degree were at the foundation of all that has been 

Mr. Coan estimates that three hundred special 
services were held in some fifty-five different 
villages. Nearly three hundred houses were 
visited by the evangelists, and nearly nine 
hundred personal interviews held. Probably over 
eight thousand different persons attended these 
meetings, the aggregate of the congregations amount- 
ing to about 46,000. At the time of his writing, 
there were some three hundred candidates under 
consideration for reception at the next communion 
service. He reports a much deeper tone in the 

regular preachers' meetings, where a desire for a 
higher spiritual life and a more thorough conse- 
cration to the work are very manifest. 

Rev. F. H. Chalfant writes from Wei Hien, 
West Shanung, outlining the experiences of a 
recent itinerary among the churches in his field. 
Wei Hien is peculiarly an itinerating station, 
being located in the midst of a large organized 
church work, necessitating much travel by the mis- 
sionaries every year. While the most part of the 
itinerating is among villages where churches exist, 
yet the non- Christian villages receive no small part 
of their attention. 

On April 1, having saddled my donkey, I 
mounted the little beast, and in company with my 
native helper, Mr. LuiHsingYin, turned toward the 
south. We had not gone five miles when it began 
tojrain, but pushing forward through the light drizzle 
we reached an inn at dark, some thirteen miles 
from home. Next morning the clouds had scattered 
and after another twelve miles' ride we reached the 
first Christian station (marked "A" on the map). 
Here are two schools, one for boys and one for 
girls. The teacher of the girls' school, Mrs. Sang, 
informed me that nine of her pupils wished to ap- 
pear before the session for examination. The 
church has but one elder at present, and I am the 
stated supply. We examined the girls and found 
them very proficient in their religious knowledge, 
and so admitted them to the Lord's table. Three 
of them had been baptized in infancy. One of the 
pupils in the boys' school appeared for examination 
and was received. Several others were examined, 
but their knowledge of Christian truth being in- 
sufficient, their baptism was postponed. Too much 
care cannot be exercised in admitting applicants to 
the church, as serious mistakes have sometimes been 
made through too great haste. 

After preaching, administering the sacraments, 
and discussing a hundred and one matters requiring 
attention, we retired for the night. The next day 
we visited another church in the morning, and 
called to inspect a new business enterprise started by 
some of our local Christians. It is a drug-store and 
dispensary, modeled somewhat after our mission 
dispensaries, with foreign medicines and glass 
bottles galore. I hope it may be a success. They 
propose employing a native Christian to preach to 
the customers, and asked me to furnish tracts for 
distribution. I regret to' say that many like 
schemes on the part of our church members have 
not thriven as anticipated, because of prejudices 
against Christianity and inexperience of the 

Pushing on, we reached another station ("C" 
on the map), where we spent the night. The next 
day was Sunday. I had promised to hold services 
that day at a station twelve miles further south, and 
so made an early start. Reaching an inn at the base 
of the mountain, we breakfasted. Here we had to 
abandon our donkeys, for the mountain road was 
too steep for the beasts to climb. The journey on 
foot to the village and return was a good twelve 
miles. We conducted the services, and made our 
way back to our Saturday night's stopping place, 




^(MT) l 5man {4000 rr) \ £ W ^ \ 




a (~' "17 

for there was no place to abide en route. The 
little inn where we had breakfasted was merely a 
food-shop (as we call a native restaurant) and had 
no accommodations for the night. 

At another place, called Tien Yu Kou, we were 
gratified to find a substantial new chapel, erected by 
the local Christians last year. We could hardly 
call it handsome in the United States, but for their 
purposes it suits this people exactly. It cost them 
about $100 silver, or say, $G0 U. S. money. It has 
no stained-glass windows, nor has it a board floor ; 
but it is light and roomy, and is used exclusively 
as a chapel. They also have a boys' school in the 
village, but it is housed in a separate room. The 
cost may seem to us but a trifle, and yet is amazing- 
ly large when we consider the small resources of 
those who contributed to its erection. Like nearly 
all the native chapels in this region, this one was 
built with little or no aid from the missionaries. I 
believe the total contributions of the latter amounted 
to about §2. We consider it the wiser plan to let 
the natives build their own chapels. 

And so we plodded on for fifteen days, visiting 
the "brethren in every city," and seeing "how 
they fared." Many disagreeable things are en- 
countered during these trips, especially where disci- 
pline has to be administered. After some years in 
this pioneer work, one realizes what .the apostle 
meant by "the care of the churches." 

On this trip twenty-seven stations were visited, 
requiring a donkey ride of 190 miles. One of the 
greatest embarrassments with which we are meeting 

just now is the proselyting policy carried on by the 
Roman Catholic Church. They are systematically 
erecting chapels in every village where our work is 
established. I rejoice to say that we have not as 
yet lost a single member of whose sincerity we feel 
assured. We trust that the Lord may be using this 
as a sifting process by which we may know who is 
on the Lord's side. Like Gideon's army, the stead- 
fast three hundred shall yet win the day. 


Seoul, Korea, May 14, 1897. 

I have just returned from a trip into the north to 
assist the Pyeng Yang station, in accordance with 
the appointment of the last annual meeting. Mr. 
Whittemore will write you more particularly about 
the work. The region visited was the Euijoo cir- 
cuit, which has not been visited since the war be- 
tween Japan and China. Our Korean helper, Mr. 
Yang, has been making regular visits to these fields. 
He has been doing good work. The whole region 
seems to be in a hopeful condition, and to give 
much promise if carefully worked. Everywhere I 
went I could not but feel that I was among a 
people prepared of the Lord. Their attitude 
toward foreigners, their social conditions, their ten- 
dency to listen to the truth, would all make one 
think that they were a different race. 

Without entering into details, I can say that on 
the whole trip we visited five places where believers 




meet together for worship every Sabbath, and that 
we heard of five other places where they meet regu- 
larly for worship. Other places were reported 
where there was a growing interest. Seventy- four 
men and women were examined, thirty- one were 
received as catechumens, twenty were baptized. 
This probably represents an interested constituency 
of two or three hundred. The work in Sakjoo is 
the most promising of any. In this place, where 
Mr. Moffett once thought he was in danger of being 
stoned, six men and six women were baptized. One 
man, who lived at a distance, after spending Satur- 
day in hard labor in his fields, traveled most of 
Saturday night to be able to spend all of the 
Sabbath at the meeting, and then returned to his 
home after the evening service. Similar cases of 
interest might be mentioned. 

I have not seen any place in Korea where the 
people seem so attentive to hear as in the north. 
Many of the hindrances to the work which exist in 
other places do not seem to be found there. The 
whole north seems to stand much in need of work 
being done just now, without the delay involved in 
learning the language by a new missionary. I was 
much pleased with what I saw of the northern 
work — earnest, aggressive, Scriptural, sensible, 
seemed to be words applicable to the church work 
there. The people are mostly able to read, and 
very eager to read the Bible. The work has now 
reached a stage where they especially need three 
things. To my mind these are in their order of 
importance — First : The Bible in the Korean 
language. Second : Careful instruction of their 
helpers, teachers and leaders, in order that they 
may properly train the Church to know God and 
his word. Third : An aggressive evangelism into 
the regions beyond, many of which are already 
calling for teachers. 

Rev. J. B. Ayres writes of itinerating work in 
Japan, and of bright encouragements in the condi- 
tion of the work, and he presents some hopeful as- 
pects of the effect of the retrenchment. Under 
date of May 14 he writes : 

At present I have two trips on my hand. One is 
to make arrangements about a place where we 
have dismissed a helper on account of the cut. 
The other is to keep a promise that 1 made to come 
and baptize a woman. She wished baptism last 
year, but there were reasons why I asked her to 
wait. It is at Yadomimura, a most inaccessible 
place. The helper always walks a large part of the 
way when he comes over here. In fact walking is 
the only way to get there. I suppose one might 
hire a jinrikisha to get over there, but unless it was 
kept for the purpose of returning, the journey back 
must be on foot. When Mrs. Ayres went over 
there with me she came home on a cart such as 
freight is hauled on. I go on my bicycle. I have 
worn out one bicycle. I suppose I have ridden 
10,000 miles on this wheel. My present cyclometer 
was put on last November, and registers 11 47 miles 
already, notwithstanding I rested a good bit in the 
winter when the roads were bad. On the last trip 
from Kumamoto to Usuki and home again, the 
rear wheel went badly, the spokes began to break, 
and the last day's riding was done in the dread that 
every revolution would be the last, and the wheel 

would collapse and leave me to foot it home. I 
managed to get it here, and got some new spokes, 
and now can ride it a little, enough to finish 
up on I hope. The roads here are very hard 
on the bicycle, especially as I always carry a bit of 

The work in general is very promising. I think 
in all my stay in Japan I have never seen it so 
much so. I do not know as yet how the cut will 
effect our work in particular, but everywhere, with- 
out regard to denomination, things are looking up. 
There are inquirers at all the preaching places, and 
in most of them applicants for baptism. The 
general apathy is giving place to interest. The old 
opposition is about dead, though it still lingers in 
out-of-the-way places. But even with those who 
care not for Christianity, opposition to the Christian 
religion is a sign that the opponents are behind the 
times. The rise in prices is very hard on the 
helpers. We positively must raise their salaries 
another year. Many of them have hard work to 
keep free from debt. Some of them are not able to 
do so. I have just paid off the debts (let me insert, 
not with mission money) of the venerable Aoyama 
Shozaburo, who is the father of our work in this 
region. Others have informed me that they are 
making shift to get their debts paid off ; but the 
hard times have crept on them so insidiously that 
it is hard to adjust themselves to the change. It is 
not proper to call it hard times. It is a boom. 
Prices of everything have risen. The laborer is all 
right because wages have risen ; but the official and 
other salaried men are feeling it keenly. Especially 
our helpers, who were never munificently paid, 
feel the change. 

The cut was terrible — at first sight. But of 
course there was no help for it, so I went to work. 
I had already discharged one man, of whom we 
were not in need to keep things going ; I discharged 
another about whom I was questioning whether I 
ought to keep or not. He is not very efficient. 
Then I sent word to Bakwan and Toyoura churches 
that they must be content with one pastor between 
them. That allows one man to go free. It will be 
pretty hard work to leave out another man, who is 
fifty years old, and has been preaching fifteen years. 
He is too old to do anything else, and while he is 
not one of our best helpers, he is a very good man. 
It is very hard to have this to do the last thing be- 
fore I leave for home. Were it an ordinary year, 
and I were to be here all that time, I should let the 
cut fall heavily upon my own salary and save these 
men. Then last I told the Yamaguchi church that 
it is time for them to stand alone. I do not know 
how that will come out, but at any rate they can try 
it. I think they will make it go. 

Mr. Ayres pleads for a stronger missionary force 
to develop the work in the province of Kyushy u, 
where the promise of immediate results is exceed- 
ingly attractive ; though in his first visits he was 
so impressed with the poverty of the people, and 
the general air of degradation that he was reluctant 
to enter the work. He adds, however : 

When the Spirit of God begins to work in the 
midst of such poverty and dirt and degradation — 
well, it is the same old story over again, "Any- 
where with Jesus." We may think we can't do it, 
but we always find we can. 



If the Mormon Church would go out of 
the business of politics, let civil affairs alone 
and confine itself to the legitimate business 
of a church, its neighbors would have more 
respect for it. But it cannot live upon its 
merits. It lives by the authority which its 
priesthood exercises at the polls and in the 

Our church at Traverse City, Mich. , less 
than two and one-half years old, still with- 
out a building, has proved to be a working 
church. It is second in the Presbytery in 
numbers, gifts and everything else. It has 
just become self-supporting. 


Rev. J. A. Hedges started for his new 
field, Nez Perce, Ida., on June 16. i 

Rev. A. R. Mcintosh, of Philipsburg, 
started May 15 for Inverness, North Brit- 
ain. He has done an excellent year's work 
in his parish, and we are grieved to lose 

The Presbytery of Helena met in Boze- 
man, May 15, and received into member- 
ship Rev. E. M. Calvin and Rev. J. N. 
Maclean. On the following day, Rev. 
Davis Wilson was installed as pastor of the 
churches at Hamilton and Spring Hill, and 
Rev. J. N. Maclean at Bozeman. Bro. 
Vanden Hook was installed May 17 over 
the Second Holland Church. 

Rev. Dr. Jackson, moderator of the 
General Assembly, organized, in June, 1872, 
the churches of Bozeman, Hamilton and 
Helena, in the order named. These 
churches have held very interesting quarter- 
centennial celebrations. 

Rev. J. H. McJunkin has returned from 
his study and travel abroad. He will be 
back in his pulpit at Missoula about Sep- 

tember 1. A warm welcome awaits the 
far-traveled bishop of the Garden City. 

Rev. Dr. Martin, president of the College 
of Montana, returned from the East not with- 
out success in his mission, in time to preach 
the baccalaureate sermon June 6. Com- 
mencement exercises were well attended and 
passed off finely. Two received the degree 
of civil engineering. The college will open 
as usual next fall with quite fair prospects. 
Will our churches wake up and stand by 
the college ? If not, why not ? It is more 
than worthy. 

Father Johnston, as he is affectionately 
called, preached twice every Sabbath dur- 
ing President Martin's absence, with much 
acceptance. All say he preaches better 
and better as his years go by beyond the 
four-score, and that is saying much, for he 
was always a strong preacher. His sunset 
is more like sunrise. 

State Sabbath-school Superintendent Ellis 
attended an Indian conference at Poplar 
agency the last week of May, where a 
grand work is being done among some 2000 
Yanktons by Rev. Mr. Lindsay, Mrs. 
Lindsay and their colaborers. Bro. Ellis 
thinks preaching through an interpreter is 
preaching. He went from there on his 
wheel across the country to Glendive, organ- 
izing three Sabbath-schools in out-of-the- 
way nooks. 

The Bitter Root Valley (Montana) is 
scourged with all manner of plagues, and 
reminds one of the Nile Valley in the days 
of Hebrew bondage. 

In the new frontier village of Denver, 
Idaho, in the Nez Perce country, the Rev. 
Silas Perkins has met with remarkable 
He writes : 


Not less than 350 or 400 persons assembled in our 
village to attend the Children's Day exercises con- 
ducted by our Sabbath-school. 





It was a great success in every way, made 
possible by the work we have done and are doing 
under the direction of the Board of Home Missions. 
One gratifying feature is that most of the prepara- 
tion for and execution of the day's work was done by 
the teachers and other helpers in the school. Two 
years ago the burden of such exercises fell on me, 
from beginning to end. 

An old settler in these parts said to me at the 
conclusion of the services : "Well, Mr. P., no 
doubt you can see a great change in this country, 
but I have been here much longer than you — the 
change seems marvelous to me !" 

A man who a few years ago made it his business 
to play for dances, and had no use for preachers and 
churches, accompanied the organ with his violin on 
Children's Day, his three daughters taking an 
important part. No one, I suppose, was more en- 
listed than he in the success of the services. He 
is one of my enthusiastic supporters. 

The truth of Secretary Roberts' remarks, in his 
admirable address before the Assembly, is very 
patent to me : ' ' Opportunity is instant, not constant 
.... Five years hence we shall not be able to do 

what we can do to-day In a community 

■where the gospel of Christ is not preached, Satan's 
gospel .... is preached." The hardships of the 
task would be increased many times had we not 
taken hold of this field when we did. The truth of 
this assertion is forcibly illustrated to me in the 
condition of Grangeville and Cottonwood. In 
neither of those places can there be secured such a 
genial response as we had here, and both of those 
towns are much larger and older than ours. 

Rev. J. M. Pamment, missionary to the 
Puyallup Indians, says of his work among 
them : 

The weekly prayer meeting occupies the best 
part of Wednesday. The Indians assemble about 
11 A. M. and disperse late in the afternoon. This 
weekly prayer meeting has been an indication that 
God is at work upon the people's hearts. We 
have heard wonderful testimonies, and seen very 
definite answers to prayers. Those who have al- 
ready received blessing are making efforts for the 
good of others. Hearing of some gambling by 
visiting Indians last Sabbath, one of our Christian 
Indians went to the justice of the peace, got posted 
as to the law upon that subject, and then went to 
the house and stopped the gambling. 

Drink, having wrought such havoc among these 
Indians, our Christian Indians are considering 
what steps can be taken to protect those addicted to 
whisky, and intend petitioning the governor of 
the State upon this subject. 

whites of the South may be repeated. A 
missionary in the West writes : 

There are people here who have been connected 
with churches in the eastern States who have ap- 
parently forgotten that there is a God, a heaven, a 
hell or a day of reckoning. A child of a parent with 
a membership in the East, one day saw a lady kneel- 
ing at her bedside praying ; she asked : " What are 
you doing?" "Praying," said the lady. "Who 
do you pray to?" said the child. "To Jesus," 
was the answer. And the little thing asked, " Is 
He under the bed?" 

There are heroes even in this period of 
depression, and hardship develops them. 
Rev. Wiley K. Wright, of Traverse City, 
Mich. , is one of them. He writes : 

I have the pleasure of informing you that our 
church will assume its own support. We will re- 
lieve the Board of that much in this its time of 
need. This means my receiving this year two 
hundred dollars less than the salary of last year, 
and our Woman's Missionary Society turning its 
contributions of about one hundred dollars a year 
into the treasury of our own church. Possibly the 
testimony of this church becoming self-supporting 
within almost two years of its organization, and 
"hard-times" years at that, will lead other 
churches to self-support. 

What we do need now and are suffering for is a 
church building. 

An enthusiastic pastor writes us : 

Do not halt, do not lower the banner nor 
spike one gun, nor abandon a fort, but dress up on 
the flag and march on. 

Can we hold the "fort" without ammuni- 
tion ? Can our soldiers " march on" many 
days with no hard tack in their knapsacks ? 
"Lower the flag" no Presbyterian color- 
bearer ever will, but when he faints and 
falls, gravitation will lower it. Send him 
biscuits and cofl'ee now. 

There are neglected regions in our coun- 
try where the ^history of the mountain 

Dr. Sexton, of Nebraska, is certainly 
doing his part toward solving the problem 
of the Board's debt. He writes with en- 

Our missionary conference in connection with 
the Presbytery of Nebraska City was a grand suc- 
cess. We divided the entire presbytery into dis- 
tricts, assigning ministers to each for the purpose 
of holding the conventions throughout the entire 
presbytery, and in every church. Much good 
will be done in stimulating the churches to do 
their best. 






In the peaceful valley of the Clearwater, 
near the mouth of Lapwai creek, stands a 
marble gravestone bearing this inscription : 


Born at Bath, N. Y., Nov. 26, 1803. 

Commenced the Nez Perce Mission in 1836. 

Died among his people at Lapwai, I. T., 

Aug. 3, 1874. 

Aged 70 yrs., 8 mos. and 7 ds. 

Blest with many souls as seals to his ministry. 

From this brief account of the life of 
that devoted servant of God, we learn that 
he opened his eyes on this world two years 
before white men first cast wondering eyes 
on the magnificent mountains, grassy slopes 
and fertile valleys of this inland empire, 
and that seventy years later he closed his eyes 
in death and his mortal remains were laid to 
rest beside the pathway trodden by Lewis 
and Clark in 1805. 

There is but little to note concerning Mr. 
Spalding's boyhood, further than to say that 
he spent his time much as other boys did in 
those days, attending village school in win- 
ter and, by way of diversion, snowballing 
and making snow men ; in summer assisting 
in making a livelihood for the family; and 
in the fall gathering nuts to crack during 
the long winter evenings. There were no 
indications at that time that he was to be- 
come a pioneer missionary. Still he must 
have been a pious youth; for we find him 
in his twenty-second year — the age when 
young persons not inclined to be religious 
are usually busy sowing their wild oats — 
making a profession of his faith in Christ 
and entering into covenant relations with the 
Presbyterian Church in Prattsburgh, Steu- 
ben county, N. Y., Rev. James H. Hotch- 
kin, pastor. In Prattsburgh he prepared 
for college, and in the fall of 1832 gradu- 
ated from the Western Reserve College, at 
Hudson, O. Shortly after his graduation, 
he married Miss Eliza Hart, also a student 
in Western Reserve College, daughter of 
Mr. Levi Hart, of Holland Patent, Oneida 
county, N. Y. Miss Hart had received 

* A sketch read before the Synod of Washington, 
in session at Moscow, Idaho," October 5, 1806, on 
the sixtieth anniversary of the beginning of Pres- 
byterian mission work on the Pacific Coast. 

her earlier education at Clinton, N. Y. 
Mr. Spalding then took a course in theol- 
ogy in Lane Seminary, under Dr. Lyman 
Beecher as president of the institution. 
Mrs. Spalding studied with her husban d 
and attended such lectures in the semi- 
nary as were open to women. These 
lines from a letter written to her sister 
Lorena iu March, 1834, show how fully and 
enthusiastically she entered into the plans 
of her husband and how fortunate he was 
in securing her for a companion: " I am 
now pursuing Greek and Hebrew studies; 
I take the same lessons as Mr. S. does in the 
Greek Testament and in the Hebrew Bible. 
I am quite pleased with these studies; but 
I find the Greek grammar rather perplex- 
ing. I generally attend Dr. Beecher' s 
lectures on theology Saturdays from ten to 
twelve." In the same letter she told her 
sister about the missionary spirit that per- 
vaded the institution on Walnut Hills and 
fired the zeal of the ladies of the place 
sixty -two years ago. She wrote: " The 
ladies of this place have a missionary associ- 
ation, which is held on the last Wednesday 
of each month, a prayer meeting once a 
week and a sewing society which also meets 
once a week. Five students, together with 
one female (who is the intended of one of 
this little number), have pledged themselves 
to become missionaries to the heathen, if 
God is pleased to permit them to be, and 
have associated themselves together with us 
in a little band, which is denominated by 
us, ' The band of missionaries for foreign 
missions.' They meet on Friday evenings 
in our room for a prayer meeting. ' ' That 
Mr. Spalding appreciated Miss Hart's good 
qualities before he became her husband, 
appears from some lines of a letter written 
by him to her father while a student in 
Western Reserve College: " Truly she is 
worthy the best of companions. I tremble 
when I think of that day when that union 
shall take place, by your consent and the favor 
of a kind Providence, which we now presume 
to contemplate. I know that I am not 
worthy to become her companion. I feel 
that should I be favored with her hand, I 
receive that for which she will not find an 
equivalent in her unworthy friend. But 
should the pledge which we have mutually 
given be redeemed and we become united in 
that sacred, solemn obligation of the mar- 
riage coveuant, God grant that I may be to 




her all that an affectionate, faithful com- 
panion should be, and that her beloved and 
venerable parents may never have to regret 
that those tender parental cords which have 
long bound their beloved one to their bosom, 
though at the expense of tears and grief for 
a season, have been, as it were, loosed, that 
she may become united in others, if possi- 
ble still more sacred and inviolate. In a 
word, may it be for the glory of that God 
from whom we receive every earthly com- 
fort and for the good of thousands of our 
fellow-immortals who are now strangers to 
the domestic happiness and spiritual blessings 
with which we are so bountifully favored. ' ' 

Now, in so far as this sentiment reveals 
Mr. Spalding's veneration for sacred things, 
it gives us a glimpse of his inner life and 
true character. Indeed, those letters written 
in early life indicate very clearly the char- 
acter of that devoted couple whom God 
raised up to carry the gospel to these west- 
ern wilds. 

In the year 1835, Mr. Spalding was 
ordained a minister of the gospel by the 
Presbytery of Bath, and the same year he 
and Mrs. Spalding were commissioned by 
the A. B. C. F. M. as missionaries to the 
Osage Indians in western New York. 
Owing to Mrs. Spalding's illness that win- 
ter, their departure for their field of labor 
had to be postponed. Early in 1836, how- 
ever, becoming impatient of further delay, 
Mrs. Spalding arose from her sick-bed and 
started with her husband for the Osage 
settlements. On a hybrid vehicle — half- 
wagon, half-sled — they were making their 
way westward by easy stages as Mrs. Spald- 
ing's strength permitted, when they were 
overtaken by a man who, as soon as he was 
within hailing distance, called to them that 
they were wanted for Oregon. That was 
on February 20, 1836. Mr. Spalding, in 
his account of the meeting, says that when 
Dr. Whitman overtook them on the road as 
they were crunching through the snows of 
western New York, question and answer 
passed between the two conveyances in rapid 
succession, and the information elicited 
summed up somewhat as follows : The jour- 
ney might require the summers of two years ; 
they would have the convoy of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company to the Divide; the Nez 
Perce's, their future parishioners, would meet 
them there and become their escort for the re- 
mainder of the journey; their food would be 

the flesh of buffalo, deer and other wild 
animals; the conveyance would be the 
saddle alternating with the feet; the rivers 
they would ford or swim on horseback; their 
covering would be tents and blankets, and 
their canopy, stars. This animated conver- 
sation over the question was continued until 
they arrived at the village of Howard, 
N. Y. Taking a private room in a tavern, 
they each prayed in turn, when Mrs. Spald- 
iag was left alone to come to a conclusion. 
Ten minutes more and she appeared with 
beaming face to say that she had made up 
her mind to go to Oregon. " But. your 
health, my dear," Mr. Spalding said, by 
way of objection. The rejoinder came 
ready and to the point : "I like the com- 
mand just as it stands — Go ye into all the 
world — and no exceptions for poor health. 
The dangers of the way and the weakness 
of my body are in his care: the duty is 
mine." Dr. Whitman's intended had 
already consented to go to the far West if 
he could find another woman willing to 
make the journey with her. Mrs. Spald- 
ing's decision to go met the conditions; so 
Dr. Whitman sent a message to his be- 
trothed to be ready for a hasty wedding and 
an immediate departure for the West. The 
wedding came soon and then began the 
long journey. And what a bridal tour for 
two young women ! There was no overland 
travel then in palace cars. It was only six 
years after the Baltimore & Ohio had cou- 
pled together some Concord coaches on strap 
rails and with a grand flourish had opened 
up fifteen miles of railroad by horse power. 
Only three years before, the first steamer 
had entered Chicago, but fifteen years more 
passed before a locomotive hauled in the first 
passenger train. Our heroes and heroines 
bravely turned their faces toward the set- 
ting sun and six months later, on the second 
day of September, ended their tedious and 
wearisome journey when the gates of Fort 
Walla Walla opened to receive them. 

Once on the plains and camp-life and 
journey having become a settled business, 
the serio-comic incidents of the trip seemed 
to involve more especially the clergyman of 
the party, just as things sometimes appear 
to make it up among themselves to select a 
certain person to be the object of their prac- 
tical jokes. It is said that Mr. Spalding was 
kicked by a mule ; shaken by the ague ; left 
hatless and blanketless by a passing tornado ; 




crowded off a ferryboat by an awkward cow, 
and made the butt of other equally unkind 
and unsympathetic jests. This apparent 
opposition to him of all nature, both animate 
and inanimate, had its effect upon his tem- 
per and he sometimes talked of a return to 
more congenial scenes and surroundings. 
His feeble wife would always bring him to 
himself, however, with the remark: " I 
have started for the Rocky Mountains and 
I expect to go there." 

"Things" may have reached an under- 
standing among themselves, so that Mr. 
Spalding was able to bear with good grace all 
the jokes they might choose to play upon him. 
As to his personal appearance, a member of 
the party thus describes him : ' ' The first 
impression of a stranger on seeing H. H. 
Spalding is that he has before him an un- 
usual countenance. He begins to examine, 
and finds a man with sharp features, large 
brown eyes, dark hair, high projecting 
forehead. He is of medium size, stoop 
shouldered, with a voice that can assume a 
mild, sharp or boisterous key at the will 
of its owner; quite impulsive and bitter in 
his denunciations of a real or supposed 
enemy." He lived through the mishaps 
that befell him along the way and reached 
the journey's- end with enthusiasm height- 
ened and eagerness for the work sharpened 
by the experiences through which he passed. 
The same writer (Mr. W. H. Gray, of 
Utica, N. Y., connected with the mission 
for some time as secular agent) thus de- 
scribes Mrs. Spalding : ' ' She was above the 
medium height, slender in form, with 
coarse features, dark -brown hair, blue eyes, 
rather dark compexion, of a serious turn of 
mind. She could paint indifferently in 
water-colors, and had been taught while 
young all the useful branches of domestic life; 
could spin, weave and sew, etc. ; could pre- 
pare an excellent meal at short notice. 
With the native women, Mrs. Spalding 
always appeared easy and cheerful and had 
their unbounded confidence and respect. 
She was remarkable for her firmness and 
decision of character in whatever she or her 
husband undertook. She never appeared to 
be alarmed or excited at any difficulty, dis- 
pute or alarms common to the Indian life 
around her. She was considered by the 
Indian men as a brave, fearless woman, and 
was respected and esteemed by all " (" His- 
tory of Oregon," p. 111). 

It will always remain a wonder how she 
endured a horse-back ride across the conti- 
nent, her physical weakness being at times 

The company of missionaries remained at 
Fort Walla Walla a few days for rest and 
to make a study of their surroundings. 
They then proceeded down the Columbia to 
Fort Vancouver, the seat of the chief oper- 
ations of the Hudson Bay Company, where 
they arrived September 12, 1836. 

At this point, let us take a glance at the 
conditions prevailing at that time. The 
following interesting facts are gleaned from 
" Oregon — The Struggle for Possession," 
by William Barrows. Nominally this terri- 
tory belonged to the United States, but it 
was jointly occupied by the United States 
and Great Britain up to the year 1846. 
According to the treaty of joint occupation, 
neither party should monopolize to the dam- 
age of the other, or take steps towards 
permanent occupancy. This compromise 
was taken advantage of by a creature of 
the Parliament of Great Britain, known as 
the Hudson Bay Company, which secured a 
practical monopoly of the fur trade, and as 
the fur trade was all the ' ' commerce ' ' the 
country was able to sustain at that time, the 
Hudson Bay Company was in virtual con- 
trol. The Indians were made to feel that 
they had no right to trade with Americans, 
and the pernicious idea was spread far and 
wide through the tribes that the Americans 
would take their lands while the English 
wished only to trade in furs. When in 
1837 the Hudson Bay Company applied to 
Parliament for a renewal of their charter, 
they were accorded distinguished considera- 
tion by the Government of Great Britain, 
because of their energy and success in ex- 
pelling the Americans from the Columbia 
regions. It was the policy of the Company 
to hold back all this country from settlement 
and civilization and continue it a wilderness 
that would always be valuable as a vast 
game preserve. Down the ages it was to 
be kept for raising fur-bearing animals, 
such as mink, bear and otter. Its primeval 
solitudes were not to be invaded by white 
men nor its silence of thousands of years to be 
broken except as licensed traders should go 
in quietly and bring out fur. But the 
coming and going of these men were as if 
by stealth, lest they scare the game; then 
silence reigned once more over these lone 




lands. The call of herdsmen and the vari- 
ous sounds of farm work; the whir of 
machinery and the sweet sounds of village 
life were withheld by royal charter from all 
this region. It was such conditions in that 
direction our missionaries of 1836 had to 
face. And how was it socially ? The 
Hudson Bay Company took good care that 
local property should not be acquired by 
individuals so as to form social and village 
life and thus plant the seeds of civilization. 
Their employes were not allowed to acquire 
any property or income beyond their salary. 
The lowest grade employe netted his $100 
a year ; a clerk his $500 ; the chief trader a 
couple of thousands and the chief factor 
perhaps $5000. 

Only lads and young men entered the 
employ of the Company, and they always 
went in for life or until physical disability 
obliged them to quit. Under no circum- 
stances was a man ever released in the coun- 
try ; if for any reason he had to sever his 
connection with the Company, they returned 
him from whence he came, so as to get him 
out of the country. Marriage with native 
women was encouraged, as that would tie 
the men to the locality and increase the 
chances of their making the wilderness their 
home always. They were obliged, however, 
to purchase the women they married, so 
that they and their children could be treated 
as slaves, to be used in advancing the 
interests and profits of the Company. Now 
and then one ordered a wife from his native 
land — as an occasional receipt entered in the 
Company's books shows: " Received, one 
wife, in good condition;" but that was an 
imported luxury, too expensive to be 
thought of by but few men. 

Such was the thick wall of social darkness 
that met our missionaries. The elevating, 
ennobling, refining influence of women, 
which constitutes the larger part of the 
true home, was lacking and society in all 
this country was a hopeless mixture of the 
savage and the civilized. 

Our two brides, who have found their 
way to the Columbia from the Atlantic 
seaboard, are the type of another social 
order, and the forerunners of another state 
of society. Mr. Spalding's wish, expressed 
in that Jetter to Mr. Hart concerning his 
daughter's marriage, that it might be 
" for the good of thousands of our fel- 
low-immortals who are now strangers 

to domestic happiness," is about to be 

After consulting with Dr. McLaughlin, 
agent for the Hudson Bay Company, under 
the title of chief factor or governor, it 
was decided that the male missionaries 
should return to the Walla Walla country 
to locate mission stations. Accordingly 
Messrs. Gray, Spalding and Whitman re- 
turned to Fort Walla Walla. Thence they 
went first to the lands of the Cayuses to 
decide upon a site for Dr. Whitman's sta- 
tion, as it had been arranged that he and 
Mrs. Whitman should labor among that 
and kindred tribes. Taking into account 
accessibility, quality of soil, water facilities, 
etc., they selected a spot on the Walla 
Walla river, near the mouth of Mill creek 
— about seven miles west of the present city 
of Walla Walla — a point now historically 
known as Wai-ye-lat-poo. On this trip of 
exploration, they were accompanied by 
Capt. Pambrun, of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany. In a short time, mission tents, goods, 
horses and cattle were on the ground and 
the work of establishing the mission begun. 
After a few days, Spalding and Whitman 
started for the Nez Perce country, accom- 
panied by some members of that nation who 
had been visiting among the Cayuse people, 
leaving Mr. Gray in charge at Wai-ye-lat- 
poo. They examined the country adjacent 
to the Clearwater river, and finally decided 
on a spot near some fine springs in the 
Lapwai valley, about two miles from the 
junction of that stream with the Clearwater. 
Dr. Whitman then returned to his station 
and Mr. Spalding went to Vancouver after 
the ladies. About the middle of Novem- 
ber, Mrs. Whitman joined her husband and 
together they set up an altar to the living 
God in their own rude dwelling at Wai-ye- 
lat-poo. Mr. and Mrs. Spalding, with Mr. 
Gray, arrived at the Lapwai station Novem- 
ber 29, and in about twenty days, with the 
assistance of some of the Nez Perces, they 
had a house ready for use. 

These devoted missionaries entered at 
once upon their work which has been so 
signally blessed to the elevation of the Nez 
Perces. At that time the land was uncul- 
tivated; not a hoe, plow or other farm 
implement was to be seen ; the people sub- 
sisted on roots, fish and wild meats, and 
they were ignorant of the Sabbath and of 
human salvation. But under the influence 




and instruction of Mr. and Mrs. Spalding, 
the desert soon began to bud and blossom. 
It was but a few years until there were 
fields of waving grain, gardens of fine 
vegetables, orchards of fruit, horses and 
cattle roaming at will over elegant ranges 
and — best of all — a flourishing school 
attended by some two hundred pupils. In 
about a year Mr. Spalding moved the mis- 
sion belongings down to the mouth of 
Lapwai creek and increased the value and 
efficiency of the plant by erecting grist and 
saw mills. Burrs for the grist mill were cut 
out of rock found in the hills near by. In 
a letter written East at that time, Mr. 
Spalding describes them as being " small 
but of superior quality." Fifty years later 
one of these stones still lay on the site of the 
mill, its remarkable state of preservation 
proving its " superior quality." The sum- 
mer of the second year after their arrival, 
Mr. and Mrs. Spalding and little child, 
made their first visit to their nearest white 
neighbors, Dr. and Mrs. Whitman, 110 
miles away. During that visit at Wai-ye- 
lat-poo, the First Presbyterian Church 
of Oregon Territory was organized with six 
members. Among other things noted in 
connection with that important event, the 
following minute was entered in the record 
book kept by Mr. Spalding: " H. H. 
Spalding was elected pastor and Doct. Mar- 
cus Whitman (a ruling elder from the 
Presbyterian church in Wheeler, Steuben 
Co., N. Y.), ruling elder. Resolved, That 
this church be governed on the Congrega- 
tional plan, but attached to the Bath Pres- 
bytery, N. Y., and adopt its form of confes- 
sion and covenant as ours. ' ' 

That was done on August 18, 1838. 
From that time on until the labors of the 
missionaries were terminated so abruptly and 
sadly by the massacre of the lamented Whit- 
man and his wife, together with a number 
of their associates, November 29, 1847, Mr. 
and Mrs. Spalding prosecuted their work 
with unabated zeal and vigor. Their 
methods were practical. They taught the 
natives that God commanded them to work 
as well as pray, and by way of illustration, 
Mrs. Spalding painted a picture of Adam 
and Eve in the garden of Eden — Adam 
with a hoe on his shoulder and Eve with 
her spinning-wheel. The Catholic priest 
introduced a novelty in the shape of a 
picture by some ingenious artist. The 

different Protestant sects were represented as 
climbing the trunk of a large tree and going 
out upon its various branches, from which 
they dropped into a fire that a priest kept 
in a roaring flame by tossing in the heretical 
books of his roasting victims. This seemed 
to amuse the Indians immensely, and among 
the Nez Perces it seemed about to capture 
the whole tribe. But our missionaries were 
equal to the occasion. Mrs. Spalding 
painted a series of illustrations from the 
Bible, and this colored panorama of relig- 
ious ideas and truths soon crowded the Cath- 
olic cartoon from the field. 

As Mr. Spalding wrote in a report to Dr. 
White, Agent for Indian Affairs, their 
earliest attention was turned toward schools 
" as promising the most permanent good to 
the nation in connection with the written 
word of God and the preached gospel." 
He secured a small printing-press — the first 
in Oregon — and learning to set type, he 
printed leaflets and pamphlets suitable for 
use in the schools, and they were furnished 
gratuitously to all Indians who wished them. 

Our missionaries had made some enemies 
among the people as well as a great many 
friends, and there is no doubt but that they 
were in imminent danger at the time of the 
massacre at Wai-ye-lat-poo. When that 
occurred, Mr. Spalding was on his way to 
visit Dr. Whitman. He had reached a 
point but a few miles away when he learned 
of the awful carnage of the night before and 
was warned to flee for his life. He traveled 
nights and lay concealed in the daytime and 
after the lapse of four days reached Lapwai, 
weary, footsore and heartsick. Owing to 
the uncertainty of the situation, Mr. and 
Mrs. Spalding concluded to take their chil- 
dren to a place of safety, if possible, and in 
company with forty Nez Perces they set out 
for Fort Walla Walla. They were not 
molested along the way, and arrived at the 
fort in safety. From there they, together 
with the survivors of the Wai-ye-lat-poo 
mission, were transported under protection 
of the Hudson Bay Company to the Willa- 
mette Valley. Mrs. Spalding suffered from 
exposure and anxiety more than her frail 
constitution could stand. She went into a 
decline and passed away January 7, 1851, 
aged forty-three years, four months and 
twenty-seven days. She died in peace, trust- 
ing in her Saviour, and was buried near the 
Callapooya in the Willamette Valley. 

47S toerade Drive M«v M9i v v 




Iu the fall of 1862, Mr. Spalding 
returned to Lapwai under government 
appointment as superintendent of education, 
and in connection with his school work, he 
resumed his missionary labors. That office 
being discontinued, he was dismissed from 
government service in September, 1865. 
Previous to his coming to Lapwai the second 
time, he was united in marriage to a Miss 
Griffin, and, being out of employment, they 
returned to her former home in western 

Again, in 1871, Mr. Spalding came back 
to his old field as missionary under appoint- 
ment from our Board of Foreign Missions. 
The seedtime had been years before, and 
now the harvest was ready and he reaped 
with amazing rapidity. November 12 of 
that year, he baptized and admitted into 
church fellowship forty-five persons. In 
connection with the minute of that fact he 
wrote : ' ' This is a glorious day — bless the 
Lord, O my soul, that I am permitted to 
return after so long expulsion in my old age 
and at once to witness the wonderful work 
of God upon the hearts of this people." 
The following day nineteen were added on 
examination, the next day fourteen and the 
next, twenty. The missionary pastor soon 
became a veritable circuit rider, and he 
displayed wonderful activity in supplying 
the various preaching stations he had estab- 
lished : for example : Wildhorse, on the 
Umatilla Reserve, is 190 miles fromKamiah 
on the Nez Perce' Reservation. One Sab- 
bath he is at Wildhorse, the next at 
Kamiah, " cheering the heart of Bro. 
Cowley. ' ' The intervening stations visited 
by him, according to his record of the jour- 
ney, were: Halapowa, Sheminikum (Lewis- 
ton), Assotin, Lapwai, Cottonwood and 
North Fork. Then occasionally he would 
visit the old field of Messrs. Walker and 
Eells among the Spokanes and hold services 
for a week at a time. Once he was at 
Simcoe, Yakama Reservation, on which 
occasion he made the following entry in the 
minute book: " Glorious meetings! Many 
conversions among the Yakamas and the 
Klickatats." The following extract from 
the minutes is of abiding interest: "No. 
received into the church since Nov., '71: 
at Lapwai, Idaho, 155 males, 189 females; 
at Kamiah, 123 males, 188 females; among 
the Spokanes, 112 males, 141 females. 
Whole No. adults: L., 344; K., 311; S., 

253; total, 908. Whole No. received 
since 1836 into First P. Ch., Oregon, 961. 
I am to-day, Nov. 26, '73, 70 years." 
One more entry he made with trembling 
hand in that most interesting book: " Ka- 
miah, on my sick-bed, July 6 (baptized) 
Lot very old; came 280 miles. Elliot and 
Amelia were married. Bless the Lord, 
O my soul. H. H. S." 

And so closed the career of one of the 
great missionaries of modern times. In 
less than a month from the above date, on 
August 3. 1874, Rev. Henry Harmon 
Spalding died at Lapwai, Idaho, and there 
his dust peacefully awaits tbe resurrection 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indiana 

MARCH Alaska. 

APRII, The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JULY Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 


The character of our immigration has 
sadly deteriorated within a century. The 
changed motive for immigrating may fur- 
nish the explanation; at any rate, formerly 
farmers and mechanics comprised the larger 
class, now one-half of the increase of our 
population by immigration are without 


Many of our immigrants are desirable, 
if not necessary to our welfare as a nation. 
We need the varied talents and attainments 
of their educated classes, and we need the 
trained muscle of their working classes. 
The industrious and economical German, 
the steadfast Scotch, the versatile Irish, the 
mercurial French — these mingling elements 
are evolving under our institutions a race, 
distinctive, powerful, independent, such as 
has rarely arisen in the world. 

But we must realize the necessity of pro- 
tecting ourselves from those objectionable 
classes which restrictive legislation has 




sought to exclude. If a nation may 
protect itself against the importation of 
contagious diseases, it may with equal right 
and propriety protect its communities 
against felons, criminals and outlaws. If 
it may control by law the manufacture and 
transportation of powerful explosives, it 
may exclude the anarchist, the mafia and 
the social incendiary. 


Do not our dangers arise from the unem- 
ployed ? If so, instead of prohibiting the 
incoming of those who have business en- 
gagements it would be wiser to forbid those 
to land who have not business engagements 
here, to require every man, before he lands, 
to present satisfactory testimonials as to 
character, showing also that he has some 
lawful profession, trade or occupation, and 
that he is mentally and physically capable 
of following his vocation. If, in restricting 
immigration, we could discriminate bel ween 
representative and non-representative na- 
tionalities, we should reduce the danger 
and simplify the problem. 


But while the State is shielding us from the 
perils of the unemployed and the burdens 
imposed by the pauper elements, the Church 
has a greater task to perform. These people 
must be saved, saved to God and saved to 
society. We must bring them into touch 
with the thought, the social life, the Chris- 
tian literature of our country. A foreigner 
without a knowledge of our language con- 
fines his reading to the literature of his 
native land, which keeps alive his interest 
in affairs abroad to the exclusion of those 
here at home, which keeps alive his love 
and loyalty to the government and institu- 
tions which he left behind, while he ignores 
those under which he has come to reside. 
Without a knowledge of our language he 
can know little of our country and its inter- 
ests. He is imprisoned in his mother 


A knowledge of our language would tend 
to scatter the foreigners among our own peo- 
ple and prevent the dangerous tendency at 
present manifest everywhere throughout 
the country to form exclusive communities. 
In all our cities and in many rural regions 
we find the " Little Germanies," " Little 

Italies," " Copenhagens, " etc., where no 
English is spoken, and no semblance of 
American life is seen; where children grow 
up as ignorant of our laws and institutions 
as if they were born and reared abroad. 
Hence it comes to pass that while the per- 
centage of criminals among the foreign -born 
is not unreasonably large, the percentage of 
criminals among the children of foreign- 
born parents is alarmingly great. The 
parents were presumably reared under 
church influences. Their children are 
neglected. The fact that the English-speak- 
ing foreigners, such as the English, the 
Scotch, the Irish, are generally more 
diffused and do not present the threatening 
aspect of separate foreign communities cer- 
tainly strengthens this view. 


It is the province of the Church to pro- 
vide not only the gospel, but most of the 
other necessary conditions for the temporal 
welfare and the eternal interests of these 
neglected people. Our immigrant popula- 
tion must be made to feel the wholesome 
restraints of our common Christianity. We 
must create such an environment as will 
make them realize that everything that is 
valuable in our institutions, in the conduct 
of our business, in the just and righteous 
management of our industries, the influence 
of our social life, are but gospel ideas 
working out into society, moulding, and 
shaping it. They must be taught the 
sacredness of the Sabbath day. 

Many of our foreigners, reared in estab- 
lished churches, have little idea of (he priv- 
ilege and obligation of supporting the 
ordinary means of grace by voluntary con- 
tributions. We must, therefore, provide a 
larger proportion of the cost of maintain- 
ing the gospel among them than among our 
own people. We must work more patiently 
with them in view of the fact that their 
conception of religious life consists of the 
formal observances of the church and its 
worship. It will require long and patient 
training to bring them to our conception of 
evangelical truth and spiritual religion. 


One-fifth of the immigrants who land on 
our shores are under fifteen years of age. 
Half of them are under twenty-five. If 
we were prepared to furnish them Sabbath- 
school and church privileges during their 


impressible youth, one element of our pres- 
ent peril would be removed. They might 
early learn our language and our customs 
and come to feel a personal interest in our 
institutions and responsibility for them. 
But we neglect them when the work 
might be economically and more effectively 
done. And so we find in the field before 
us that about thirty-two per cent, of our 
foreign population cannot even speak the 
English language, and an undetermined 
but very large proportion of the rest can 
use it only in ordinary business transactions 
and simple conversation. To such persons 
the gospel preached in English would be 
absolutely unintelligible. 


The extent to which we have neglected 
our foreign populations is appalling. In 
New England, we are informed by the best 
authority, fifty congregations of Scotch, 
Scotch-Irish and Scotch- Canadians might 
be gathered, of 1000 each, if we could pro- 
vide the men and means. In New Eng- 
land and New York there are 500,000 
French, among whom are many Protestants, 
without the ordinary means of grace. In 
Chicago there are 200,000 Germans — a 
people whose religious convictions, where 
they have any, are near of kin to ours. 
Among this mighty multitude there are but 
two Presbyterian churches. There are 
200,000 Scandinavians in Minnesota, and 
50,000 in Wisconsin. Among all these we 
have but half a dozen churches. The whole 
Northwest is dotted with communities of 
foreigners. The strength of the foreign 
elements in our cities is well known. 


We have also among us the Orientals 
between whom and ourselves in every rela- 
tion except the commercial a Chinese wall of 
separation exists — a wall which nothing can 
batter down but the weapons of gospel 
truth. The soul of a Mongolian is as pre- 
cious in the sight of God as the soul of a 
Caucasian. For these our Board has been 
unable to do anything directly. Local 
effort, supported in some cases by the For- 
eign Board has accomplished much. But 
why should we neglect any class of human 
beings in our land ? 

The work of our Board among the for- 
eigners in our country may be summed up 
thus — omitting the Spanish, the Mexicans 


and the nationalities represented among 
the Mormons, and classed as " exceptional 
populations :" 



O ~ 

. o 

o i: 






02 "g 

° a 

o a 
































South Dakota 

New York 













2 69 
2 42 


New Hampshire... 










Eighteen States 


69 ! 4432 


Our most numerous foreign churches are 
among the Germans, the Hollanders and the 
Bohemians, and are distributed as follows : 


German. Holland. Bohemia 





S. Dakota 

New York 




















en ,o 

285 1 
262 1 
189 1 


137 1 
165 2 



Totals 38 2366 2341 7 








2, 55 

2 183 

5 113 

2 123 

1 250 

2 160 
2 259 

1 80 

338; 314 17 1223 1715 








There are two Italian churches in Penn- 
sylvania, with an aggregate membership of 
sixty-nine, and a Sabbath-school enroll- 
ment of forty-five. There are also Italian 
missions aided by the Board in St. Louis 
and San Francisco. 

A Waldensian church at Monett, Mo., 
has sixty- three members, and a Sabbath- 
school of thirty-five. 

There are four French churches in Wiscon- 
sin, and one in San Francisco, with an aggre- 
gate membership of 172, and 176 scholars 
in their Sabbath-schools. 



In Minnesota the Board has six Scandi- 
navian churches with 238 members and 
372 in Sabbath-schools. There is a Scan- 
dinavian church in Florida with thirty 
members, and a Sabbath-school numbering 
fifty-two. A great work has been accom- 
plished by our misionaries among the Scan- 
dinavians in Utah and Idaho, but much 
more might be done in these and other 
states as far East as New York, if the men 
and means were available, but our Church 
has made no provision for the education of 
a Scandinavian ministry. 

There are many self-supporting churches 
among the foreigners of our country which 
are not included in the tables. There are 
also mission stations and chapels not im- 
mediately under the Board. This article 
is intended to show the work of the Board, 
and not all the work done by the Presby- 
terian Church among the foreign population. 



Kev. S. E. Wishard, D.D., Ogden :— The Mor- 
mons are expecting us to weaken in our work in Utah 
and surrender point after point until we have 
abandoned all of our school work. They are putting 
on a bolder front, as we have been obliged to cur- 
tail our work, and as they are coming into posses- 
sion of the advantages which Statehood gives them. 

Some of the younger men are going into polygamy, 
which the older men never gave up. The priest- 
hood is asserting itself more positively than ever. 

Mr. McAllister, of Manti recently opened out 
after the following manner in a meeting at Mt. 
Pleasant, and that, too, in the presence of some of 
our missionaries. After speaking of the persecution 
of the Mormons by their enemies, the government, 
he said : " But do you know we are free, brethren ? 
Do you know we have Statehood ? Do you realize 
that we govern ourselves, elect our own officers, 
make our laws and execute them ? Do you appre- 
ciate that our enemies cannot put a finger on us 
now? That we enjoy liberty? Do you realize 
that the prophecies shall yet be fulfilled, that 
the Constitution shall yet be torn, plank from 
plank, and we then shall step in and save the Con- 
stitution and rule this nation ? Ah, brethren, our 
day is at hand. Our sun is rising. How I remem- 
ber the persecutions, when we were driven from our 
homes, when we had to flee from the agents of op- 
pression ! And all because we were religious and 
wanted to live our religion" (which means live in 
polygamy). "But that day (of persecution) is all 
past now. Zion's glory is at hand. I want to 
testify to-day that I am the father of thirty children, 
that I am a married man, a much married man, a 
very much married man, and my wives have always 
been true to me in the dark days of the past when 
they might not have my name. And to-day when 

we have liberty they are all true, and will remain 
true, though I am getting old." 


Rev. Geo. F. Walker : —At De Kalb Junction 
we have had a good time and our communion 
service yesterday was the best we have ever had 
here. Thirteen men united with us ; three grown 
people had been baptized and one little boy. 

Our Sabbath-school is doing well and our Chris- 
tian Endeavor society has added some members and 
increased in interest. 



S. B. Fleming, D.D., Wichita :— The 

plan of visitation of our churches and holding 
home missionary conventions has worked good and 
helped the cause very much. I have devoted con- 
siderable time to this feature of the work. 


Rev. Frank M. Fox, Denmark: — The re- 
mainder of my time has been taken in service at the 
Asheville farm school. During the school session 
I have preached to the boys every Sunday evening. 
We observed the week of prayer at the school, 
holding a meeting every evening during the week. 
At this time thirty of the boys confessed Christ. 
It was a quiet meeting, but God's Spirit was there 
and made effectual the preaching of his word. But 
most interesting of all has been the work of teach- 
ing the Bible to these boys during the week. I 
have tried to make much of this, and the result has 
surpassed my anticipation. 


Rev. Charles H. Cook, Saeaton, Pinal County : 
— A good interest was manifested here throughout 
the year. Our meetings were discontinued for a few 
Sundays on account of small-pox and chicken-pox 
among some of our neighboring tribes. 

In the Saeaton field, extending some fifteen 
miles above and sixteen miles below here, we re- 
ceived into the church seventy-two members. 

At the Gila Crossing field, extending from about 
thirty-two to about thirty-eight miles below here 
and containing about 1 000 inhabitants, I baptized 
and received into the church forty-three adults. 
Rev. Mr. Wynkoop and his excellent wife have 
labored there for the past six months, as also our 
helper, Edward Jackson. 

We greatly need another church about eleven 
miles below Saeaton. With this and the present 
force of workers kept in the field the outlook is 
very hopeful. 

Owing to abundant rains last winter, the prospect 
for good crops this year is much better than for 
some years past. 


Rev. W. W. Hendry : — We are striving to 
become self-supporting and will not ask the Board 
for any aid this year. I began my labors one year 




ago, and God has wonderfully blessed my work in 
adding ninety-three to our church membership — 
only four of them by letter. I wish to thank the 
dear old Home Board for its help in behalf of the 
churches of Eual, Badger and Sheridan. 


Miss E. P. Houston :— We feel that this year 
has brought rich spiritual blessing to our people, 
greater than we had faith to hope for ; indeed, it 
has been a year of great encouragement in every 
particular. The Indians have never shown such a 
desire to improve, and in every way have shown a 
marked disposition to assist us in all the details of 
our work. 

Yesterday, Sabbath, we had a very interesting 
morning service, made so by talks from our present 
Governor ( of the Pueblo) and also the ex-Governor, 
both men of good sense, giving their people wise 
counsel, dwelling mostly on the observance of the 
Sabbath, and speaking at length of the general 
penalty of their forefathers' idolatry, superstition 
and ignorance. They spoke of the sin of the wor- 
ship of stones, the elements, the sun, the moon, 
and all like superstitions. 

They are eager to know what the Bible contains, 
and after hearing portions of it read will take up 
the line of thought and talk on the subject in a way 
that would astonish any one. Our pastor always 
gives them an opportunity to talk to the others 
after the service closes. 

We already see the influence of two new converts, 
who made a profession of their faith a few weeks 
ago, in the bringing out of many others. Yesterday 
nine persons walked four miles to service. Some 
of the earlier converts we find very steadfast, al- 
ways present at religious worship and bringing 
their families with them. 

Miss Kate Kennedy, Rinconada, Embudo 
School: — Returning from presbytery, we saw the 
Penitentes whipping themselves for their sins of 
the past year. The sight was appalling. No 
clothes on, except a garment around their loins, 
four were carrying heavy timber crosses, fourteen 
were whipping themselves with volcanic glass 
attached to a stick. The blood was dripping from 
their bodies. One man was completely covered 
with cactus and at every step came blood. Such 
people surely need the gospel. 


Miss Delora B. Osborne, Ravenswood P. 0. : 
— I am sure those who neither "toil nor spin" 
have no idea what rest and vacation brings to those 
who do. It is so nice to be at home once more. 


Rev. D. D. Allen, Kendrick, Latah County: — 
At the meeting of presbytery I was appointed on a 
committee with an Indian minister and elder to go 
to Kamiah and install Rev. James Hays ( Indian ) 
over the first church of Kamiah. Went on Tues- 
day evening, May 11, to Julietta and conducted a 
Bible reading. The next morning started from 

there on the stage. Stopped at noon at what is 
known as the half-way house, twenty-five miles 
from Julietta. As three of our Julietta members 
live there, staid there until the next morning. 
Started the next morning for Nez Perce, about 
twenty-eight miles further, walking about twenty 
miles, until the stage overtook me. The reserva- 
tion is very beautiful at this season of the year. It is 
one of the finest portions of this whole country. 
From the half-way house to Cold Springs, about 
twelve miles, it looks like a great park. The land 
rolls gently, and is covered with scattering pine tim- 
ber and is a lovely green. From Cold Springs to Nez 
Perce, about ten miles, is one broad stretch of roll- 
ing prairie. It is as yet but sparsely settled. It is 
splendid Presbyterian ground. There have already 
been calls for the Presbyterian Church in several 
places on the reservation. The soil is very fertile 
and produces wonderfully. If the present oppor- 
tunity is taken advantage of, the reservation will be 
worth much to the Presbyterian Church a few years 
hence. On Friday morning, went to Kamiah, thir- 
teen miles beyond Nez Perce. There I found the 
Indians comfortably and happily located in the 
beautiful valley of the south fork of the Clearwater. 
Some of the Indians have built for themselves nice, 
comfortable houses and seem to be quite prosperous. 
Stopped at the home of one Indian who keeps a 
small store and has several hands employed, and 
also has two white servant girls. 

The church services were well attended. In 
their devotions they would put many of the white 
Christians to shame. The story of the cross creates 
a profound impression on them. Sometimes, 
while one is preaching or praying, sobs can be 
heard here and there over the house. Even the 
young people manifest great respect for the house 
of God and its services. The installation services 
lasted for nearly two hours, yet there was profound 
attention throughout. Rev. Robert Parsons 
(Indian) preached the sermon by order of presby- 
tery. I presided, propounded the constitutional 
questions, and gave the charge to the pastor. 
Rev. Robert Parsons gave the charge to the 
people. We organized a Y. P. S. C. E. in the 
afternoon with about sixty members. Their 
prayer meetings are well attended, and from six to 
fifteen will be on the floor at one time speaking 
or praying. The first Church at Kamiah gave 
last year $162 to Home Missions and $40 to Foreign 
Missions. They truly are miracles of grace when 
we consider that only a few years ago many of them 
were savages. Now they are exceedingly cordial. 
This is the result of missionary effort. 


Rev. Jean S. Crousaz, French Creek : — You can 
hardly imagine how great a relief those boxes 
bring. How thankful we feel for them ! 


Rev. Filippo Grilli, St. Louis : — Some time 
ago I found in a Protestant hospital an Italian 
Catholic who had been wounded in a mine at Coal 
Gate, Indian Territory. I went several times to 
see him and prayed with him and read portions of 
the gospel, but as he was very sick I did not enter 
into any discussion about Catholicism, but only 




preached the word ; so when he was dying he asked 
for a priest and received the sacraments of the 
Catholic Church. But, after he was dead, as he 
had neither relatives nor acquaintances in the city, 
nobody would bury his remains and I had to go 
around all last week to collect a little money 
among our leading business people that we might 
be able to bury him. 


Rev. W. A. Galt, Omaha Agency : — The attend- 
ance at Blackbird Hills was affected very greatly 
by the presence of a " merry-go-round," which 
took away nearly all of our congregation two Sab- 
baths, and carried off the reservation over $600 
of the Indians' money. They went wild over it, 
staying by it night and day for about ten days. 

Then the sale of liquor to the Indians is a draw- 
back. I was told that one man came on to the 
reservation with a load and returned to town with 
$90 and a horse to get a second load. Another 
man who lives just over the line is said to have 
taken in $100 in one day. 

We have enjoyed the privileges given us of visit- 
ing these peculiar people in their homes. We 
usually find them outside of the house because it 
does not embarrass them quite so much and then it 
is usually more comfortable. To an old Indian 
woman we said in Indian, " God is good. He gave 
us a good rain" (which came the night before after 
a long dry spell). She said in Indian: "God is 
bad. There is no corn, no hay and no wheat." 
One of our elders, whose English name is John 
Webster, but whose Indian name is Num-ba Du-ba, 
which means hands four, or as we say, four hands, 
has been an invalid ever since we came here. He 
enjoys our visits and as he cannot speak English, he 
is a good man to practice talking Omaha to. 

A little girl about twelve years of age had died, 
and her father asked us to come and conduct a re- 
ligious service. He was not a church-going man. 
We found the body wrapped with clothes, lying on 
a board supported by chairs, out under some trees. 
The coffin, a good one from the undertaker's store 
at Bancroft, was bedecked with yards of ribbon of 
various colors. When we arrived, the father alone 
was preparing the grave which was on the summit 
of a hill near by. He came to the house, and the 
ten or twelve present all listened attentively as the 
words from John 14 : 1-6 were interpreted to them, 
and also the words of a hymn and the words of the 
missionary. Then a prayer in Omaha was offered by 
the interpreter. 


H. W. Chapman, Lakeport, Kelseyville and 

J. H. Stewart, Ontario, Westminster, 
R. Logan, Pleasanton, 1st, 
A. Haberly, Elk Grove, 
J. W. McLennan, Fall River Mills, 1st, and 

H. Hill, Virginia City, 

F. A. Doane, San Francisco, Mizpah, 

R. W. Reynolds, San Francisco, Holly Park, 

G. D. B. Stewart, San Francisco, Franklin St., 
W. G. Mills, Santa Paula, 1st, 


J. McDonaldson, Elk Star Valley, Wells and 

Lamville, Nev., CaL 

W. B. McElwee, Madera, 
W. H. Wieman, Orosi and Dinuba, 
R. Ballagh, Piano and Rocky Ford, 

D. M. Gillies, Grayson, 1st, and Tracy, 
G. C. Giffen, Fowler, 1st, and station, 

M. T. A. White, Oakdale and stations, " 

Wm. Hicks, Littleton, 1st, Colo. 

R. Coltman, LaJunti, 1st, 
L. R. Smith, La Plata County, 
A. J. Rodriguez, Ute Indians, " 

J. J. Perdomo, Las Aminas and Huerfano Co's 
and Arkansas Valley, 

F. M. Gilchrist, Training Mexican Evange- 

J. D. Catlin, Atoka, 1st, and Lehigh, Ind. Ter. 
W. M. Hamilton, Tahlequah, " 

L. Dobson, Claremore Mound, and Oowala, " 

G. Johnson, Wewoka, 

T. W. Perryman, Broken Arrow and station, ' ' 

E. P. Robertson, Clear Creek, Eureka and 

Pleasant Valley, 
W. T. King, Vinita, 1st, " 

W. L. Miller, Antioch, Muldrow and Sallisan, " 
D. Fife, Achena and station, 

D. E. Smallwood, Catechist and Interpreter, " 

E. H. Broyles, Tulsa, 1st, " 

F. L. Schaub, Elm Grove, Elm Spring, Girty 

Springs, Rabbit Trap, White Water and 

Barren Fork, 
T. D. Duncan, Work among Seminoles, 
J. Yarbaugh, Indian Helper, " 

J. Dudycha, Andrew and Fulton, Iowa. 

J. G. Aikman, Humeston and Grand River, " 
D. H. Rohrabaugh, Osceola, 
A. G. Martyn, Denison, 
H. Wortman, Lyon Co., 1st, German, 
J. Wynia, Ebenezer, 1st, Holland, " 

H. G. Fonken, Eldora, Steamboat Rock, Pt. 

Pleasant and Owasa, " 

W. S. Morley, Emporia, Arundel Ave., Kans. 
J. H. Fazel, Wichita, Oak St., 
L. H. Shane, Wichita, Westside and Harmony, " 
J. A. Sankey, Wichita, Lincoln St., 
S. R. Anderson, Clear Water, 1st, " 

H. A. Zimmerman, Mulvane, Derby and Waco," 
O. J. Gregg, White City, Morris and Wilsey, " 
J. K. Miller, Belle Plaine, 1st, 
S. C. Kerr, Reece. 
V. M. King, Lyon Co., Westminster, 

G. S. Lake, D.D., New Salem, Walnut 

Valley and stations, 
H. S. Christian, Cottonwood Falls, 

D. K. Steele, Howard, " 
J. R. McQuown, Caldwell, Calvary, 

J. L. Amlong, Genda Spring and Oxford, 
J. W. Funk, Elmendaro and Madison, 

B. Hoffman, Salem, German and stations, 

E. Harris, Liberal, 1st, 

D. E. Ambrose, Sterling, 1st, 

G. E. Bicknell, Syracuse and Kendall, 

H. B. Allen, Garden City, " 

C. J. McCracken, Greenup, Ky. 
W. Coulter, Elk and Sanilac Centre, Mich. 
H. H. Davis, Otter Lake, 1st, and station, 

W. Sidebotham, Spring Lake, 1st, 

E. A. Douglas, Grand Marias, 

W. Walker, Pickford, Sterlingville, Stalwart 
and station, 




N. B. Andrews, Tekonsha, Mich. 

B. C. Calahan, Parma, 

A. J. Van Page, Lafayette, 2d, 
J. H. Fleming, Erie, 1st, 

C. M. Boyce, Cathro, 
W. J. Young, Hillman and stations, 
S. Megaw, Maple Ridge, 1st, and Omer, 
P. Knudsen, Hinckley and Pine City, Minn. 

F. E. Higgins, New Duluth and Fond du 

Lac, " 

I. E. Markus, Samaria and Bethlehem, Swe- 
dish, " 
J. A. Paige, McNair Mem'l and Thomson, " 
N. H. Bell, Pastor-at- Large, " 
W. Lattimore, Slay ton, " 
J. W. Hood, Island Lake, and Russell, " 
R. Tweed, Kinbrae, Dundee and Brewster, " 
R. Brown, Minneapolis, Bethany, " 
J. F. Montman, Lakefield, 1st, " 
E. M. Lumm, Rushmore and Summit Lake, " 
J. D. Gibb, Jasper, 1st, and Hard wick, " 

C. S. McKinney, Canby and stations, " 
W. Davidson, Fulda, 1st, " 

B. Hitchings, Balaton, 1st, and Easter, 

W. L. Hackett, Caledonia, Sheldon and Union, " 
P. A. Schwarz, Jr., Canton, Henry town, Rich- 
land Prairie and stations, " 
I. P. Withington, Alden, 1st, " 
L. H. Hayenga, Winona and Frank Hill, Ger- 
man, " 

G. B. Sproule, Brownington and Deepwater, Mo. 
W. Semple, Eldorado Springs, " 
L. M. Belden, Kansas City, 3d, " 
T. J. Boyer, Osceola, 1st, and Vista, 

A. E. Vanorden, Burnham and Fordland, " 

E. S. Brownlee, Appleton City, 1st, and Vista, " 
E. E. Stringfield, Springfield, 2d, " 

A. A. Boyd, Salem, " 

S. Glasscock, Asbury, 1st, and Lehigh, 
W. M. Newton, Lowry City and Westfield, " 
W. E. Knight, Milan, Sullivan, 1st, and sta- 
tions, ' ' 
W. O. Stephen, Macon, " 
J. A. McKay, Akron, 

E. W. Symonds, St. Joseph, Hope, " 

T. D. Roberts, St. Joseph, 3d, " 

J. E. Leyda, Jonesboro and Ridge Station, 1st, Ark. 
G. McV. Fisher, Kalispell, Mont. 

G. Edwards, Stanford and stations, " 

C. E. Rice, Bodare, Union Star and stations, Neb. 

D. Oastler, Gordon and station, " 
A. J. Evans, Bloomington, 1st, and Republican 

W. E. Kunz, Blue Hill and Giltner, " 

A. Krebs, Campbell, German, " 

R. A. Patterson, Axtell, " 

A. Patterson, Dublin and station, " 

S. R. Belville, Wood River, 1st, 

E. L. Dodder, Pastor- at-Large, 

T. Morning, Randolph and station, " 

S. F. Wilson, Beatrice, 2d, and Hoag, " 

F. A. Mitchell, Gresham and Utica, 1st, " 
H. Walker, Blue Springs, " 
J. Ratz, Plattsmouth, German, " 
H. A. Thompson, Peoria and Congress, Ariz'. 
M. Bercovitz, Laguna, Indian and stations, N. M. 
J. Menaul, Albuquerque, 2d, and stations, " 
W. G. Westervelt, Esperance, N. Y. 

D. J. Many, Guilderland, Hamilton Union, " 

J. D. Cameron, Masonville, 1st, N. Y. 

G. F. Humphreys, Nineveh, 

D. B. McMurdy, Lynn, 1st, Mass. 
K. McKay, Houlton, Littleton and Monti- 
cello, Me. 

S. R. Biggar, Essex and station, N. Y. 

E. Scofield, Mooers, 1st, and station, 

H. G. Deane, Peru, " 

C. J. Hastings, Otego, " 

C. W. MacCarthy, Ossian, " 

T. Melvin, Springwater, 

J. A. Miller, Ph.D., Angelica, 1st, " 

T. Kerr, Atlanta, " 

H. W. Knox, Belmont, " 

O. C. Barnes, Evans Mills, " 

T. E. Douglas, Willow City, Omenee and sta- 
tions, N. D. 
M. Moore, Leeds and stations, 

C. Slack, Gilby, 1st, and Middleton, " 
J. R. Campbell, Hoople and Eldora, 

W. Gillespie, Ardoch and Greenwood, 

E. M. Atwood, Larimore, 1st, and Arvilla, " 

D. J. Sykes, Milton, 1st, and Osnabrock, 
R. Johnston, Pembina and stations, 

T. Dougan, Langdon, 

D. M. Davenport, Lebanon, 1st, Oreg. 
G. A. McKinlay, Spring Valley and McCoy, " 
W. H. Dierdorff, Klamath Falls, " 
G. R. Brabham, Chambersburg, Wolfstown 

Chapel, Pa. 

W. O. Wright, Milesburg, Moshannon and 

Snow Shoe, " 

B. A. Rayson, Woonsocket, 1st, S. D. 
J. P. Williamson, D.D., General Missionary 

to the Dakota Indians, 

E. J. Lindsey, Poplar Creek Agency, Indian, " 
A. F. Johnson, Pine Ridge Agency, Indian, " 
J. Rogers, Lower Brule Agency, Indian, 

C. R. Crawford, Good Will, Indian, 
J. Flute, Wounded Knee, Indian, 
J. B. Renville, Ascension, Indian, 
S. Rouillard, White Clay, Indian, 

L. De Coteau, Mountain Head, Indian, 
M. Makey, Riverside and stations, Indian, 
H. V. Plaut, Canton, 1st, " 

R. C. McAdie, La Porte, 1st, Texas City and 

Pasadena, Tex. 

S. W. Patterson, Dallas, Exposition Park, 
A. S. Carver, Glen Rose, 1st, and Cottonwood, " 
W. Douglas, Dallas, Bethany, 
W. A. Hough, Malad City and stations, Idaho. 
R. A. Smith, Payette, 1st, " 

F. G. Wishard, Montpelier and vicinity, 

E. L. Anderson, Salina and Gunnison, Utah. 
J. Thompson, Smithfield, Franklin and sta- 

C. May, Ogden, Central Park Mission, 

A. E. Austin, Sitka, Alaska. 

A. C. Austin, Hoonah, 

L. F. Jones, Juneau, 

J. R. Thompson, Aberdeen and station, Wash. 

A. McKenzie, La Camas, St. John's, 

J. M. C. Warren, Friday Harbor, Topez, 
Calvary and stations, 

T. MacGuire, Pastor-at-Large, 

N. McLeod, Pastor-at-Large, 

L. E. Jesseph, Fairfield, Rockford and sta- 
tions, " 

F. Waalkas, Beloit, German, Wis. 
J. S. Wilson, Bangor, " 

Young People's Christian Endeavor. 

One Chinese society at the Foochow convention 
reported : " We have no banner to bring for you to 
see. Banners are good, but deeds are more impor- 

* * 

To the question, " What is it to have a pure 
heart?" a Spanish Junior Endeavorer replied : " It 
is not being afraid to have Jesus know what I am 
thinking about. ' ' 

* # 

A pastor in Russia, says the Golden Rule, 

characterizes the Christian Endeavor society thus : 

'' The hearth fire of Christian life, from which are 

scattered glowing coals of practical Christianity." 

# * 


The largest Young People's Society of Christian 
Endeavor in the world is that in Cooke's Presby- 
terian Church, Toronto. It has an enrollment of 
503 active and 114 associate members, a total of 617. 

* * 


Those connected with the young people' s societies 
in the Presbytery of Halifax, Canada, are reported 
as characterized by anxiety to be good and to do 
good, and by true loyalty to the ministry and the 


* * 

Of George W. Curtis it has been said : He added 
nothing to our literature which did not make for 
kindness, charity and peace ; nothing to our politics 
which does not shame its ordinary levels and 
beckon it to higher things. 

* * 

The next endeavor ought to be for systematic 
Bible reading, says the Keystone Endeavorer. We 
must set out to know our Bible by our daily read- 
ings. That reading which relieves only a sense of 
duty and serves to chalk another mark of our 
pledge is almost wholly profitless. 

Writing in the Golden Rule on how the Christian 
Endeavor pledge strengthens the Christian life, the 
Rev. Dr. Smith Baker says : " It creates thoughtful- 
ness, strengthens the conscience, develops the spirit- 
ual gifts of those who keep it, cultivates sym- 
pathy with others and develops the spiritual life." 

* * 


The Rev. John Proctor Davis, chairman of the 
committee on young people's societies and bands 

in the Presbytery of Zanesville, said in his call for 
a mass meeting : " Bring note book and pencil, 
your Bible and enthusiasm. Come prepared to 
give as well as receive helpful thoughts and sun- 
shine. ' ' 


Young people's work is much the same the 
world over. Miss Julia Hatch, beginning her 
work in Praa, Laos, writes in North and West of her 
efforts to organize the Christian Endeavor work : 
" We have four committees — prayer meeting, look- 
out, social and flower. Last Sunday the flowers 
were carried from church to an invalid widow." 

# * 

One Christian Endeavor society is reported which 
established a Committee on Systematic Beneficence 
with this pledge: "We covenant with the Lord 
and with those who enter with us into the fellow- 
ship of this consecration, that we will devote a 
proportionate part of our income, not less than 
one-tenth, to benevolent and religious purposes ; 
and this we do in his name who hath loved us, and 
hath given himself for us, our Lord and Saviour, 

Jesus Christ." 

# # 

The report on church life and work in one of the 
Canada presbyteries mentioned the following ways 
in which the young people's societies have been 
helpful : faithful and systematic study of the Bible ; 
deepening sense of responsibility ; inducing others 
to attend service ; the cultivation of the missionary 
spirit ; visiting the sick ; friendliness to strangers. 
Pastors have been greatly helped ; the spiritual 
life of the congregation increased, while many 
through their agencies have been turned to a more 
serious view of life. 

# * 

The Rev. D. D. McLeod reminds us that though 
Christian Endeavor has always been in the Church, 
it has only taken a new form to-day. Formerly it was 
less demonstative. It was not marshalled in proces- 
sions nor assembled in conventions ; it did not dis- 
tribute banners and badges ; but it was there, ready 
to do the work of God. Let us see to it that our new 
Endeavor cultivates a type of character as strong and 
high as that which has been the product of the 
Church of the past. For as always, so now, the 
world requires and Christianity demands the high- 
est type of men and women to carry on the crusade 




A plea for the practical use of the enthusiasms of 
the young life of the Church through wise and 
stable organization was made at a recent synodical 
conference in Canada, writes the Rev. R. Douglas 
Fraser, in the Canada Presbyterian. The reproach, 
more or less true, that nine-tenths of the work of 
the Church is done by one-tenth of the people, will 
pass away as the young people fall into line for ser- 
vice. The Church should aid its young people to 
proper forms of organization, and be patient with 
them when their impetuousness breaks out, as it 
sometimes may in unprofitable forms. The true 
policy for the development of the young life of the 
Church is on the lines, first, of instruction, and then, 
as an outcome, active work. 

The importance of the Christian Endeavor pledge, 
says Dr. Clark, may be estimated by the names 
given to it. It has been called the Magna Charta 
of Christian Endeavor ; the hub of the Endeavor 
wheel ; the spinal column of the Christian Endea- 
vor body, and in Scotland, our Solemn League and 
Covenant — a name so beautiful that I almost wish 
it had been chosen for it from the first. It is Scrip- 
tural — the Bible is full of covenants. It is a 
necessity — between man and man there must be 
pledges. Business, social and family life are all 
built on pledges of one sort or another, and experi- 
ence has proved that it is the only safe basis for Chris- 
tian Endeavor, and it has succeded in forty different 
languages. But there must be life behind it or 
the pledge will be useless. 


The Rev. J. H. Condit, pastor of the Log Cabin 
Presbyterian Church, in Juneau, Alaska, reports 
an incident which presents an unusual feature of 
privation in home mission work : 

A brother missionary, living sixty miles from 
Juneau, his nearest post-office, has just paid a visit 
to the missionary workers in Juneau, in company 
with his wife and their three children. 

In the village where they have been stationed for 
the past year, there is but one other white woman 
besides the missionary's wife. 

The steamboat line does not extend to this point, 
and the missionary must transport his supplies 
from Juneau as best he may. After living for a 
year in this isolated place the desire for communi- 
cation with the fellow workers nearest at hand be- 
came so strong that the family resolved to visit 
Juneau. They set out in an open boat to make the 
journey of sixty miles, arriving in this place after 

being out three days and two nights, rowing against 
a head wind and exposed to the rain the greater 
part of the way. 

As I heard the devoted wife of this consecrated 
missionary asking for the prayers of the Christian 
Endeavor society of our church that she might be 
made more contented and more efficient in her 
place of labor, I thought that the Presbyterian 
Church might well be proud of these consecrated 
home missionary laborers. 



The work of this committee should never be un- 
dertaken without the sanction of church officials, 
otherwise it may have the appearance of usurping 
the duties of Sunday-school superintendent and 
teacher. The cooperation of a band of active 
young people is welcomed by the superintendent, 
and is of inestimable value to the school. Among 
the results of such effort are the following : 

1. The organization of a corps of substitute 
teachers who are always ready for the emergency ; 
the necessary visitations of the class for the suc- 
ceeding week being looked after by another set of 
young people gathered by the committee for the 

2. Where no provision is made for teaching the 
lesson to the teachers, the committee secures one 
who will teach such a class, or by a combination of 
neighboring schools institutes a joint class for all 
the teachers. 

3. Floral decorations are provided for the school 
room, and the position of pictorial decorations on 
the walls is changed to relieve the monotony. 

4. To develop sociability among the teachers, 
quarterly receptions are held. While refreshments 
are being quietly served, a prominent Sunday- 
school worker speaks informally on some impor- 
tant phase of the work. 

5. Other efforts of this committee are : system- 
atic visitation for the enrolling of new scholars ; 
receptions given to former members of a class to 
enlist them as regular attendants again ; the rais- 
ing of funds to replenish the library ; the distribu- 
tion or loaning of literature pertaining to the les- 
son to teachers unable to obtain such ; the creation 
of a missionary fund for the support of Sunday- 
school missionaries. 

The committee does not attempt to do all itself, 
but plans the work and secures the workers so as ta 
give those members of the society who are not ac- 
tive on any committee an opportunity to use their 






Take up the nearest cross and trust always. 
Thou knowest not tbe trial which shall be 
Thy soul's great joy through all eternity. 

Thou "lily knowest that he hiils thee raise 

Tin' nearest rross, as ho adds day to days. 
Then lift it up — ho here a eross for thee — 
And follow on till death shall make thee free, 

Whin changed shall thy cross be for harp and praise. 

The God of all looks down from his high heaven, 
And sees the hearts that hero with anguish bleed, 
As his own flock are counted by his rod . 

lie promised, as thy day shall strength he given, 
But never given lill the day of need, 
And need and hour are known unto thy God. 


In the Golden Rule (May 13) Dr. Clark's "Fa- 
miliar Letter" gives an interesting account of his 
journeying and observations in South Africa. He 
says : 

I especially enjoyed a visit of three hours (which 
was all the many meetings in Durban allowed) to 
Amanzimtote, one of the stations of the American 
Board's Zulu Mission. First an hour in the train ; 
then three hours in a wagon drawn by four oxen, 
and then the white buildings and schoolhouses of the 
Adams Mission station at Amanzimtote came in 

I should like to describe this work at length, and 
tell you about all these devoted workers ; but space 
forbids. I can assure you there is no more heroic, 
self-sacrificing, noble body of mission workers in all 
the world ; and within a very few weeks the prayers 
of scores of years have been answered, and the 
labors of three-quarters of a century rewarded by 
a most remarkable outpouring of God's Spirit. 

As I write, meetings of wonderful power are held 

Amanzimtote Church. 
Permission of The <:ohlm Huh: 

daily. They extend into the night, and sometimes 
last all night ; the sons and the daughters are 
prophesying, and the Zulu Christians are bowed 
down with a sense of their sin like reeds in the 
river by the onrushing current. 

But the story is too long and too good to crowd 
into a paragraph. I must devote an article to this 
wonderful revival. 

This article having fallen under the eye of one 
who was born at Amanzimtote, and is now a pros- 
perous man of business and an earnest Christian 
worker in Philadelphia, he writes as follows : 

I was very glad to read Dr. Clark's letter in the 
Golden Rule, and was especially interested in that 
portion which referred to his visit to Amanzimtote, 
and also to see the picture of the Amanzimtote 

The picture and the letter brought up many sweet 
memories, although since I last saw it the church 
seems to have lost its little spire, which makes it 
lose its familiar appearance. 

Pictures come to mind much faster than a camera 
could take them. 

Just this side of the church is the old thatch - 
roofed schoolhouse in which father and mother did 
so much faithful, patient and loving work. 

Below, the old home with its long walks and 
rose hedges with the line of mulberry trees, and be- 
tween the lines of trees beds of verbenas and 

How well I remember the early morning work 
for us boys, keeping those walks in order, and how 
we used to think that, beautiful as they were, the 
labor of keeping them in good repair was more than 
they were worth, little recognizing then that the 
habits of industry so wisely cultivated by the lov- 
ing parents would be worth 
far more to us in future life 
than any beauty of roses or 
other flowers. 

Far down the 1 o d g , 
straight walk in front of 
the house, a winding path 
turned off to the left and 
ran down to the little 
stream, a beautiful spot, 
shaded with blue g u m 
trees, and right in the 
midst of the shade two 
graves, where mother and 
little sister were laid, and 
as Dr. Clark in his letter 
speaks o f Pietermaritz- 
burg, the capital of the 
colony, there comes freshly 
to mind the long, lonely 
trip from Few's Mills to 




Pietermaritzburg ami back to Amanzimtote. My 
mother died at Few's Mills and was first buried 
there, and then later on, just before we left, 
brought down to the old place. 

The old African life comes back with a wonder- 
ful freshness, especially those last days, and yet 
since then there have been wonderful changes in 
that country. 

It seems strange to think of taking a train at 
Durban for anywhere, and the thought of riding 
from Durban on the railroad to Amanzimtote seems 
almost like sacrilege, nor does it seem quite right to 
talk of riding in an ox-wagon drawn by four oxen. 
In those old days we hardly thought it worth while 
to yoke up less than eight oxen, and a regular ox 
team consisted of never less than twelve and 
usually fourteen oxen. 

As I write I can see every foot of the road from 
Amanzimtote to Durban, going down the hills, 
fording the rivers, through the bush, " out- span- 
ning" for noon, building a fire and cooking the 
meal, while the oxen were grazing, and then bring- 
ing up the oxen and "in-spanning" again to 
start off on the journey ; when night came, pull- 
ing off by the side of the road, a fire lighted, mak- 
ing the dark shadows in the wood all the darker, 
while the remarkably clear and beautifully star- 
spangled sky made one feel as if the angels were 
watching through heaven's windows the little 
party camped by the roadside, and then when bed- 
time came, all getting into the wagon for the night, 
to sleep undisturbed, except occasionally wakened 
by the weird cry of the hyena, or the distant call 
of the leopard. 

Of all the remembrances of that early life, the 
most helpful one to me, and the one which has been 
a constant anchor and inspiration, has been the 
memory of the sweet home life and the mother who, 
when she gave herself to the Lord and his work in 
Africa, put behind her all the social possibilities for 
which she was so capable, and went into dark 
Africa and lived so many years all alone except for 
her family, many of the years being miles away 
from any other white people, and did it with such 
completeness that even her children had no occasion 
ever to think that any other spot in the world 
could have been more pleasant than that. No 
mother ever carried a brighter face or lighter heart 
for her family than she. 

In those days I did not fully understand as I do now 
the darkness that oftentimes was around her work 
and the dangers that encompassed her, nor did I 
then understand just what self-sacrificing efforts 
father and mother made. It was hard to find any- 
body who was willing to learn to read, write or 
sew, or even work at anything. Many times I 

have seen father get out from the bureau drawer 
the little tin box in which the money was kept and 
with mother count it over and carefully calculate 
whether by further economy they could employ 
another girl in the household or another man to 
work about the house, when in either case the work 
was not needed and the addition would only mean 
more worry and care, and yet it was done over and 
over again that in this way somebody might be 
brought under the influence of the gospel, for it was 
always a part of the contract that they should 
learn to read and do that sort of work which was 
educating and civilizing in its influence. 

I often think that if the good people of this 
country could only somehow get more into the 
heart and home life of the missionaries, more 
prayers would be offered, more money given for 
this work than is now even dreamed of. 

In that old home I was never taught about mission- 
ary trials. The life and words of both father and 
mother were more in the line of the blessing and 
privilege that came to them because they were al- 
lowed to toil in that field for the Master, and in all 
those years, even in those last days, when death 
was so near at hand, and, with the exception of the 
family, friends were all so far away, I never heard 
one word of regret and never saw one look that in- 
dicated even the thought that some other sphere in 
life would have been more pleasant or desirable, 
and if to-day the Christian Endeavor societies are 
thriving in Natal, and railroads are prospering as 
they carry to the seaport the products of the land, 
not a little of this is due to that almost unknown and 
little heard-of work of the missionaries years and 
years ago, when they went far away from all white 
people and started there the missions among the 
native tribes, patiently learning the language and 
cheerfully and persistently telling, and living as well 
as telling, that sweet story that has changed the 
hearts and lives of so many of those dark-skinned 
natives and given in place of the huts and kraals 
the neat little villages, and in place of the almost 
naked savages, neatly dressed Christians. 

We still talk of darkest Africa, but the day will 
come when the Sun of Kighteousness shall shine 
into that dark continent with such effective bril- 
liancy that it shall be known on earth and in 
heaven as " Brightest Africa." 

Henry Nelson McKinney. 

Note — It seems not improper to inform our 
young readers that the mother of Mr. McKinney, 
of whom he speaks so aflectionately, was the sister 
of Dr. Nelson, of whose early girlhood he spoke in 
our July number, p. 7. Her grave was made in 
18G1, and the cypress tree which her husband 
planted beside it is now said to exceed eighty feet 
in height. 




Main Entrance, Auditorium, Winona. 
Permission of The Winonian. 

Is it nothing that through their labor in the 
translation of the Bible the German philologist in 
his study may have before him the grammar and 
vocabularly of two hundred and fifty languages? 
Who created the science of anthropology ? The 
missionaries. Who rendered possible the science 
of comparative religion ? The missionaries. Who 
discovered the great chain of lakes in Central 
Africa on which will turn its future destiny? 
The missionaries. Who have been the chief ex- 
plorers of Oceanica and America and Asia ? The 
missionaries. Who discovered the famous Nes- 
torian monument in Singar Fu? A missionary? 
Who discovered the still more famous Moabite 
stone ? A missionary. Who discovered the Hittite 
inscriptions ? A missionary.— Dean Farrar. 

Let us make more determined individual effort 
this year to obey our Lord' s command to evangelize 
the world. You may never leave your native 
shores, but the command comes to you none the 
less. Go you. Have your representative at work 
while you sleep. Work twenty-four hours a day 
for God. Have your personal representative, so 
that your heart and interest and love may be in the 
extension of the kingdom of God the world around, 
for where your treasure is there will your heart be 
—Dr. F. E. Clark. 


The Golden Rule recommends that every Chris- 
tian Endeavor society attempt to get the help that 
comes from marking the mile-stones along its way. 
The story of the beginnings and the testimonies of 
the first members, with messages from absent ones, 
will often give new zeal and a new sense of respon- 
sibility to present members as they realize how 
much a few years may be made to mean. 

But an anniversary is poorly observed if its re- 
view of the past does not turn the thoughts to the 
possibilities for the future and mark a great ad- 
vance. The best way to keep a birthday is to en- 
ter on some new and useful line of work with a 
consecration and an energy that shall insure con- 
tinued effort and deserved success. Celebrate by 
getting many or all the members to adopt system- 
atic giving, by starting a mission club or a class for 
Bible study, or by adopting some way of helping 
the church or reaching those that are without, not 
omitting to hold fast all that has already been 
gained. In some way give the world cause to be 
glad that you are- a year older. 

The common problem, yours, mine, every one's, 
Is — not to fancy what were fair in life, 
Provided it could be— but, finding first 
What may be, then find how to make it fair 
Up to our means : a very different thing. 

— Robert Browning. 




Oakland, Cal. 

In a recent prosecution of a plan to promote 
Sabbath observance in California, a pledge was cir- 
culated in the Brooklyn Presbyterian society, ask- 
ing for signatures of those Endeavorers who would 
not ride a bicycle for mere pleasure on Sunday, 
nor read a Sunday newspaper. Heretofore many 
who have acted conscientiously in the matter of 
Sunday papers have received the paper as on other 
days but laid it aside until next day. Now the 
purpose is not to read it at any time. Many signed 
the pledge. Two weeks after, the information 
committee reported that one member went to the 
office of a large daily and asked to have the 
Sunday edition stopped. The agent said, "What's 
the matter with East Oakland ? Over a hundred 
have stopped the Sunday edition." It is surmised 
that other agents might have a similar story to 
tell about their own papers. Some think Califor- 
nia will win in credits in this line, and that it 
will be easy because she has so far to go. There are 
so many respects in which she needs to make ad- 
vancement. — F. H. R. 

Washington, D.C. 

The Young People's society of West Street 
Church, Washington City, has charge once a 
month of the meetings held at Washington Bar- 
rack. _ The government does not station its chap- 
lains in the garrisons located in or near large cities, 
so that such work is a most important one ; for the 
soldiers must have the gospel taken to them or 
they will not get it. The Society also holds ser- 
vices once in three weeks at the Home for Incur- 
ables. In these two ways they are doing a work 
most profitable to all concerned. — Pastor. 

Chicago, III. 

The Avondale Presbyterian Endeavor society 
devotes the second meeting of every month to mis- 

Chariton, Iowa. 

In connection with the Ladies' Missionary So- 
ciety, the Endeavorers of the Presbyterian Church 
will support a missionary this year. Last year, 
when the church was in need of a janitor, the 
young people earned a good sum of money by un- 
dertaking the work. 

Salina, Kansas. 

A round-trip ticket to San Francisco was the gift 
with which the young people of the Presbyterian 
Endeavor society surprised their pastor. 

Wichita, Kansas. 

The young people of the First Presbyterian 
Church are organized into two separate societies, 
Nos. 1 and 2. An important feature of their work 
is the maintenance of a Bible-study class, which 
meets each Tuesday evening and is conducted by 
the pastor. " The Evidences of Christianity" has 
been the subject under consideration during the 
past year, and the attendance has been very gratify- 
ing throughout the year. The committee work is 
made much of, and the roll is kept carefully 
trimmed of all dead material. Members must 
keep their pledge or lose their membership. The 

young people are also very active in missions, both 
home and foreign and city. A city missionary, to 
assist the pastor, is now being arranged for by 
them. They also maintain a Junior C. E. and a 
Children's Mission Band. — C. E. B. 

Avalon, Ho, 

A determined effort has been made, with good 
results, to secure the presence of every church 
member at the Sunday school. A monthly meet- 
ing of teachers and officers with pastor and elders 
is held, to pray for the conversion of scholars. 

Instead of the cheap-john kind of music which 
has so ready and large a market in the West, we 
have for a few months used the selections in the 
Westminster Quarterly, which are from the Hym- 
nal. This was difficult at first, but with an organ- 
ist fond of music and the pastor at the piano we 
have worked on steadily to the great satisfaction of 
the school. You should hear them sing now ! — 
A. D. W. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

"The Children of the Covenant" is the name of 
a week-day class of baptized children, organized 
for instruction in the Bible and the duties of the 
church, by Dr. Geo. E. Martin, pastor of the First 

St. Paul, Minn. 

The Neighborhood Bible Class, one of the insti- 
tutions of Meriam Park Presbyterian Church, 
meets in the parlors of the church on each alter- 
nate Wednesday evening, during five months of 
the year. It seeks primarily to put a method of 
Bible study before those not identified with the 
Sunday-school. The general purpose is to create 
and sustain a more active interest in the study of 
the Holy Scriptures throughout the entire church. 
The fifth year's course, recently concluded, em- 
braced a study of the Psalms. For one evening 
the program was as follows : 


Paper.— Influence of Environment on the Psalms. 

Paper. — The Psalms in literature. 

Paper. — God in Nature as presented in the Psalms. 

Study. — Psalm xxiv. 

This class has helped many whom the Sunday- 
school does not reach. — W. C. C. 

rianasquan, N. J. 

A visitor to the prayer-meeting of the Presbyte- 
rian Endeavor society feels that he is with an 
earnest and active company of young people. On 
a blackboard are the letters Y. P. S. C. E. ar- 
ranged in artistic design, also text and topic for 
the evening with opening words and parting salu- 
tation. The chairs are so arranged as to make the 
audience compact and give a homelike feeling. 
On the speaker's table a bunch of flowers and an 
attractive plant. The service opens with a hymn, 
unannounced, the number being indicated on the 
board. The singing is hearty, and is led by a 
piano, a recent gift of the society to the church. 
From beginning to end of the service the parts are 
sustained with earnestness and enthusiasm. A 
" pause" committee takes up the thought if for any 
cause it should lag. This is the society at worship, 
the society gathering inspiration. Let us glance at 
the society at work. 




The need of the home church is never forgotten, 
the society ever evincing a laudable desire to assist 
the ' ' mother' ' in every possible way. The flowers 
provided to beautify the sanctuary every Lord's 
Day are always carried at the close to some " shut- 
in." But the society reaches out its arm of help- 
fulness and contributes every year to synodical 
home missions, to the support of its "own mission- 
ary," the Rev. Chas H. Bandy of Fatehpur, In- 
dia ; to that of Rev. N. E. Clemenson, Logan, 
Utah, and to the New Jersey Academy, Logan. 
Missionary interest is sustained by monthly mis- 
sionary meetings and a well selected missionary 
library.— N. D. H. 

Binghamton, N Y. 

A member of the Broad Avenue Presbyterian 
Endeavor society, who had been a professing Chris- 
tian but six months, was at supper with his parents 
one evening when there appeared at the door a 
young man, in ordinary parlance a tramp, who 
asked for something to eat. He was welcomed to a 
place at the table and encouraged to tell his story, 
which was this : he had been in New York, had 
learned that his mother was dying, and was on his 
way to visit her eighty miles further west. The 
Endeavorer took the young man to his own room 
for prayer and Christian counsel ; then went down- 
town with him and succeeded in securing free 
transportation to his destination. A week later 
there came a letter saying that the traveler had 
reached his mother, had found work, and was re- 
solved to trust God. With the first money he 
could save he would buy new clothes and attend 
church. A Christian way of treating a tramp, and 
a commendable acknowledgment of the kindness ! 
— F. P. 

Yonkers, N.Y. 

The monthly church paper issued by Westmins- 
ter Presbyterian Church, edited by the pastor, is 
under the business management of the King's Sons 
and the Young Men's Bible Class. The young 
people of this church are evidently not satisfied 
with one prayer-meeting each week. While the 
Society of Christian Endeavor holds its meeting 
each Sunday afternoon, the Young People's Asso- 
ciation meets every Tuesday evening. The Asso- 
ciation leaders and topics for the first three meet- 
ings in July were as follows : 

Visiting Committee. Topic ;" Christ as a Visitor." John 
11 : 'Js ; James 1 : 27. 

Lookout Committee. Topic: Looking for Opportunities." 
11. 1.: 12:2; 2 John 8. 

Missionary Committee. Topic: "To save that which was 
lost." Luke 19 : 10. 

Oxford, Ohio. 

The Western, a college and seminary for women 
at Oxford, O., has completed its forty- third year 
of earnest work. The religious atmosphere of this 
school and the strong, helpful influences that go 
out from it each year are gratifying to its friends. 
The Young Women's Christian Association has 
conducted classes in the systematic study of the 
different books of the Bible and in methods of 
Christian work, aside from the regular curriculum 
of Bible study. It has also had in charge the 
weekly Wednesday evening prayer meeting. 
Three hundred dollars have been contributed by 

the pupils towards the support of a resident in the 
college settlement work of Cincinnati, a member of 
the class of 94. Clothing and literature have been 
sent to the lumbermen's mission at Sault Ste. Marie, 
Mich. Thus the girls are kept "in touch and sym- 
pathy with human needs during school days, and 
they go out prepared to take up the work that 
needs them most. 

Clenolden, Pa. 

The oldest young man in this society recently 
celebrated his ninety- fifth birthday. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Eliot Boys is the name of a band of boys 
under sixteen years of age in the Germantown 
First Presbyterian Church. Two meetings are 
held each month. The country for the month is 
the topic at the first meeting. Each boy brings 
one fact and one question on that land, which is il- 
lustrated by curios, pictures and maps. The offer- 
ings are always taken up in some article from the 
country studied — in May they were placed in a huge 
bowl from Laos, formerly used for temple offerings. 
The Eliot Boys make an annual contribution of 
$15 for the African missionary ship Nassau, a pic- 
ture of which is shown at each meeting. Their 
motto is that of their illustrious namesake : 
"Prayer and pains, through faith in Jesus Christ, 
can do anything." 

Dividing the work of the Lookout committee 
among its various members has proved a very suc- 
cessful method of conducting the work of this 
committee in the Christian Endeavor society of 
the South Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. 
Some time ago, the chairman of the committee 
divided the membership of the society into five 
groups. One of these groups was assigned to each 
member of the committee, who was made respon- 
sible for that certain group. The chairman did 
not take a group for himself, but announced that 
he was ready at all times to assist any member of 
the committee in the conduct of his or her indi- 
vidual work. The experiment has proved a suc- 
cess. The chairman exercises a general oversight 
over the work, and endeavors to see that each 
member of the committee is faithful to his or her 
trust. Once each month a meeting of the com- 
mittee is held at the home of one of its members, 
when a report is made by each member of the 
committee, stating how many visits have been 
made, who have been absent, and for what reason, 
also what is necessary to be done. General dis- 
cussion of each report follows, with such recom- 
mendations as may be wise. These monthly 
meetings stimulate all to renewed endeavor, and 
arouse mutual sympathy and cooperation. The 
work of bringing in new members into the society is 
not given to any one member, but is done by all. 
It has been found wise in several instances to 
transfer certain members of the society to another 
committee member's list. Beside doing more and 
better work, this plan has the advantage of put- 
ting every member of the committee to work. 
The old plan of the chairman of the committee 
doing all the work is neither wise nor profitable. 
Division of labor has thus proved as successful in 
spiritual work as it has in the mechanical world. 
— W.A. P. 





Syracuse University is written up by Jennie M. 
Bingham for the July issue of Frank Leslie's Pop- 
ular Monthly. This is ninth in a series of illus- 
trated articles on American Universities and Col- 

"Seth Low: a Character Sketch," "The Re- 
vival of French Universities" and " Higher Deaf- 
Mute Education in America," are among the 
good things in the Review of Reviews for July. 

That excellent weekly eclectic, TJic Living Age, 
increases its number of pages once each month by 
the addition of a supplement containing Readings 
from American Magazines and Readings from 
New Books. 

The July issue of Biblia gives a brief account of 
the unearthing in Nepal of a monolith bearing a 
well preserved inscription of Asoka, in which that 
emperor states that he erected this column (about 
239 B. C. ) on the very spot where Buddha was 
born, in order to commemorate the event for fu- 
ture generations. 

Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids writes of Buddhism 
in The Outlook, July 10. The system, he says, is 
pieced together like a puzzle, and the great value 
of its study is the aid which it affords to the stu- 
dent of the comparative history of the develop- 
ment of human thought. 

That invaluable quarterly, Current History, for 
the first quarter of 1897, contains an admirable 
summary of the happenings of the first three 
months of the year in every part of the world. 
Among the leading topics of the quarter are : The 
Eastern Crisis, International Arbitration, The 
Cuban Revolt, The South African Situation, The 
Venezuelan Question, The Alaska Boundary. 

The insurrection in Cuba has become a revolu- 
tion, writes Thomas Gold Alvord, Jr., in the July 
Forum. The whole native population, amounting 
to 1,300,000, is actively or secretly trying to throw 
off the Spanish yoke. The great bulk of the Cu- 
ban army is made up of educated, patriotic, white 
Cubans, who are struggling for civil rights and 
the independence of their country. The propor- 
tion of negroes to whites in the army is about 
four to ten. 

The writer of the article in June Scribner on 
"Undergraduate Life at Princeton" ventures the 
assertion that college graduates are far better edu- 
cated to-day than they were twenty-five years 
ago, and that the athletes are not below the 
others, taking the average of both. It is not au 
uncommon thing for the men who take honors in 
out-of-door sports to be the same who win the 
prizes in scholarship. Princeton holds that ath- 
letics are beneficial so long as they are not per- 
mitted to interfere with scholarship. 

Current topics are intelligently discussed on 
the editorial page of the Youths' Companion. 
Young and old who read this illustrated family 
paper testify that these brief editorials throw 
much-needed light on questions suggested by the 
daily press despatches. The Companion is now 

publishing a series of papers by Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, who conceived the idea of celebrat- 
ing his seventy-fifth birthday by writing his rec- 
ollections of eminent men who were his closest 
friends. The papers on Edward Everett, Oliver 
Wendell Holmes and James Russell Lowell have 
already appeared. 

Mr. Thomas R. Jernigan, U. S. Consul -General 
to China, in his article on the " Commercial Trend 
of China," in July North American Review, says : 
The conservatism of China has thus far blinded 
her to the advantages of a favorable soil and cli - 
matic influences in the production of a grade of cot- 
ton far superior to that now produced, but their 
conservatism will sooner or later give way before 
more enlarged and enlightened business connec- 
tions ; and then it may be demonstrated that in 
China a grade of cotton can be produced equal to 
that which whitens the Mississippi bottoms or the 
uplands of Texas. 

"A Programme for Social Study," by I. W. 
Howarth, in The American Journal of Sociology for 
May, contains practical suggestions for those who 
would better social conditions. Charitable work, 
says the writer, should be preceded by a knowl- 
edge as exact as possible of the conditions of those 
who are to be served. If indiscriminate charity 
is not the greatest curse of our time, it has been 
at least a prolific source of evil. To do good to 
other people requires an expenditure of thought 
as well as au outlay of money. " He gives noth- 
ing but worthless gold," says Lowell, "who 
gives from a sense of duty ; " aud again : 

" Not what we give, but what we share, 
For the gift without the giver is bare." 

So slight a social service, then, as the assist- 
ance of a family, to say nothing of the reform of a 
community, requires social knowledge. To ac- 
quire that knowledge accurately and with econ- 
omy of time, a method of study is necessary. 

The leading article in the July Atlantic Monthly, 
contributed by Prof. Woodrow Wilson, is on 
" The Making of the Nation." There is no 
longer, he says, any danger of a civil war. The 
South is now joined with the West in a stage of 
development. Lines of difference will be effaced 
by growth. There has never yet been a time in 
our history when we were without an East and a 
West, but the novel day when we shall be with- 
out them is now in sight. As the country grows 
it will inevitably grow homogeneous. Popula 
tion will not henceforth spread, but compact ; for 
there is no new laud between the seas where ^the 
West can find another lodgment. The condi- 
tions which prevail in the ever-widening East 
will sooner or later cover the continent, and we 
shall at last be one people. 

People contribute money to aid any undertaking 
just as they sympathize with the object of the 
undertaking : money contributed for the support 
of missions is a measure of the missionary spirit. 
This is the statement of F. W. Hewes, who gives 
in The Outlook, July 3, 1897, the result of his ef- 
fort to ascertain whether the present generation is 
contributing as liberally to missionary work as 
past generations. Carefully prepared diagrams 




iuerease the value of this useful article on " The 
Measure of Missionary Spirit." The writer shows 
that from 1800 to 1890 valuations increased as 
follows : 


Farms and farm property 100 

Church property 29fi 

Total wealth 302 

Manufactured products 397 

Missionary coni riliutious 460 

An article in the American University Magazine 
for April-May, on "The Western University of 
Pennsylvania," speaks of the Rev. Elisha P. 
Swift, once Professor of Moral Science and Evi- 
dences in that institution, as a lineal descendant of 
John Eliot, the apostle of the Indians, a man of 
erudition, the chief promoter of philanthropic 
work in the community, and one of the founders, 
of a later day, of the Presbyterian Board of For- 
eign Missions. The late William Thaw is men- 
tioned in the same article as one whose name de- 
serves to be spoken with reverence and gratitude 
by the citizens of Western Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Thaw's benefactions during his lifetime and at his 
death amounted to nearly $300,000, but he gave 
besides, what was of equal value to the institu- 
tion, the best efforts of his vigorous and compre- 
hensive mind. 

The foundations of Yale University were laid 
by John Davenport, the leader of the colony 
planted at New Haven, in 1638. The colonists 
who made up his company were men of superior 
wealth, culture and knowledge of all'airs. Their 
scheme of government included provision for uni- 
versal education, for a college in which youth 
might be fitted for public service in church and 
State. In 1700 eleven trustees, nine of whom 
were graduates of Harvard, met at Branford. 
Each member brought a number of books and 
presented them to the body, and laying them on 
the table said words to this effect : "I give these 
books for the foundation of a college in this col- 
ony." The framers of its charter, to avoid royal 
jealousy, gave it the name of the Collegiate School, 
and it was first established at Saybrook. In 1717 
the original plans of the founders of the colony 
were fulfilled in the removal of the college from 
Saybrook to its present location, where it cele- 
brated its memorable commencement in its first 
building known as Yale College. At this time it 
was endowed by Elihu Yale and received his 
name.— From " Undergraduate Life at Yale," in 
Scribner's Magazine, July. 

Theodore S. Woolsey, Professor of International 
Law in Yale University, points out in The Forum 
for July how the " balance of power" principle 
has dominated the century in European politics. 
At the conclusion of the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, 
Turkey in Europe was more than twice its present 
size. States have risen and have fallen since 
then ; but no other considerable state has sunk 
so low, has lost so much. That this should be 
true of the only non-Christian government in Eu- 
rope is significant. One of the serious problems 
of the century in Europe has been to get rid of 
Turkish sovereignty, and it has gone a long way 
toward solution. The working out of the proh- 
lem has been complicated and difficult ; it has 
had constantly to face the jealousies of its own 

agents. Whenever the process threatened the ag- 
grandizement of some particular state, then the 
rest called a halt. Turkey's enemies became her 
friends simply in their own defence. 

In the year 189G about thirteen in every hun- 
dred, or a little more than one-eighth of the en- 
tire population of the Hawaiian Islands, were en- 
rolled in the public and private schools. Mr. 
Daniel Logan, who makes this statement in the 
July North . 1 me r /can Review, adds that one in every 
seven of the native Hawaiians of full and mixed 
blood was on the school registers last year. 
Schooling in the Hawaiian language has been all 
but abandoned, the law requiring that every 
child from five to fifteen years of age shall attend 
a public or private school taught in English. 
The department of education is an outgrowth of 
schools established by American missionaries, 
and it is essentially American. It employs Amer- 
ican text-books almost exclusively. One-third of 
all the teachers are American ; and it is no slight 
testimony to the efficiency of the system that 
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian teachers come 
next in number, forming but a little under one- 
third of the entire teaching staff. 

To estimate the result of this momentous event 
would be a vain endeavor ; for what words would 
be sufficient to embrace or to anticipate the con- 
sequences to mankind, to civilization, and to re- 
ligion of the occupation of the temperate zones of 
North America by what will soon be one hundred 
millions of the Anglo-Saxon race ? It may suffice 
to say that while in the hold of Columbus's caravel 
there lurked the Inquisition, slavery, the carnage 
of Cortez and Pizarro, the devastating policy of suc- 
cessive Spanish viceroys, and a permanent insta- 
bility of affairs — all the elements which unite in 
constituting a free, God-fearing state and a mighty 
nation, in developing the prosperity and ordered 
government which are born of honest industry, 
found their way to the new world through the in- 
strumentality of John Cabot and the rough west 
ern seamen who accompanied him. — The Marquis 
of Dufferin, in Scribner's Magazine for July. 

Prof. John DeWitt's article on " Princeton Col- 
lege in the Eighteenth Century," in the July 
Presbyterian and Reformed Review, contains this 
tribute to John Witherspoon who was president 
from 1768 to 1794 : Of the earlier administrations 
that of Witherspoon is the most illustrious, if 
j udged by the brilliant careers of its students. It 
was given to no other man in America in the 
eighteenth century to take the most prominent 
part in the education of thirteen presidents of col- 
leges. During his presidency there were grad- 
uated six men who afterwards became delegates 
to the Continental Congress, twenty men who 
represented their respective Commonwealths in 
the Senate of the United States, and twenty-four 
who sat as members of the House of Representa- 
tives. Thirteen were governors of Common- 
wealths, three were judges of the Supreme Court, 
one was Vice-President and one was president of 
the United States. Upon the characters of most 
of these Witherspoon set his mark. They were 
imbued with his views in philosophy and morals. 
His high and profound religious character gave 
tone to their lives, and his patriotism wrought in 




them as au inspiration. If the greatness of a 
man is to be measured by the influence he has ex- 
erted on other minds, John Witherspoon must be 
remembered as one of the foremost men of the 
Republic during its heroic period. 

The Charities Review, Frederick Howard Wines, 
editor, is the monthly publication of the Charity 
Organization Society of New York, and is de- 
voted to the improvement of social conditions and 
to general practical philanthropy. On the fourth 
cover page of the June issue are printed these sen- 
tences from Benjamin Franklin : Charity is the 
manifestation of interest and the giving of what- 
ever is best under the circumstances. The best 
way of doing good to the poor is not by making 
them easy in poverty but by leading or driving 
them out of it. The first place in this number is 
given to an article by Edward I). Jones on " Sym- 
pathy aud Reason.' 7 This writer says: For the 
word "charity" in the authorized version of the 
New Testament, the new version has substituted 
"love." This change is significant. The old 
charity was interpreted to mean alms, but the 
new means association and fellowship. The lim- 
itation of charity to material benefits reveals a 
poverty of love. The motto, "not alms, but a 
friend," means that the intellectual and spiritual 
needs of the deficient shall be so supplied that 
much of the present physical suffering will not 
occur. To satisfy these higher needs requires the 
contact of personality with personality. 

In his article on " Apostolic and Modern Mis- 
sions" in the July Presbyterian and Reformed Re- 
view, the Rev. Chalmers Martin shows that the 
methods of present-day missions are substantially 
the same as in the New Testament time. The 
geographical plan of modern as well as apostolic 
missions was divinely ordered. Under this 
divine guidance the Church of our age has estab- 
lished her mission work in the great centres of 
political, commercial, intellectual and religious 
influence in the heathen world. The apostles con- 
sidered preaching a chief missionary agency, but 
their broad conception of preaching made it in- 
clude any oral communication of religious truth. 
They were also overseers, superintending in per- 
son, by deputies with whom they kept in quick 
spiritual touch, and by letter, the affairs of the 
multiplying churches. The modern missionary 
puts the emphasis on the preaching of the gos- 
pel, and in carrying out the work of supervision 
follows much the same line as his apostolic 
prototype. Much of what the modern missionary 
strives to give by means of the mission-school — 
the ability to read the Scriptures, the quickening 
of dulled minds, the development of useful gifts — 
had in great measure been given to the people of 
the Roman empire through the diffusion of Greek 
culture and the Greek tongue on the one hand, 
and the influence of the synagogue and the exist- 
ence of the Septuagint on the other. The apostles 
were not school teachers, but had they lived in 
the nineteenth century instead of the first, they 
would have seized on the school as a great agency 
for the diffusion of the gospel, and foremost among 
them would have stood that matchless missionary 
at once the Carey and the Duff of the infant 
Church, who was ready to use any means if only 
he might save souls. 

Book Notices. 

The Westminster Assembly : its history 
and standards, by Alexander F. Mitchell, D.D. , 
LL.D. Presbyterian Board of Publication and 
Sabbath-school Work, 539 pages, $2.00. This is a 
second edition of a well known and valuable book, 
revised by the author for publication in the United 
States. An account of the origin of English Puri- 
tanism and its development and history under the 
Tudors and Stuarts is given in the first three 
lectures. Then follows the story of the prepara- 
tions for and the summoning of the Westminster 
Assembly, which met July 1, 1643, and the proceed- 
ings and debates of that body. A succinct account 
is given in succeeding lectures of the preparation of 
the Directory for Worship, the Assembly's Confes- 
sion of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, 
together with the controversies on the autonomy of 
the Church, which engaged the attention of the 
Assembly. The final chapter is on the Conclusion 
and Results of the Assembly. The value of the 
book is increased by the appendix, the index, the 
ordinance calling the Assembly, and a list of the 

As a specimen of the bookmakers' art this volume 
does honor to our Board of Publication. Loyal 
Presbyterians who are preparing to celebrate the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the adop- 
tion of the Presbyterian standards, according to the 
recommendation of the last General Assembly, will 
find the book an invaluable source of historical 

The Christian Observer, in an appreciative notice 
of Dr. R. M. Patterson's "American Presbyterian- 
ism" [Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sab- 
bath-school Work], says, it is a book full of statis- 
ticsof the early history of Presbyterianism in Phila- 
delphia, then in Pennsylvania, and then in the 
Unted States. It gives a vivid picture of the begin- 
nings of Presbyterianism in Philadelphia. The 
first Presbyterian Church in that city was organized 
in 1697. In the year 1703 a Church of England 
missionary, sent out bv the society for the propaga- 
tion of the gospel in foreign parts, made this pre- 
diction : " They have here a Presbyterian meeting 
house and a minister, one called Andrews ; but 
they arenot likely to increase here." This was there- 
fore a home mission work of great feebleness. 
Forty-six years elapsed before a second church was 
organized in Philadelphia, and the third church 
was not organized till the year 1768. For a whole 
century the work continued unpromising. The 
history thus brings up the question, whether it 
pays to nurture a home mission church year after 
year. The answer appears in the fact that at the 
present the Presbyterian communicants in Philadel- 
phia outnumber any other evangelical church — 
they number 38,500 in a city of a million inhabitants 
(about one in thirty of the population.) The 
Methodists come next with about 33,000 ; the 
Episcopalians number nearly 29,000, and the Bap- 
tists follow with 25,000 or over. And the Pres- 
byterianism of the whole land is practically the 
outcome of this beginning. Verily, it does pay to 
nurture a home mission church. 

Shall We Continue in Sin ? This volume of 
122 pages, published by the Baker & Taylor Co., 
is the substance of addresses delivered in Great 




Britain and Ireland in 1896, by Eev. Arthur T. 
Pierson, D. D. The author attempts to teach, not 
the doctrine of sinlessness, but that the disciple's 
security for non-continuance in sin is found in his 
union with Christ. In the sixth, seventh and 
eighth chapters of Romans he finds this union con- 
sidered in a seven-fold aspect, which for convenience 
sake is designated by the words judicial, vital, prac- 
tical, actual, marital, spiritual and eternal. [12mo, 
cloth, gilt top, 75 cents. From Strawbridge & 
Clothier, Philadelphia.] 

We have received from the publishers, Novello, 
Ewer & Co., a number of octavo anthems, recently 
issued, and which we heartily commend to the 
notice of good chorus choirs. Among the compos- 
ers we find the names of Joseph Barnby, Berthold 
Tours, J. Varley Roberts and others of the English 
school, and whose compositions have found a per- 
manent place in many of our church choirs. They 
are not only devotional, but musically uplifting. 


[Answers may be found in the preceding pages.] 


1. What were the results of the discovery made 
by John Cabot? Pages 81, 149. 

2. Tell the story of a mission band organized in 
1834. Page 129. 

3. What was the result of a conversation be- 
tween two travelers through the snows of western 
New York? Page 130. 

4. What were the conditions in the Nez Perce 
country when Mr. and Mrs. Spalding began their 
work? Pages 131, 132. 

5. Relate incidents connected with that work. 
Page 133. 

6. What are the conditions and needs of for- 
eigners in this country ? Pa?es 134, 135. 

7. Tell something of the work done for them by 
our Church. Page 136. 

8. What incident from Alaska illustrates one 
feature of home mission privation ? Page 142. 

9. Point out some of the gain from Sabbath- 
school mission work. Page 107. 

10. What are some of the approved methods of 
Sabbath-school mission work in cities ? Page 106. 

11. What is the purpose of the work undertaken 
by the Tappan Presbyterian Association at the 
University of Michigan ? Page 101. 

12. What important action was recently taken 
by the Board of Education ? Page 102. 

13. In the Northwest, how does Christian educa- 
tion compare with secular? Page 92. 

14. What report comes from Barber Memorial 
Seminary ? Page 103. 

15. What tribute is paid to John Witherspoon, 
an early president of Princeton College? Page 

16. Relate an incident connected with the 
founding of Yale University. Page 149. 

17. Which Board of the Church has been called 
' ' the right arm of home missions ? " Page 98. 

18. What are the three departments of the work 
of the Board of Church Erection ? Page 98. 

19. How many persons have been aided during 
the past year by the Board of Ministerial Relief? 
Page 95. 

20. What important change has been made in 
one of the By-Laws of this Board ? Page 96. 

21. How do the contributions of the churches to 
Ministerial Relief compare with those made nine 

years ago? Page 97. 


22. Show how the methods of present-day mis- 
sions are substantially the same as in New Testa- 
ment times. Page 150. 

23. Does this generation contribute as liberally 
to missions as past generations? Pages 14S, 149. 

24. What sacrifices are missionaries sometimes 
called upon to make ? Page 122. 

25. Mention three ways in which Christianity 
has proved helpful to the commerce of Christen- 
dom. Page 116. 

26. Show how Christianity has been built up 
through its diffusion. Page 118. 

27. How is the reflex influence of missions seen 
in commerce, in science, in intellectual activity and 
in the development of character? Pages 120, 121. 

28. Repeat the story of the native Chinese 
preacher who possessed the spirit of the old mar- 
tyrs. Page 122. 

29. What does Dr. Coltman say of his recent in- 
terview with A'iceroy Li Hung Chang? Page 82. 

30. Describe the chapel built by Chinese Chris- 
tians. Page 125. 

31. What encouraging tidings come from Oroo- 
miah ? Pages 123, 124. 

32. Contrast the beginnings of missionary work 
in Siam with the conditions and results of to-day. 
Pages 111-114. 

33. Describe a unique edition of the Bible in 
Uganda. Page 109. 

34. What are some of the trials endured by Hin- 
du converts? Page 110. 

35. What incident from Korea indicates the in- 
fluence of the gospel ? Page 81. 

36. How is the stability of Korean Christians 
illustrated ? Page 114. 

37. What three things are needed for the success 
of mission work in Korea? Page 126. 

38. In his itinerating work in Japan, what en- 
couragement does Mr. Ayres find ? Page 126. 

39. How was a Japanese student led to Christ ? 
Page 111. 

40. What is Mr. Pierson' s bright picture from 
Japan? Page 111. 

41. What progress have the native Hawaiians 
made in education ? Page 149. 

42. Relate the story of Kekela, the Hawaiian 
missionary to the Marquesas Islands. Page 117. 





BY V. F. P. 

1. Describe the missionary movement in apos- 
tolic time. 

2. How long did the Church go forward ? 

3. How long did the Church do little or nothing 
for missions ? 

4. What gave the missionary impulse to this 
century ? 

5. What effect have missions had on commerce ? 

6. What effect have missions had in increasing 
knowledge ? 

7. Tell of recent progress owed to missionaries 

8. Tell of recent progress owed to missionaries 
in language study. 

9. Tell of our debt to missionaries in the sci- 

10. Tell of our ethnological debt. 

11. What effect do missions have on our 
churches here ? 

12. Is interest in missions essential to the vast 
Christian development of the individuality of the 
Church ? 

13. Why is this so ? 

14. What effect have Carey, Martyn and Judson 
had on the Church at home ? 

15. What effect did Allen Gardiner have on 
home churches ? 

16. How has Dr. Nevius helped us here spiritu- 

17. What effect did Neesima have on Amer- 
icans ? 

18. Why is increasing wealth apt to prove fatal 
spiritually to the church ? 

19. How can prosperity be made an aid spiritu- 

20. Are we, the Church, realizing sufficiently 
our dependence on the Holy Spirit at home and 

Ministerial Necrology. 

*J-We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible in the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 

Hay, James A. R., — Born in London, England, 
August 23, 1832 ; graduated at Glasgow College, 
and at U. P. Divinity Hall, Glasgow ; licensed 
by U. P. Presbytery of Scotland ; ordained 
by Presbytery of London, Canada, July 22, 
1873 ; pastor at Delaware, Ont., from 1873 to 
1876 ; pastor at Sammerstown, Ont., 1879 to 
1880 ; preached at Ossineke and Caledonia, 
Mich., 1889 to 1891 ; preached at Springwater, 
N. Y„ 1892 to 1893. Died at Toronto, Canada, 
May 13, 1897. 

Married Abigail Biruey, in Toronto, Canada, 
August 15, 1882. They had no children. 

He was received by the Presbytery of 
Rochester, Febuary 14, 1893, and remained a 
member to the time of his death. 

Lindsey, Charles E., D.D. — Born at Middlebury, 
Vt., April 12, 1818 ; graduated from Marietta 
College, 1840, and Union (New York) Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1846 ; ordained by the Pres- 
bytery of New York, June 26, 1850 ; stated 
supply of First Presbyterian Church, New 
Kochelle, N. Y., 1849 ; pastor 1850-58 ; Con- 
gregational Church, Southport, Conn., 1859- 
69 ; degree of Doctor of Divinity, conferred by 
Marietta College, 1884. Died at New Ro- 
chelle, N. Y., May 25, 1897. 

Married, November, 1852, Mrs. Matilda 
Kumsey, who died November 20, 1894. Two 
daughters survive. 

Morris, Herbert, D.D. — Born at Aberys- 
twith, South Wales, July 21, 1818 ; educated 
in London ; licensed by the Presbytery of 
Utica ; ordained by the Presbytery of Water- 

town ; pastor, first at Martinsburg ; then for 
ten years at Little Falls : next at Francesville, 
Ind., for six years ; Calvary Church, Rochester, 
N. Y., 1869-79 ; stated supply, Gates, N. Y., 
1882-92. Died, Rochester, N. Y., May 15, 

Married, January 1, 1850, at Little Falls, 
Miss Eliza Miller, who died in 1866 ; married, 
1868, Miss Jennie Plum, of Constablesville, 
N. Y. 

Stewart, Daniel, D.D. — Born at Amsterdam, 
N. Y., 1811 ; graduated from Union College, 
1833, and from Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, 1837 ; ordained by the Second Presbytery 
of New York, 1837 ; pastor at Hagaman's 
Mills one year ; pastor, BallstonSpa, 1838-44 ; 
pastor,New Albany, Ind., 1844-47 ; Prof. Bib. 
Lit. in Seminary of North West, 1848-53; 
pastor, First Church, Camden, N. J., 1854-61 ; 
pastor, Johnstown, N. Y., 1861-69 ; New 
Albany, Ind., 1869-71 ; Andrew Church, 
Minneapolis, 1873-75 ; First Church, Minne- 
apolis, 1875-81. 

Married, 1838, Miss Anna Bain ; 1853, 
Eliza Mann, who survives him with one son 
and one daughter of the first wife. 

Wickes, Henry. — Born at Jamaica, L. I., N. Y., 
February 11, 1821 ; graduated from Marietta 
College, 1848, and Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, 1851 ; ordained by the New Haven East 
Association, June 16, 1862; pastor, in Prince- 
ton, Mass , 1862-65 ; Guilford, Conn., 1865-68; 
Deep River, Conn., 1868-69 ; Brighton, N. Y., 
1869-74 ; Alden, N. Y., 1877-80; he resided 
in Rochester from 1874 till the time of his 
death, with the exception of the three years at 
Alden, though often supplying churches in the 
vicinity. Died at Rochester, N. Y., March 
23, 1897. 

Married, May 8, 1S56, Miss Elizabeth F. 
Bardwell, who survives him, with two sons 
and two daughters. 


FREEDMEN, June 1896 and 1897. 


Y. P. Societies. 

Sab. -schools. 

W. E. Com. 





81, 553 61 
1,607 88 

829 75 
46 74 

871 00 
133 85 

81,424 47 
1,280 22 

8155 00 
301 IS 

8500 00 

83,733 83 
3,432 S7 


8114 27 

816 99 

862 85 

8114 25 

8149 IS 

8500 00 

8300 96 

Total Receipts to July 1, 1896 and 1897. 


Y. P. Societies. 

Sab. -schools. 

W. E. Com. 





86.4S7 25 
5,710 08 

8109 35 
98 88 

8593 95 
494 39 

82,756 05 
2,165 66 

83,674 02 
905 49 

86,025 00 
427 12 

819,645 62 
9,831 62 


8747 17 

810 47 

899 56 

8590 39 

82,768 53 

85,597 88 

89,814 00 


This Year. 

95,105 SO 
60 87 
1,189 22 
2,077 09 
2,638 03 
2,:i22 92 

Last Year. 

85,566 69 

30 00 

866 85 

1,579 00 

8,028 51 

5,382 S6 



830 87 

322 37 

197 r.i 

8161 39 

5.390 4S 
3,059 94 

Ti ital 

013,693 43 

821,454 51 

87,761 08 

The R -oeii>ts for May were incorrectly printed last month. See page 70. 


Tins Year. 

Last Year. 



88,516 07 

87,971 07 

2,680 90 

974 63 

1,047 15 

15,057 50 
3,889 29 

8545 00 

3,506 07 

22 SO 

71 54 

3,804 49 

6,186 97 

997 43 

3,410 52 

12,240 98 

7,693 78 


827,929 16 

832,220 54 

8-1,291 OS 

Comparative Statement of Receipts MayI, 1897, to June 30, 1897. 

This Year. 

Last Year. 



813,921 37 
6,247 84 
2,180 65 
3,195 78 
6.054 55 
10,016 70 

813,537 76 
2,710 90 
1.841 is 
2,626 75 
23, (ISO 01 
9,272 15 

8383 01 

3,536 94 

345 17 

569 03 

711 55 

17,631 10 

Ti ital 

841,622 89 

853,675 05 

812 052 16 




June, 1897.' 
General Fund 

Contributions 92,543 37 

Miscellaneous 2,890 19 

$5,439 56 

Loan Fund. 
Amount collected on loans 101 00 

Manse Fund. 

Amount, collected on loans $364 50 

Miscellaneous 27 75 

392 25 

15,932 81 

(General Fund Contributions. 

April U-.Tune 30, 1897 $7,543 fiO 

April 11-June 30, 1896 7,108 65 

Cain $434 95 

Crneral Fund Appropriations to date $24,045 00 

Net recipts available to meet same 9,719 39 

Deficiency $14,325 61 


June, 1897. 

From Churches, S. S. and C. E. Societies $1,402 32 

Miscellaneous sources 462 98 

Legacy 2000 00 

Refunded 158 00 

Income from investments 983 50 

Total 15,006 80 

Previously acknowledged 2,845 82 

Total since April 15, 1897 57,852 62 

Individual Contributions and Legacies. 

Rev. W. 11. Hodge, Phila., 5; Rev. E. R. Prkhard, 
Payallip, Wash., 2; Rev. D. A. Dodge, Kissimee, 
Fh'i., 7 cts; Cash, "a friend," 300; N. C. Wbitte- 
niore, 5 $312 07 

Legacy — Balance from estate Ben. McClellan, Ti- 
tusville, N. J 60 28 

Total $372 35 


A friend, Rev. R. M. B., Toledo. O., 1; balance 
from Quarter Century Fund, 1.09; Personal, 5 ; 
C. Penna,2 9 09 

Legacy— Estate of -Alary K. Black, Cadiz, 290 00 

Total $299 09 


Mrs. T. I!. Wells Paris, 5; Dr. C. E. Hall, special 
for students, 300 ; Unknown friend, 10; Rev. and 
Mrs. R. C. Townsend, 9.50; Fred Croasly, Coal 
(lieu, Pa., 48 cts.; Mrs. A. D. Irvine, Duncitnnon, 
Pa., 100; Rev. Robert Gamble, Bridgeton, Pa., 5; 
Dr. Calvin DeWitt, Fort Monroe, Va., 20 ; S. H. 
Stevenson, 1; O. Pcniia.,2; Cash, 10 462 98 

legacy— Estate Jas. P. Green, d'e'd, Gloversville, N. 
Y., (in part) 2,000 00 

Total $2,462 98 

Jacob Wilson, Treasurer, 
1334 Chestnut street. 


June, 1897. 

Churches and Sabbath-schools $2,864 80 

Individuals 1,053 00 

Interest from investments 6,122 83 

" " R. Sherman Fund 200 00 

" " H. McKeeFuud 6100 

$10,301 63 

Unrestricted Legacies. 

Estate of Jas. S. (ireen $1,666 67 

" " C. T. H. Eaton 417 55 

2,084 22 

Total receipts in June $12,385 85 

Individual Receipts in April, 1897. 

R. B. Taylor, San Bernardino. Cal., 10; W. H. 
Spend, Grand Forks, N. D., 2; Mrs. J. A. Rob- 
bins, Hamilton Square, N. J., 5; Anna S. Cratty, 
Bellaire, O., 5; Rev. and Mrs. G. T. Ciissman, 
Denver, Colo., 5 ; Lida Martin, Petersburg, Ind., 
2; Rev. H. L. Agnew, D.D., Phila., 25; Rev. Thomas 
Marshall, D.D., Chicago, III., 5; C. Bristol, Chris- 
man, III: 2.50; Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Herron, Troy, 
()., for debt, 5; Mrs. (ieo. Mot.t, Newark, N.J., 
10; Rev. W. II. Moore, Brookville, Ind., 2; .Mrs. 
Lucinda Wilson, Russeltville, Ind., 1 ; Rev. W. 
II. Hodge, Phila., 5; Mrs. Mary A. Stout, Petos- 
key, Mich., 4.21 ; Mrs. Wra. Lappiu, Phila., 4 ; A. 
W.Ludlow, Hartshorne, Ind. Ter., 5; T. S. Day, 
Pearsall, Texas, 3 , Rev. and Mrs. E. E. Grosh, 
Williamstown, N.J., 1.50; Rev. A. M. Lowry, 
Watsont.own, Pa., 10; Chas. C. Savage, I'hila , 25; 
"B. O. R.," 20; Rev. S. Millett, Pierpont, S. D., 1; 
Mrs. E. J. Edwards, Brooklyn, N. Y 12; G. V. 
N. Relyea, Oswego, N. Y.. l"; Mrs. Nellie Donald- 
son, Atlanta, Ga.,1; W. W. Dewey, Tamaqua, 
Pa., 1; N. ('. Whittemore, 5; Jos. Earhart, 15 .... 193 21 

Individual Receips in May, 1897. 

Anonymous, New Castle, Pa., 10 ; Miss E. C. Callen- 
der, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 10; Mrs. J. C. White- 
ford, Cooperstown, N. Y., 3; "Friend in Watau- 
ga Avenue Church," Johnson City, Tenn., 5; Miss 
Marv D. Strong, Pittston, Pa , 5 ; Miss Leila R. 
Martin, Bedford, N. Y., 25; Rev. W. M. Reed, 
Schell City, Mo., 1 ; Mrs. R. W. Allen, Jacksonville, 
111., 2 ; Rev. R. T. Armstrong, Canton, Mo., 5; Rev. 
Win. P. Kotitz, Cutler, Ind., 5; Albert Oaughey, 
Deshler, Neb., 2.60; Wm. M. Findlay, M. D., Al- 
toona, Pa., 10; Rev. A. H King, New York, 5; 
"In Memoriam," 5; "O," 5; C. W. Loomis, 
Binghamtou, N. Y., 10; Rev. H. K. Bushnell, 
Hastings, Neb., 5; Anna W. Ludlow, Hartshorne, 
Ind. Ter., 5 ; Mrs. W. E. Drake, 3 ; Mrs. J. M. W. 
Hunter, N. Y., 25; Miss A. J. Stinson, Norris- 
town, Pa., 50; C. Penna.,6; Mrs. Henry A. Ri- 
ley, Montrose, Pa., 3 205 60 

Individual Receipts in June, 1897. 

Mary E. Sill, Geneva, N. Y., 2; Rev. T. Thomas, 
Wyalusing, Pa., 5; Rev. W. L. Tarbet and wife, 
Orleans, III., 5: " Friend from New Jersey," 200; 
John P. Congdon, Williamstown, Mass., 5; Rose 
M. Moore, Parkville, Mo., 2; Miss Anna Kennedy, 
Little Silver, N. J., 10; Miss Emma S. Farr, 
Phila., 25 ; Rev. and Mrs. R. C. Townsend, Dun- 
lop, III., 5; Rev. B. L. Agnew, D.D., Phila., 15; 
Fred Crosby, Coal Glen, Pa., 48 cts.; Rev. Jos. 
Stevens, D.D., Jersey Shore, Pa., 5; Rev. A. J. 
Montgomery, Oregon City, O., 2.50; Rev. .1..-. 
Piatt, Davenport. la., 20; "Friend," Phila., 5; 
John S. Spann, Indianapolis, Ind., 500; Mrs. A. 
S. Scofield, Strasburg, Pa., 7.50; s. II. Stevenson, 
2; Mrs. J. H. Fleming, Chambersburg. Pa, 8; 
Mrs. E. J. Longenecker, Wash., D.C., 1 ; "L.F.E., 
Washington, Pa., 10; Mrs. Sally P. Sharpe, 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., 200; C. Penna., G ; Rev. H. 
T. Scholl, Big Flats, N. Y., 4; Cash, 2 cts.; Rev. 

Julian Hatch, Dilley, Ore. 7.50 $1,053 00 

William W. IIeberton, Treasurer, 
1334 Chestnut street, Phila. 


1334 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

JOHN S. MACINTOSH, D.D., Chairman, 
Charles A. Dickey, D.D., John H. Dey, Esq., Secretary, Charles L. Thompson, D D , 

Warner Van Norden, Esq., Stealy B. Rossiter, D.D., Frank F. Ellinwood, DO, 
Hon. Robert N. Willson, Henry T. McEwen, D.D., William C Roberts, D.D. 

Stephen W. Dana, D.D., 


D. J. McMillan, D.D., 
Arthur J. Brown, D.D., 
Edward B Hodge, D.D., 
Elijah R Craven, D D., 

Erskine N. White, D.D., 
Benj. L. Agnew, D.D., 
Edward P. Cowan, D.D., 
Edward C. Ray, D D. 

[Each of these Editorial Correspondents is appointed by the Board of which he is a Secretary, and is responsible 
for what is found in the pages representing the work of that Board. See list of Officers and Agencies of the General 
Assembly on the last two pages of each number.] 


Current Events and the Kingdom, . . 159 

Editorial Notes 161 

Receipts of the Boards 162 

From Generation to Generation, . . . 163 

Divine Power to Heal, 164 

The Moderator of the General Assembly . 166 
Missionary Advance on the Shores of Lake 
Nyasa, Rev. James Johnston, . . . 170 

Comparative Summary 172 

WORK. — Rallying Day, 1897 — A Per- 
manent Institution — God has Provided— 
A Prairie Sabbath- school, .... 173 

Home for Disabled Ministers, . . . 176 

Sees It— From Munising, Mich., . . 178 

Assembly's Action, 180 

EDUCATION. — Westminster Theological 

College, Cambridge, England, . . . 182 
FREEDMEN.— Dayton Academy— Ingleside 

Seminary, 185 

FOREIGN MISSIONS.— Notes— Fresh Facts 
— Missionary Calendar— In Memoriam— 
The Great Commission, Rev Henry S. 
Butler, D D. 187 

Concert of Prayer— Mr J R. Mott on Mission- 

ary Educational Woik, .... 193 
Sixty Years of Educational Work, Rev. W. A 

Shedd, 196 

American Schools in Brazil, H. M. Lane, 

MB, 198 

Missionary Colleges, G. W. Mateer, B B., . 200 
Letters— Laos Mission, Rev. G H. Beuman — 

Peking Mission, Rev. F E. Simcox, . . 204 
HOME MISSIONS— Notes, . . . .205 
The Feminine Side of Home Mission Life, 

Mrs. Marguerite Weeks, .... £06 
Common Sense in Church Beneficence, Rev. 

W. J Gregory, 207 

The Presbyteriau Church in Montana, Rev. 

T V. Moore 208 

Concert of Prayer— The Outlook, . . .211 
Letters— Appointments, 213 

DEAVOR— Notes— Rev. Hunter Corbett, 
D D.— A Little Letter in Rhyme — Young 
People and Home Missions, Rev. John 
Sinclair— Famine Sufferers in India, Rev 
J. B Ely— Christian Training Course — 
With the Magazines— Questions, . 217-226 
Ministerial Necrology, .... 227-230 
Receipts, 281-250 

1. Forman Christian College, Lahore. 

2. Interior portion of Girls' School, Bogota. 

3. Boys' School House, Lakawn, Laos. 

4. Oroomiah College. 



September, i897. 


Help from Fiji. — The Fiji Islanders, 
whose very name sixty years ago was " a 
synonym for whatever was barbarous, 
inhuman and cannibalistic," have been so 
transformed by the gospel that they will- 
ingly contribute $4000 for the famine 
sufferers of India. 

A Missionary Anniversary. — Gregory, 
a Benedictine monk, saw one day in the 
slave market at Rome three bright young 
men whose fine appearance impressed him 
deeply. Seeing in them the elements of a 
noble manhood, he inquired who they were. 
Learning that they were Angles or Eng- 
lish, he said: " Non Angli, sed angeli 
forent, si essent Christiani." He at once 
resolved to go as a missionary to their coun- 
trymen, and set out with a few companions, 
but was recalled by the Bishop of Rome. 
After he had himself become the Bishop of 
Rome, the marriage of Ethelbert, king of 
Kent, to a Christian Frankish princess 
seemed the favorable opportunity, so he 
sent Augustine and fort)' others to carry 
out his missionary jxirpose. " Proceed to 
the work of God, and rely upon the help 
of God," was his reply to their hesitancy 
because of supposed difficulties in the way. 
Ethelbert was baptized June 2, A.D. 597. 
The fourteen hundredth anniversary of the 
coming of Christian missionaries to our 
pagan ancestors has recently been cele- 

Temperance Instruction.— The Ameri- 
can Educational Method for the Prevention 
of Intemperance is to receive a large share 
of attention at the International Anti- 
Alcoholic Congress held in Brussels. The 
question is to be discussed by distinguished 
professors, physicians and philanthropists 
from Loudon, Geneva, Amsterdam and 

Brussels. Recognizing the part that Amer- 
ica has played in the development of this 
method for preventing intemperance, the 
Congress invited Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, of 
Boston, author of the plan for scientific 
temperance education in public schools, to 
be present and take an active part in the 
discussion. Our own Permanent Committee 
on Temperance in its report to the General 
Assembly of 1897, noting the fact that 
15,000,000 children in this land are in 
schools which are required to instruct them 
thoroughly regarding the poisonous and 
perilous character of alcoholic beverages, 
declared that this result was largely due to 
the untiring efforts of this noble Christian 
woman, Mrs. Mary H. Hunt. 

Northfield Training School. — This is 
one of the four educational institutions 
founded by Mr. Moody, and is just enter- 
ing upon its eighth year. It is a school 
where Christian young women, even if pos- 
sessed of no more than a common-school 
education, may be trained into skillful and 
effective workers in all forms of Christian 
service. It occupies vacant rooms in a 
large, well -furnished hotel at Northfield. 
which is closed during eight months of the 
year. The chief feature in the training is 
careful, earnest and persistent study of 
the Bible, but special courses are included, 
so that the students are prepared to 
" bring God's word into the homes of the 
poor, the ignorant, the improvident and the 
sick, and to enter with intelligent sympathy 
into the practical affairs of their daily 
life." The graduates of this school go 
into foreign as well as home fields, to organ- 
ize Sunday-schools, to become Y. W. C. A. 
secretaries, pastors' helpers, teachers in 
industrial schools, matrons of children's 
homes and nurses in hospitals. 





Hope for Africa. — The Phil-African 
Liberators' League hopes to obtain tracts 
of land in Africa upon which Christian 
villages may be founded. Here the natives 
are to receive agricultural, industrial, edu- 
cational and medical training. An expedi- 
tion under Mr. Heli Chatelain is now on 
the way to a region near Lake Nyasa, 
where an attempt will be made among those 
not yet reached by Christian influences. 
The ultimate aim of the League is to help 
answer Livingstone's prayer and " heal the 
open sore of the world." The sultan of 
Zanzibar has been compelled to grant lib- 
erty to the slaves in his dominion. And 
Sir George Goldie, British administrator of 
Nigeria, the rich and populous country 
extending from the Gulf of Guinea to the 
city of Timbuctoo, has taken stringent 
measures to abolish the slave trade in that 
territory. The fine, enterprising, intelligent 
race occupying the western Soudan will 
doubtless develop when delivered from sub- 
jection to the Mohammedan Foulahs. 

Progress in Russia. — A recent decree of 
the czar of Russia prohibits, under severe 
penalty, any form of labor on Sunday. 
The czar has also decreed that a person out- 
side the Greek Church who marries one of 
that faith shall not be required, as formerly, 
to sign a promise that their children shall 
be brought up in the faith of the Greek 
Church. Another step in advance is a sys- 
tem of public justice for Siberia. In that 
vast Asiatic northland, subject until now 
to the tyranny of arbitrary officials, law 
courts are opened in each provincial capital, 
with justices appointed by the crown, and 
legal procedure is for the first time made 

The Klondyke. — We are informed 
that the Board of Home Missions has ap- 
pointed Rev. S. Hall Young, of Wooster, 
O., and Dr. George A. McEwen, a licen- 
tiate of the Presbytery of St. Louis, as 
missionaries to the Klondyke region. Their 
salaries and expenses are provided by the 
First Church of Auburn, N. Y. The 
missionaries will proceed with all possible 
speed so as to reach their destination before 
the beginning of winter. Mr. Young will 
be remembered as a successful missionary 
in Alaska some years ago. His thorough 
knowledge of the country and the hardships 
to be encountered is an important part of 

possible. Leroy Boilieu, a French author, 
in his new book, " The Empire of the Tzars, " 
states that the New Testament is in greater 
demand in Russia than in any other part 
of Europe except the Protestant countries. 
It is found in the workingman's room and 
in the peasant's cabin. In spite of igno- 
rance and superstition, the faith of the 
people, who receive so much moral and 
religious training from this book, deserves, 
he thinks, to be called evangelical. 

The "Sayings of Christ."— At the 

little hamlet of Behnesa, one hundred and 
twenty miles south of Cairo, on the site of 
an ancient city which was once a centre 
of Christianity in Egypt, Messrs. Grenfell 
and Hunt of the Egypt Exploration Fund 
recently unearthed from a rubbish heap a 
number of papyrus fragments. One of 
them is a crumbling leaf, written on each 
side in uncials, or Greek capitals, and con- 
taining several sayings, some of them not 
wholly decipherable. Five of them begin 
with the words, " Jesus saith," and three 
coincide almost literally with sayings of 
our Lord recorded in the Gospels. The 
form of the letters and other indications 
indicate the early date of the papyrus, 
which is believed to be not later than A.D. 
300. Among the opinions expressed by 
scholars are the following: that the leaf 
may have belonged to a book of quotations 
from real or supposed discourses of our 
Lord; that it confirms the belief that the 
early Christians possessed an ample litera- 
ture and that the sayings of Jesus, apart 
from their historical settings, were early 
current as Christian manuals. 

his preparation for the mission. Dr. 
McEwen is a thoroughly qualified physician 
as well as a graduate of Princeton Sem- 

Being providentially in Wooster on 
Thursday, August 12, I had the rare pri- 
vilege of attending a farewell picnic given 
in honor of Mr. Young, " ready to de- 
part on the morrow" to the hyperbo- 
rean region whither such multitudes are 
hurrying after gold, into perils of which 
few of them have any adequate concep- 




To this devoted missionary who does 
know their exposures thoroughly, they seem 
like sheep without a shepherd, and he 
gladly goes to have care of them, in the 
name of him who came to seek and to save 
the lost. 

The pleasant gathering to bid him 
"Good-bye" was upon the campus of 
Wooster University, and embraced President 
and Mrs. Scovel, other families of the 
faculty, several missionary families tempo- 
rarily sojourning there, and other neighbor- 
ing families. Missionaries from India and 
China delighted to honor the modest home 
missionary hero, who has lately been the 
beloved acting pastor of the church with 
which they worship, and whose family will 
remain there with them, tenderly loved 
and cherished. 

Mrs. Young would gladly share with her 
husband ail the privations and exposures of 
the unique mission but for the maternal 
duties which neither her own heart nor her 
husband's can permit her to neglect. 

Not often does any special mission involve 
more of personal hazard or demand more 
courage of conviction and courage of faith. 
Permitted to witness the godly simplicity 
with which this demand has been met by 
Mr. and Mrs. Young, I thankfully feel that 
I have indeed looked upon " a thing of 
beauty ' ' that will be to me " a joy forever. ' ' 
H. A. N. 

Another Treasurership Change. — 
The Board of Aid for Colleges and Acade- 
mies, at a meeting held July 27, accepted 
the resignation of its treasurer, and ap- 
pointed the secretary, acting treasurer. All 
remittances should be sent to E. C. Ray, 
acting treasurer, 30 Montauk Block, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Artesian Wells. — Every State and 
Territory, from the Atlantic coast west- 
ward, has had experience with drought and 
famine. The older States, having long since 
learned how to avert these calamities, have 
perhaps forgotten their miseries, as the 
newer ones that have recently suffered will 
do. The States of the plains that have in 
recent years been visited with famine have 
already found that flowing wells may be 
secured in many places. One such well, at 
Woonsocket, S. D., sends forth 4000 gal- 
lons of water every minute. Other wells of 

perhaps less capacity have been bored in 
other parts of the State. South Dakota 
no longer fears drought. Our mission 
churches in that State are growing up to 
self-support very rapidly. 

Our Home Mission Board and j College 
Board are digging artesian wells of living 

Woonsocket, S. D. 

A Word in Season. — It is not an unu- 
sual or exceptional thing for a faithful min- 
ister, humbly conveying to his pulpit the 
results of his week of patient study, to find 
that " the Lord God has given him the 
tongue of the learned, that he might speak 
a word in season to him that is weary " 
(Isa. 50:4). He may read the assurance 
of this in the calm face and beaming eye 
looking up trustfully to him. He may 
receive such assurance from some silent 
pressure of his hand as he moves through 
the aisle. He may be encouraged by oral 
or written declaration from some of his 




hearers. He may find it in his ministra- 
tion, at their homes, to those whom he will 
see to be growing in grace. He may learn 
it from those who come to him to receive 
sealing ordinances. He may learn it in 
chambers of sickness and of sorrow in 
which no other footstep is so welcome as his 
and no other human presence so comforting. 
He has a right to believe that it is true in 
many instances of which no particular in- 
formation comes to him. Even as the rain 
and the snow come down from heaven and 
return not thither but water the earth, 

and cause it to bring forth and bud, 
themselves disappearing in its dark mold 
and giving no token in what flowers or fruits 
they are reproduced — so also does the word 
of God faithfully and affectionately spoken 
accomplish God's good design even when it 
is not granted to the preacher to trace its 
specific operation. This is . the present 
encouragement of the true minister, the 
earnest of what he shall experience when 
the great harvest day comes, and he shall 
go home from the field of his toil and tears 
with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves. 


The publication of these, in detail, was 
discontinued in our pages more than a year 
ago, as it then seemed to the Boards more 
convenient and advantageous to publish them 
in The Assembly Herald. At their request 
we now resume the publication. It has 
always been the most difficult part of our 
work for several reasons. 

1. It is the part in which typographical 
errors are most difficult to avoid, and most 
injurious, since an error in arithmetical 
figures is much more sure to mislead the 
reader than an error in the spelling of a 
word or even in printing a wrong word. It 
is necessary, therefore, to have proof-read- 
ing done, not hurriedly, but with extreme 

2. The time of each monthly issue is 
required to be ten days before the begin- 
ning of the month of which it bears date. 
It must, therefore, be in type, corrected, 
made up into pages, and put upon the press 
before the middle of the month preceding 
that of which the name appears on its cover. 
The receipts of the month preceding that 
cannot be taken from the treasurer's books 
until that month is ended. The transcrip- 
tion from those books, transmission to us by 
mail, setting the types, printing and 
correcting proofs, revision and approval 
by treasurers, making up into pages, print- 
ing and binding must all be accomplished in 
fifteen days. This is likely to seem easier 
to those who never tried it, than treasurers' 
clerks, printers, proof-readers and editors 
find it. And then when it is accomplished 
the hasty reader sees (e. g.), March on the 
cover of his magazine and January at the 

top of the pages of Receipts, and wonders 
why it should take " two months " to print 

In fact, we have not heretofore been able 
to secure such promptness and dispatch at 
every stage of this process as to make it 
possible to get the receipts into the next 
issue after the close of the month of which 
they bear date, and so they have seemed to 
the hasty reader to be " three months 
old," although the reader who carefully 
reckons finds only forty-five days. 

There has now been careful consultation 
between all the parties cooperating in this 
business, and they have with hearty good 
will united in undertaking it. 

The treasurers undertake to get their 
MSS. into our printers' hands on or before 
the morning of the sixth day after the end 
of the month which those MSS. report; the 
printers undertake to have them printed, 
corrected by their proof-reader and returned 
to the treasurers for revisal by the twelfth; 
and the treasurers, to get them back to the 
printers by the fourteenth. We are all 
determined to do our best to fulfill this diffi- 
cult programme, and we count on the 
generous sympathy and considerateness 
of our thoughtful readers in this endeavor. 

In order to have room for the receipts, 
we add sixteen pages, making ninety-six, 
instead of eighty pages, as last year. In 
this number, some of the Boards have 
desired to give their reports for the past 
months since the beginning of their fiscal 
year, and the quantity thus exceeds even 
that space, and fills twenty pages. 

The treasurer of Foreign Missions has not 




been able to send us his receipts for July, 
and will send them with the August receipts 
for the October number. 

We are obliged to postpone several necro- 
logical notices and some other matter which 
was in type for this number. 


Comparatively few of our readers are old 
enough to remember a home missionary 
incident which stirred the hearts of all 
readers of Presbyterian newspapers in 1833. 
I well remember a prayer meeting in my 
boyhood, to which that incident gave 
thrilling interest. It was the gathering of a 
group of home missionaries in a forest of 
Indiana, and their kneeling upon the ground 
to consecrate it as the site of a Christian 

" Those present," wrote one of them, 
" will never forget the earnest prayer offered 
for the divine blessing, and especially the 
closing scene, when upon the spot selected 
for Wabash College, in the midst of nature's 
unbroken loveliness, they consecrated this 
enterprise to God for the furtherance of 
virtue and knowledge among mankind, and 
solemnly invoked upon it the divine bless- 

Hearing this story, when it was news, in 
a village of Western New York, my thoughts 
correctly located it in the " far West," 
many days' journey distant by any mode of 
conveyance then available, for no part of 
the journey could then be made by railroad. 
But less than thirty years afterwards I made 
my first visit to Wabash College, on invita- 
tion, to address its students and friends on 
its commencement day; and I made that 
journey by railroad, not by going west, but 
east, directly across the whole breadth of 
Illinois and half that of Indiana, from St. 
Louis, which was then my home. 

In our March number (1889), p. 249, 
is an article by President Tuttle, in which 
he says, that " convention to consider the 
question of founding a college somewhere 
in the Wabash country," had been spoken 
of as " the first three days' meeting of 
several almost penniless home missionaries 
with a few elders of the Presbyterian church 
in Crawfordsville." The ministers were 
James Thomson, John S. Thomson, Ed- 
mund O. Hovey, James A. Carnahan, and 
John M. Ellis. The elders were John Gil- 
liland, Hezekiah Robinson and John 

The present occasion for this reminiscence 
is the reading of an article in a Crawfords- 
ville newspaper, concerning the recent 
decease of Miss Mary F. Hovey, " a 
daughter of the late Prof. Edmund O. 
Hovey, one of the founders of Wabash Col- 
lege and a man whose useful life was given 
to the upbuilding of that institution." 

This lady was born at Crawfordsville in 
1838, five years after that impressive conse- 
cration of the ground which is now a beau- 
tiful college campus. She received thorough 
education under the wise direction of her 
parents at home and in the Ohio Female 
College at Cincinnati. 

" Her appointment as a professor in the 
State Agricultural College of Manhattan, 
Kans., a position that she held for three 
years, was probably the first of its kind in 
this country and attracted much notice at 
the time on that account. She also was a 
teacher in schools of New Haven, Conn., 
and vicinity for three years. ' ' 

The paper from which we learn of her 
recent decease at Crawfordsville mentions 
that Miss Hovey's last will and testament 
leaves five hundred dollars to the Board 
of Home Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church. Her only surviving relatives are 
a brother and his three children. That 
brother, Rev. Horace C. Hovey, D.D., is 
now pastor of the Presbyterian church in 
Newburyport, Mass. 

Thus from generation to generation has 
the East sent her children to the West, and 
has sometimes had her reward in the 
coming back of their children to till her 
fields — perhaps with greater vigor of muscle 
and brain — perhaps with greater versatility 
— perhaps with broader views and sympathies 
and more comprehensive patriotism than if 
no such changes of climate and scene and 
no such varieties of experience and associa- 
tion had been appointed them. Does not 
this flow westward and eastward, southward 
and northward, of our American lifeblood 
keep our national life more healthy as the 
interflowing currents of the sea and air keep 
them more health-giving ? H. A. N. 




When, like a stranger on our sphere, 
The lowly Jesus wandered here, 
Where'er he went affliction fled, 
And sickness reared her fainting head. 

The eye that rolled in irksome night 
Beheld his face — for God is light ; 
The opening ear, the loosened tongue, 
His precepts heard, his praises sung. 


I remember, often in my childhood, when 
sickness had assailed some member of our 
family, to have heard my devout father 
pray God to ' ' give efficacy ' ' to the means 
prescribed by the physician for the patient's 
recovery. Would you have me now believe 
that that prayer was a superstition — " un- 
scientific " — well enough for the earlier part 
of this nineteenth century, but only to be 
patronizingly smiled at by the " advanced 
thought " of its closing decade ? Has this 
" advanced thought " really gotten hold of 
anything more reliable, firmer, better, than 
that earlier Biblical faith ? Or has it be- 
come fascinated with its own skill in hand- 
ling God's instruments, and begun to fancy 
that those instruments are its own, or to set 
them up as Aaron did his calf, to be wor- 
shiped ? I am confident that, when the 
honest and earnest thought of our time 
shall have worked through the puzzling 
questions that are taxing it, it will find God 
at the bottom of nature — in the heart of 
every real force in the universe. This 
gravitation that holds the worlds in its 
sweep, and shapes all their orbits, is his 
invisible hand guiding them. These chem- 
ical forces that seethe in the laboratory, that 
rumble in the deep volcano, that silently 
work in human stomachs and veins and 
glands; these electrical forces that flash and 
clash in the cloud ; that whisper your mes- 
sages across continents and oceans; that 
throb along your nerves, and give marvel- 
ous reinforcement to your enfeebled vitality 
— all these are forces emanating from the 
potent will of God. More and more 
making them known to us, he is more and 
more discovering himself to thoughtful and 
wise souls who observe and study in the 
modesty of true science — in the devout 
humility that characterized the great fathers 
of science, Newton, Bacon and Kepler. 
They felt and knew that they made all their 
discoveries by merely " thinking God's 
thoughts after him." 

In scientific investigation, it is ever those 
who think deepest who find God at the 

centre of all systems of fores and find his 
energy pervading them to their utmost 
circumference. Those unpretending plain 
people who believe that God gives them 
their daily bread, and heals their diseases, 
and crowns their life with loving kindness, 
and keeps them from dashing their feet 
against the stones, and hears their prayers 
— these plain people are the true disciples of 
Newton and Bacon. Their faith is verified 
inductive science. 

Yes, it is perpetually God who gives 
efficacy to medicinal agencies and processes ; 
and equally it is God who gives efficacy to 
food to nourish you, and to pure air to 
invigorate you, and to vigorous use of your 
muscles and organs to increase their vigor. 
You are as scientific as you are scriptural 
in asking God to bless you in partaking of 
your daily food, thus committing to him the 
processes of digestion and assimilation and 
nutrition, thoughtfully recognizing his wise 
and potent and kind agency in all the good 
which you thus experience. 

We believe in God's power to heal exactly 
as we believe in his power to nourish and 
strengthen our living bodies and to generate 
living frames " curiously wrought in the 
lowest parts of the earth," in continual 
succession of generations, at the same time 
producing, in continual succession of har- 
vests, the food by which his living creatures 
are nourished — all alike by the continual 
action of those forces which in their con- 
tinual harmony constitute nature. We do 
not find God only in the supernatural — above 
nature or outside of nature. We behold 
him, we feel him, we recognize him in 
nature — in every department, every process, 
every force, every law, every element. 
God's ordinary mode of exercising his power 
to generate, to nourish, to uphold, to con- 
tinue in being and motion and life, the 
world he has made and the living creatures 
he has placed upon it, and the substances by 
which they are nourished — this ia nature. 

In this nature — this ordinary mode of 
divine terrestrial agency — that patient and 




modest mode of observation and study which 
is rightly named science, discovers remedial 
forces which God has put into this system of 
agencies, and which those who teachably 
think God's thoughts after him, can set in 
antagonism to the morbific tendencies and 
forces, which we call disease. We ask 
him to give efficacy to these remedial forces 
— to give them sufficient efficacy. Thus 
rightly do we recognize him as the source of 
all the efficacy, all the potency, all the 
reality there is in all natural forces. 

Does God regard these prayers ? Does 
he always grant what we thus ask for ? 
Does he always impart to the means and 
remedies which we faithfully use sufficient 
efficacy to accomplish the result for which 
we have used them ? Evidently not. How 
painfully we know this in all our homes ! 
How was this whole nation made to feel this, 
and all Christeudom in generous sympathy 
with us, in that sorrowful summer of 1881, 
in that long agony in which this became an 
orphan nation ! 

Does God never give efficacy to means 
and agencies in answer to prayer over and 
above what they would have without prayer ? 
The honest and modest skeptical student of 
science does not say: " No; there is no 
divine interposition in such cases — no such 
divine interposition in any case." That 
would be unscientific. The truly scientific 
skeptic will say: " I do not know. The 
facts which are within reach of observation 
do not show whether there is such divine 
interposition or not. Science, founded on 
observed facts, has nothing to say on that 
question. ' ' 

True science is modest, like true faith. 
Each knows its limitations. 

What, then, will science and faith unite 
in testifying on the subject of healing in 
answer to prayer ? In other words, what 
will a truly scientific Christian physician 
say in such a case ? He will say: " Sci- 
ence shows me that virulent forces of disease 
have fastened upon this patient's body. I 
have set in antagonism to them all the 
counteracting natural forces which science 
has revealed. Which set of these antag- 
onistic forces will prove the stronger and 
prevail can only be scientifically deter- 
mined by the experiment — by the patient's 
actual recovery or his death. ' ' 

" But, doctor," you anxiously ask, 
" cannot we do anything ?" 

" Oh, yes; we are doing something. 
These natural remedial forces — many of 
them — would not reach the patient if we did 
not apply them. That medicine in the 
tumbler — you must give it to him ; only in 
his stomach can it do him any good. That 
hot cheek and forehead — you must bathe 
them with cool water. You must keep the 
room still. Harsh noises must not smite 
the fevered brain. You must keep the 
temperature of the room even and suitable. 
You must carefully let in fresh air and drive 
out the fetid air. These natural forces are 
subject to a rational adjustment of which 
you have control. God has given us a 
limited yet a large power to adjust these 
forces so that they will act as, in their 
blindness, they could not without our 
adjustment. Let us do our best, carefully, 
patiently, hopefully." 

" And then — beyond our voluntary and 
careful adjustment of these natural forces, 
is there no more that can be done for our 
patient ?' ' 

" No more that we can do; but it would 
be unscientific to conclude that God can do 
no more. If you and I can adjust currents 
of air and combustible fuel and wet sponges 
and lumps of ice so that the atmosphere in 
a chamber shall be sweeter and cooler; and 
so that the patient's skin and lips and 
throat shall be more moist and cool than 
the natural forces acting without our inter- 
ference would make them — if we can do all 
this without any violation of natural laws, 
only using natural laws as we have learned 
them — cannot God make adjustments, quite 
beyond our reach and beyond our power, by 
which all these forces shall be directed to 
results which otherwise would not be 
attained ? He who " maketh the clouds his 
chariot; who walketh upon the wings of 
the wind " — cannot he adjust currents and 
vapors and subtle electric forces so as to 
change the air and the temperalure of a 
continent as effectually as we can change 
that of a chamber ? If your soft hand, 
your quiet manner, your encouraging look 
and tone can send healing and strengthen- 
ing influence to the very heart of your 
patient, what may not the father of Spirits, 
directly communing with the soul of the 
sufferer, do to tranquillize and invigorate 
him, quickening the mysterious power of 
the mind over the body, uplifting it from 
depression and debility, or calming and 




cooling and hushing its feverish throb- 

Cannot he do more than this ? Is he 
limited, as we are, to the mere adjustment 
of natural forces ? 

Why does water quench fire any more 
than oil ? Or why does quinine cure ague 
any more than wheat flour or marble dust ? 
Simply and only because God has endowed 
it with such efficacy. There is no reason 
to think that any natural substance has any 
potency which God does not infuse into 
them just as your own spirit infuses potency 
into your arm to strike and into your legs to 
walk. And this will-power of your spirit 
is utterly and constantly dependent on that 
of God. 

The healing of disease by means of any of 
the natural agencies which we have found to 
have such efficacy is an exercise of " the 
power of God present to heal." We have 
only found out God's ordinary way of ap- 
plying that power. 

Now because we have learned one way of 
putting out a fire or of curing a chill or a 
fever, are we authorized to say that God 
does not know of any other way which he 

has not made known to us ? Is that scien- 
tific ? Is it not altogether reasonable to ask 
God to give efficacy to medicines, and 
wisdom to nurses, and skill to physicians ? 
And beyond all that is possible for these and 
for any means or agencies that we know, is 
it less reasonable humbly and submissively 
to invoke his aid through any channels that 
may be known to him and unknown to us ? 

Closely related, in all the Scripture teach- 
ing, are sickness and sin ? The forgiveness 
of all our iniquities is intimately associated 
with the healing of all our diseases. Our 
study of Christ's merciful and mighty heal- 
ing of the sick ought to help us find the 
healing and help which our souls need. 

Are there evil tempers — fierce passions — 
strong lusts — morbid appetites — bad habits — 
against which you have struggled and have 
found them too much for you ? The power 
of the Lord is present — right where you are 
— to heal you. Seek it in simple prayer 
and in honest, obedient use of his appointed 
means — just as you seek bodily healing. 
The Lord make you so wise and so happy. 

H. A. N. 


The portrait of this honored and beloved 
man greeted our readers as the frontispiece 
to our July number, the first number of 
this Volume xxii, and the first number issued 
after the last General Assembly. All our 
readers have had opportunity to read in 
daily or weekly papers the address of Rev. 
Dr. Spining on presenting his nomination. 

It seems to us that it is an address worthy 
of preservation in the permanent literature 
of the Church, and we gladly give place in 
our pages for such preservation of it. 

As an oration it seems to us to possess in 
an unusual degree the essential qualities of 
true eloquence. Its value is not chiefly in 
its exaltation of the man whom it eulogizes, 
but in its vivid and powerful presentation 
of the great Christian and patriotic enter- 
prise which that man's career so signally 
illustrates. " True eloquence," said the 
greatest of our nation's senatorial orators, 
" must be in the man, in the subject and in 
the occasion." The real " subject " of 
this oration was Home Missions; the " occa- 
sion " was a conspicuous opportunity to 
exalt that theme before an Assembly repre- 

senting a great nation to whose safety the 
success of home missions is essential ; and 
"the man" (the orator) had the great 
advantage of having his subject visibly 
embodied in another man, " whose praise 
is in the gospel throughout all the churches." 


Moderator, Fathers and Brethren : Once 
upon a time when Mr. Beecher was absent, 
his Committee on Pulpit Supply ventured to 
engage a certain Congregational " rough 
diamond " from the backwoods of Missouri 
to fill the pulpit of the great preacher for a 
single Sabbath. A moment before service 
they took him aside, reminded him that 
he was soon to find himself before an audi- 
ence which represented the brains, wealth 
and culture of America, and kindly ex- 
horted him not to be afraid, but to go ahead 
and deliver his message. Upon entering 
the pulpit he stepped to the front, shaded 
his eyes with his hand, scanned his audience 
critically, and began as follows: "So this 
is the congregation of the great Mr. 
Beecher! Your deacons have just cautioned 




me not to be frightened, but to go ahead 
and preach as I would to my own people. 
Now, you bald-headed sinners and gray- 
haired saints, I want you to understand in 
the beginning that if any one in this house 
is scared he isn't on this platform, for I 
have a message from my Master to deliver 
to you, and I intend to deliver it in the 
fear of God." 

It is with a feeling akin to this that I 
venture to take the platform for a few min- 
utes in presence of this vast audience, to 
present the name of Dr. Sheldon Jackson 
for the highest honor the Church can confer, 
not only on account of his splendid and in- 
comparable services in the field of missionary 
activity, but because he is the incarnation of 
that aggressive and consecrated missionary 
spirit to which I believe the Master would 
give expression in all the deliberations of 
this Assembly. Too long have we been 
standing with the angel of the backward 
look — too long flailing the earth and blind- 
ing our eyes with the dust of a dying con- 
troversy. In the meantime our missionary 
forces at home and abroad have had their 
supplies cut off ; our Church Boards have 
all been wounded and crippled ; appropria- 
tions in every direction have been cut 
down; the humiliating order of halt, and 
even retreat, has passed to the front; 
outposts for which we have fought, and 
upon which we have expended the toil and 
treasure of years in heroic effort, have 
been surrendered; unhappy dissensions too 
long prolonged have wrought distrust and 
weakened fraternal bonds; hard times have 
tightened our grip on our purse-strings and 
weakened our faith in God ; spiritual stupor 
has come upon us and the Delilah of self- 
indulgence has sought to bind us hand and 
foot with cords of avarice, indifference and 
worldliness, so that the condition of the 
great Presbyterian Church to-day is like 
that of a slumbering giant awaiting the cry, 
Samson, Samson, awake! The Philistines 
are upon thee ! 

If I know anything of the Church at 
large, the Church we represent — the prayer 
of those who get nearest to God — it is that 
we should turn our faces from the past 
towards the future, and from controversy 
to conquest. In this connection I venture 
to say that no man in this Assembly has 
done more to win this land for Christ than 
Sheldon Jackson —little Sheldon Jackson. 

True, he is diminutive in stature, but I 
think it is evident that Providence cut him 
off short that he might fit the Indian ponies 
which were to carry him over thousands of 
miles of mountain trails, that he might be 
able to sleep in barrels, buckboards, stage- 
boots, kyacks and hollow logs, in his 
" journeyings often " over the great moun- 
tains, plains and waters of the West; that 
he might accommodate himself to the narrow 
quarters of the cabin of the miner, the mud 
hut of the Mexican, the hovel of the Alas- 
kan, the tepee of the Indian, and the scant 
accommodations of the prison cell — all of 
which he has done in planting the standard 
of the cross over that Western country. 

'Neath the mantle of a century, 

Lo, a mighty empire lies, 
On whose brow millennial glory 

Of the Church of God shall rise. 

Naturally he should be our standard- 
bearer. Is the loyalty of this man called 
in question ? Let us test it not by the 
sounding brass and tinkling cymbals of 
party shibboleths and factious strife, but 
by the apostolic tests of hardness endured, 
of life imperiled, of fidelity in the face of 
imprisonment and death, of unwearied activ- 
ity and of splendid achievement. 

The great State of New York claims the 
honor of his nativity; Union College gave 
him his classical equipment, while Prince- 
ton moulded his theology, and now points 
with pride to his heroic career as an exam- 
ple of her missionary spirit. 

Forty years ago, when many of us were 
in our cradles, he crossed the frontier of 
the Mississippi as a trusted standard-bearer 
of the cross, and from that time to this he 
has been charged with the responsibility of 
laying the foundations of a colossal Church 
in Minnesota, Iowa, Dakota, Nebraska, 
Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mex- 
ico, Arizona, Utah and far-off Alaska. He 
has been one of that noble band of pioneers 
who carved presbyteries out of the wilder- 
ness and erected synods before the founda- 
tions of civil government were laid. Pene- 
trating thousands of miles into the barbaric 
night of that great empire which lay be- 
tween the Mississippi and the Pacific, the 
Gulf of Mexico and the remotest habitation 
of man within the Arctic zone — carrying 
the Bible in one hand and our Confession in 
the other — he has gathered hundreds of 
congregations and founded a hundred 




churches on the word of God and " accord- 
ing to the pattern shown us in the mount." 
Deeds speak louder than words, and these 
churches which lighten up the wilderness and 
make glad the solitary place, are to-day 
rolling up the long-meter Doxology from 
the plains of Minnesota, the rock-ribbed 
mountains of Colorado, and the ice-bound 
shores of Alaska, praising God for the loy- 
alty of this "one man" to the "old 
Book " and to our Confession. 

Has he executive ability and experience in 
handling difficult questions ? The Church 
has already answered this question, and the 
United States Government has shown its 
high estimate of his ability by entrusting 
him with the formation and superintendence 
of its whole educational system in Alaska. 
If it may be objected that this is a secular 
position, I answer that he is still a mis- 
sionary of our Board, and I would God that 
more of our educational system throughout 
the land were taken from the hands of 
unbelief and placed in the hands of Chris- 
tian men. It detracts nothing from the glory 
of the Church that many of her faithful 
servants have been honored by the State 
with positions of great responsibility. If it 
does, then let us strike off the first and most 
illustrious of all the names in the roll of 
our Moderators — the name of the Rev. 
John Witherspoon, president of Princeton 
College, member of the Continental Con- 
gress, and signer of our immortal Declara- 
tion of Independence. In Sheldon Jackson 
we have not only the untiring missionary 
who has traveled 600,000 miles — a distance 
equal to twenty-four circuits of the globe — 
in the prosecution of his work ; not only the 
educator who has founded a great institution 
of learning in Utah and endowed it with 
his patrimony, but we see in him the ele- 
ments of the broad-minded statesman, and 
great-hearted philanthropist, one of whom 
the future historian will write : " In a time 
of famine and distress, when their food sup- 
ply was gone, he crossed the ice regions of 
the North, penetrated into the fastnesses of 
Siberia and saved the native races of 
Alaska by introducing large herds of rein- 
deer for their subsistence and support. ' ' Sir, 
this deed alone entitles him to the admiration 
of mankind, and will yet place his name in 
the Pantheon of philanthropy with all the 
honors of an uncrowned king. 

Mr. Moderator, it is high time that the 

Church should show her appreciation of the 
splendid services of her home missionaries, 
by placing the highest honor within her gift 
upon the head of one of her battle-scarred 
veterans. How often within recent years 
has this honor gone to the seminaries; how 
seldom, proportionately, has it fallen to the 
great body of pastors, and in not one single 
instance has it ever gone to a home mission- 
ary. If it is a legitimate object of minis- 
terial ambition, are we to understand that 
service counts for nothing and there is no 
direct path to it from the home mission 

Sir, it is recorded in Holy Writ that 
King Ahasuerus, in a wakeful hour, in read- 
ing the chronicles of his kingdom, stumbled 
across the record of the unrequited services 
of Mordecai, and touched with a feeling 
of gratitude cried out: " What honor or 
dignity hath been put upon this Mordecai ?" 
The chamberlain answered: " None." 
' ' What shall be done to the man whom the 
king delighteth to honor ?' ' was the next 
question. We all know the answer, and 
that Mordecai was made prime minister of 
his kingdom. In 1879 the Church was 
looking over its work in the foreign field, 
and came across the grand record of Dr. 
H. H. Jessup, who had been in the fore- 
front of the battle on foreign fields for more 
than a quarter of a century. The same 
old questions raised by Ahasuerus came up, 
and Dr. Jessup was made prime minister of 
the Presbyterian Church for that year. 
The result was a great quickening of inter- 
est in foreign missions. 

The Church is now on its knees praying 
for peace and fraternal love — for a great 
quickening, a spiritual uplift which shall 
bring us face to face again with a perishing 
world and with the work we have to do for 
its redemption. One of the means to this 
end will be the election of a missionary 
leader of this Assembly. 

Brethren, I had a dream to-day, which 
was not all a dream. In my vision I saw 
a corridor reaching from this platform back 
and upward to the first century. Out of a 
door in that century came a man of small 
stature; bronzed, scarred and weather- 
beaten ; a dim halo of glory was about him, 
and while he wore the panoply of a soldier 
of the cross — he carried above him a tat- 
tered flag — like those of veteran soldiers 
returning from war. Upon it I read the 




names Corinth, Ephesus, Philippi and 
Rome, and as he reached this platform, I 
said to myself, Surely I cannot be mis- 
taken, this is none other than the Apostle 
Paul, the great missionary to the Gentiles. 
I ventured to inform him as to the charac- 
ter of our Assembly, and to assure him that 
the system of theology in which we believed 
was that which he had outlined as being in 
conformity with the word of God. He 
seemed deeply interested, and after speaking 
to him of the growth of our Church and of 
our missionary work, I offered to introduce 
him to some of the distinguished members 
of this Assembly. " Here, for instance," 
said I, "is Benjamin Harrison." " Yes," 
be replied, " a worthy successor of Wash- 
ington — a Christian statesman and an elder 
beloved. I would like to meet him, but 
not now; I will see him later." 

I said, " Here is also General Wanama- 

" Yes," he answered, " I know his 
record from that of a poor boy, to wealth 
and high public position. I know his 
evangelical spirit, his liberality, his per- 
sonal work — and that he hath built us a 
grand synagogue where Christ only is 
preached. I long to meet him — but wait 
awhile; I will see him later." I said, 
" Here also is James A. Mount." 
" Yes," he answered, "he is governor of 
the great State of Indiana. An elder in a 
little country church — has ordered his 
household in the fear of God, has a daugh- 
ter in the foreign field and a son a home 
missionary. I long to meet him — but not 
now; I will see him later." 

" Here," said I, "is our Moderator, 
Dr. With row, who has just swept the gospel 
harp with a master hand and filled our souls 
with the music of divine charity." 
" Yes," he replied, "he is a man after 
mine own heart — a beloved disciple — I 
must see him, but not now; will see him 
later." I then remarked that we had some 
notable Christian women here. Mrs. 
James, Mrs. Pierson, and many others. 

" Yes," he answered, " they are all be- 
loved helpers in the Lord — I must meet 
them also, but not now; I will see them 

"Who, then," said I, "do you first wish 
to see ?" He looked carefully over the 
Assembly and answered: " Is there not a 
little bronzed missionary from Alaska here 

— a man about my 3ize — a man of weak 
eyes and insignificant bodily presence — a 
man in whom the apostolic zeal of ancient 
times has found expression in the New 
World, and who has had the care of all the 
churches in the regions beyond?" 

" Ah," I cried, " I know who you 
mean," and not waiting to hear another 
word I sought, found and presented Sheldon 

" True yoke-fellow and brother beloved, " 
said Paul, " we are physically small — God 
made us short that we might accommodate 
ourselves to circumstances and magnify his 
grace. I rejoice that primitive zeal still 
flames in the Church, and that here and in 
foreign lands are thousands of standard- 
bearers of the cross who may not rest until 
the nations that sit in darkness have seen a 
great light — and the world is filled with the 
knowledge of God as the waters cover the 
sea; ' be thou faithful until death, and let 
no man take thy crown.' " 

Moderator and brethren, here my vision 
ends, and I believe in my soul that if this 
Assembly elects this missionary leader as its 
standard-bearer, that act will be as a trum- 
pet call to missionary endeavor, and our 
whole beloved Church will mark time in a 
forward movement towards the conquest of 
this and all other lands for Christ. 

It is related that when an iron brigade on 
a field of battle wavered and turned to 
retreat, there appeared before them an old 
revolutionary soldier with cocked hat, knee 
breeches and flintlock musket. The fire of 
' 76 flashed in his eyes, and with a front of 
iron he faced the enemy. Then it was 
that some one cried, " The spirits of the 
heroes of Lexington, Trenton and Bunker 
Hill are with us. About face — Double 
quick — Charge!" and that brigade swept 
the field as a hail -storm beats down a field 
of grain. 

Oh ! that the inspiration of prophets, 
apostles and martyrs, of heroic sodiers of 
the cross in all ages might come upon us, 
that a vision of the glorious Master himself 
pointing to the home and foreign field 
might now arrest our retreating steps — turn 
us with united front towards the enemy, 
and lead us on to that final victory in which 

" ' Jesus shall reign where'er the sun 
Doth his successive journeys run, 
His kingdom stretch from shore to shore 
Till moons shall wax and wane no more.' " 




The romance of missions is vividly illus- 
trated by recent developments of the 
Livingstonia Mission to the west of Nyasa, 
" the Lake of the Stars," directed by the 
Free Church of Scotland. Its heroic 
pioneer. Dr. Robert Laws, wrote on the 
12th of October, 1896, " I cannot well 
write the above date without being reminded 
that this day twenty-one years ago we 
sailed into Lake Nyasa in the Ilala, and 
now the top of the Ilala's boiler of that 
day is doing duty as a bell — to call us to 
work to-day, and to church yesterday — 
until we get something better. What a 
difference on the lake now as compared with 
that morning! This place was not even 
known to Europeans then, and there was 
not a church or school on the lake; our 
report tells of the change now." One 
page in the picture shows that from the 
western shore of the lake, northwestward 
to the fountain head of the Congo water, 
the Scottish missionaries and their Scoto- 
Dutch fellow- toilers have upwards of 80,000 
native children in eighty schools receiving 
the elements of education chiefly in their 
mother- tongue — the Nyanja, in English, 
and the alphabet of the gospel. 

Lake Nyasa, in British Central Africa, 
enshrining the devoted spirit of Livingstone, 
is becoming a centre of light whence radi- 
ate beams into the darkest regions. The 
churches, stations and schools, rising on its 
banks are veritable lighthouses, the harbin- 
gers of freedom, industry, peace and broth- 
erhood. To the far south the Church of 
Scotland is planted, linked with the name 
of Dr. Scott, on the east, the Universities' 
Mission has waged a noble warfare against 
the powers of darkness, while the third* of 
the illuminating triumvirate on the lake — 
measuring 350 miles in length, with a 
breadth averaging from sixteen to sixty 
m iles — unfurled the standard of Christ at 
Cape Maclear and, by unswerving energy, 
has carried it forward to the highlands over- 
looking the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. 

Following the highest type of missionary 
statesmanship, the Free Church has moved 
steadily northwestward until, at the present 
day, she has influential stations at Ban- 
dawe, Ngonilaud, Livingstonia Institution, 
Florence Bay, Karonga and Mwenzo. 

The last named is the most distant and 
newest station in the very heart of Central 
Africa, on the Stevenson Road, which con- 
nects the lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika. 
The staff numbers twenty missonaries, in- 
clusive of ladies, teachers and artisans, and 
126 native teachers. 

From its inception twenty-two years ago, 
the Livingstonia mission has been repre- 
sented by such stalwart souls as the Rev. 
James Stewart, Dr. Laws, Drs. Kerr-Cross, 
Elmslie and Henry, the Rev. A. C. Mur- 
ray, and other like soldiers of the cross — 

" Sharing his love who holds in his embrace 
The lowliest of our race." 

One of the most important departures of 
recent date is the organization of the new 
Livingstonia Institution by Dr. Laws on 
the healthy uplands above Florence Bay, 
whither the best of the students, young 
men and young women, are drafted, from 
all parts of the Nyasaland stations, embrac- 
ing fifteen different tribes. The Institution 
is a kind of Nyasaland University where, 
according to the last report, 127 youths 
were under instruction in theology, the 
art of teaching, surgical dressing and dis- 
pensing, or in their apprenticeship to print- 
ing, telegraphy, carpentry, etc. To this 
institution the missionaries will look for 
teachers and evangelists. Meanwhile they 
maintain the work aided by humble and 
zealous native helpers and workers. In 
spite of the reduction of the European staff 
at one or two stations, the native teachers 
have proved excellent auxiliaries and in 
Ngoniland the area covered is much greater 
and the work has increased. The strongest 
emphasis is laid upon the educational opera- 
tions of the mission, i. e. , the formation 
and maintenance of schools. These are 
centres around which every variety of 
activity is engaged, so that when a new 
school is opened it indicates that the 
young are being taught to read the word of 
God for themselves, and the older people 
have the gospel preached to them. The 
minds of the young are saturated with 
truth, which experience shows is a potent 
instrument to kill superstition and the evil 
habits of the people. The influence of the chil- 
dren on their seniors at home is easily visible. 

At the several stations the greatest diver- 




sity of native life is presented. In the 
school attached to the Livingstonia institu- 
tion, the homes of the boys are spread over 
300 miles of country, comprising many 
tribes, though the large majority represent 
one or other of the five predominating tribes 
— the Nyanja, Tonga, Ngoni, Henga and 
Nkonde. While Nyanja is recognized as 
forming a common ground and is taught as 
the vernacular leading to English, there 
are enough languages or distinct dialects 
understood to constitute this place a very 
Babel. Happily the Nyanja language is 
a true lingua franca in which the teacher 
can make himself sufficiently intelligible to 
all his pupils, otherwise serious tribal jeal- 
ousies and difficulties might arise. It is 
well, too, that the African proves a born 
linguist when no language is purely or regu- 
larly spoken. A boy talking with his 
neighbors is courteous enough to make use 
of their speech or to cull from the vocabul- 
aries of his hearers as he goes along and, 
strange as it must sound, Dr. Laws has 
heard sentences from the lips of native 
youths in which each word belonged to a 
separate language. This is certainly 
unique and presages the beginning of a 
strife of tongues all over the country whence 
must evolve a rich composite, premier 
language as in the case of the English from 
differing tongues in earlier days. Over 
against this difficulty of opposing languages 
and the disparity of age, where, as in the 
Baudawe schools, gray -haired men and 
boys, old women and children are to be 
seen side by side, drinking in the story of 
one of the miracles of the New Testament, 
there is a great and steady thirst for knowl- 
edge which can hardly anywhere be sur- 
passed. The correction of inaccuracies or 
the imparting of fresh information is wel- 
comed most eagerly, and were the teachers 
equal to it, their rooms might be filled 
night after night with scholars. This does 
not arise from the novelty of the situation; 
it has been going on since the schools were 
first opened. 

In the schools may frequently be seen 
rescued slave children in common with the 
children of their captors, a singular con- 
summation of union among friends and foes. 
Children likewise of diversities of speech 
are noticed helping one another in the most 
patient fashion. In the far north Nkonde 
villages where everyone used to flee from 

the presence of a teacher the young people 
to-day bring fowls or a sheep for books, 
and in walking through the villages it is 
no uncommon thing to hear the children 
shouting the syllables or reading a book. 

No bait or prize is necessary to draw them. 
The school work is directly missionary, and 
one of its most interesting features is the 
increasing number of adults attending, in 
order that they may be able to read God's 
word. In its written or printed form the 
Bible is sown broadcast. It is read and 
studied and by acute native memories re- 
membered. To the adults it is a messenger 
of righteousness, temperance and judgment. 
As their one book the word of God is the 
best missionary. Dr. Elmslie says, " I 
rejoice more when I sell a Bible than when 
I preach to hundreds." 

Equally progressive is the medical work, 
the people associating the two branches of 
teaching and healing in the same person. 
The native Christians freely address the 
Divine Father as the Great Doctor — all 
others beside him being little. Typical ot 
what is being done throughout Nyasaland, 
Dr. Kerr-Cross reports that in six months 
he attended 7644 cases at the dispensary 
alone. Training in industrial and agricul- 
tural methods and instruction in carpentry 
and printing contribute materially to the 
upbuilding of thousands of the natives 
whether belonging to the brave and warlike 
Ngoni or the wild Nkonde people, other- 
wise fighting among themselves about their 
wives, their cattle, their cups and their 

Especially remarkable are the harvests 
reaped on the broad fields of evangeliza- 
tion, for which the missionaries are filled 
with joy and gratitude to God. Multi- 
tudes of the people in Liviugstonia, despite 
the chief temptations of Nyasaland, con- 
sisting of beer, polygamy, slavery, and a 
soul -withering Mohammedanism in the 
north, are eager to hear the word of life, 
hundreds honestly seeking God through the 
gospel, if happily they may find him, and 
numbers, openly confessing the Name above 
all names, declare that a new day has 
dawned and a new influence has entered 
into the hearts and tribes on Nyasa's shores. 
Of Nyasaland it may be said, " The glory 
of the Lord is risen upon thee." Day is 
stealing all round the world, though the 
nations observe it not. 






1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 189G. 1897. 

Synods 30 31 31 31 31 32 

Presbyteries 217 221 223 224 224 229 

Candidates 1,280 1,300 1,434 1,477 1,508 1,433 

Local Evangelists 102 215 176 157 

Licentiates 431 435 458 474 455 477 

Ministers 6,331 6,509 6,641 6,797 6,942 7,129 

Licensures 276 269 336 315 321 331 

Ordinations 240 249 261 273 286 313 

Installations 464 525 488 502 558 535 

Pastoral dissolutions. ... 366 420 364 374 427 429 

Ministers received 91 127 105 82 80 62 

Ministers dismissed 40 44 41 32 56 35 

Ministers deceased 138 129 123 150 131 128 

Elders 24,790 25,399 25.859 26,590 27,025 27,874 

Deacons 8,099 8,356 8,681 9,058 9,174 9,551 

Churches 7,208 7,292 7,387 7,496 7,573 7,631 

organized.... 196 187 168 176 149 162 

" dissolved 65 75 94 74 84 71 

received 6 5 10 11 6 3 

" dismissed 3 7 11 2 1 1 

Added : examination.... 57,478 59,660 74,826 67,938 64,806 57,011 

certificate 38,608 39,298 41,633 38,734 38,489 37,487 

Communicants 830,179 855,089 895,997 922,904 943,716 960,911 

Baptisms : adults 20,839 21,738 28,212 25,729 24,484 21,596 

infants 25,762 26,247 28,051 27,731 28,459 32,956 

S. S. members 894,628 909,062 951,199 994,793 1,006,391 1,024,462 


Home Missions $998,101 

Foreign Missions 812,793 

Education 141,561 

S. S. Work 129,540 

Church Erection 308,017 

Relief Fund 102,414 

Freedmen 131,822 

Sustentation 71,102 

Synodical Aid 

Aid for Colleges 160,915 

*Anniver. Reu. Fund . . 

General Assembly, etc.. +80,908 

Congregational 10,043,128 

Miscellaneous 1,317,970 

Total $14,298,271 

Philadelphia, Pa., July S3, 1897. 





























































$14,916,311 % 




WM. HENRY ROBERTS, Stated (Jink. 

* The receipts for this Fund are published in full, and can be had from the Stated Clerk of the Assembly.— R. 
f Includes in part Synodical and Presbyterial expenses. 

% Does not include interest on Permanent Funds of the Boards, about $135,000, or income of the Theological Semi- 
naries, about $300,000. 




The Department of Sabbath -school and 
Missionary Work has prepared, as usual, 
an Order of Service, to be used in the 
Sabbath-schools on Rallying Day. By 
special request of the General Assembly, the 
subject chosen is the Sabbath Day. The 
hymns and Scripture passages selected are 
pertinent to this subject. A sample copy of 
this programme, with an explanatory circu- 
lar, has been mailed to the superintendent of 
every Sabbath-school in our Church, so far 
as the names and addresses are known, and 
it is hoped that many schools will respond, 
and make application for copies in sufficient 
quantities to supply their needs. The sup- 
plies will be sent without charge to all 
schools ordering them, but the schools 
which use them, and others also, will do 
well to take up an offering for the cause of 
Presbyterian Sabbath-school missions. 
Many of our Sabbath-schools, no doubt, 
made a Children's Day offering to this work, 
and may possibly hesitate before taking up 
another collection for the same cause after 
an interval of less than four months. To 
such we can only say that the good deed so 
liberally performed on Children's Day will 
not be spoiled by repetition in a lesser 
measure on Rallying Day. The work of 
Presbyterian Sabbath-school missions receives 
its main support from Presbyterian Sabbath - 
schools. Those teachers, scholars and 
friends who gave on Children's Day towards 
this cause will not greatly miss a second 
offering. But probably more than two 
thousand made no offering to this work on 
Children's Day. Here, then, is an oppor- 
tunity for such to make good their lack of 
service and to send some contribution, be it 
small or large, to help on the work which 
their Church has taken in hand in behalf 
of the spiritually neglected and untaught 
children of America. 


Should the superintendent of any Sabbath- 
school by this time not have received the 
circular and specimen programme spoken of, 

he should at once communicate with the 
Rev. James A. Worden, D. D. , superinten- 
dent of the Sabbath-school and Missionary 
department, 1334 Chestnut street, Phila- 


It was not without a keen sense of the 
importance of the subject that the General 
Assembly at Winona, by a unanimous vote, 
adopted a resolution urging upon the Sab- 
bath-schools and consequently the churches, 
the due and faithful observance of Rallying 
Day. Rallying Day is rapidly and surely 
taking its place as a permanent institution 
of the Sabbath-school and the church, not 
only in our owu denomination, but in all 
evangelical communities. We put the 
Sabbath-school before the church in this 
case, reversing the true order, simply be- 
cause Rallying Day took its rise in the 
Sabbath-school, and is primarily connected 
with the Sabbath-school; and we include 
the church also in this view, because the 
church is slowly awaking to a conception 
of the immense possibilities for good that 
are latent in this idea, and is beginning to 
avail itself of the new opportunities to 
which it points. 


Rallying Day, as now taking its special 
place and developing its peculiar character, 
is no longer a mere parade, even if we con- 
cede that it may at any time or place have 
been correctly so regarded. We speak, of 
course, of our own Church, but the state- 
ment is largely true, we believe, in other 
Churches. There have been those who 
have thought that the day begaa and ended 
in mere sentiment — pretty and appropriate, 
but time consuming and, for practical pur- 
poses, rather in the way. This may even 
yet be the feeling of many. Very well ; 
even sentiment has its uses, if it holds the 
attention of a community to some great 
principle. No one should despise sentiment. 
But this woof of sentiment is beautifully 
interwoven with the warp of practical pur- 





pose, and thus it takes substance and utility 
aa well as form and beauty. 

For example: Rallying Day marshals up 
into line the entire membership of the Sab- 
bath-school and give3 a deliberate and com- 
prehensive view of what it is aiming to do 
during the ten months following. It di- 
vides up its membership into detachments 
of workers as well as into classes of learn- 
ers, giving to each detachment and worker 
an assigned duty. Where this is done, 
under wise, business-like leadership, the 
Sabbath-school becomes a very vital power. 
First, house-to-house visitation for new 
scholars — four consecutive weeks of very 
earnest and most interesting work ; second, 
the Home Department — visitors and dis- 
tricts ; third, visitation of scholars by teach- 
ers; fourth, plans for supplemental lessons, 
and the memorizing of Scripture and of 
the Shorter Catechism ; fifth, normal class 
work and teacher training; sixth, plans for 
diffusing missionary intelligence and infor- 
mation as to the work of the various Boards 
of the Church ; seventh, plans for taking 
up and disbursing money offerings. These 
are all matters of high moment, deserving 
of forethought. The plans should be fully 
prepared and ready for announcement on 
Rallying Day, and not suffered to lie 
around loose, as it were, waiting for an 
opportunity or a leader or a favorable 


Rallying Day also brings into prominence 
the thought of the unity of practical aim 
as well as the ideal unity between the 
church and the Sabbath-school. Pastor, 
session, superintendent, school, all cooperate 
and stand together in the services of Rally- 
ing Day. What the school is seeking to do 
in its sphere, the church is also seeking to 
do in her wider sphere. 


The moral effect of such a demonstration 
upon the community is very great — not 
simply from the mere gathering together of 
people to a comely service, but also and 
chiefly from the exhibition of the sterling 
value of Sabbath-school work. This 
silently grows. The Sabbath-school is often 
spoken of patronizingly and somewhat flip- 
pantly in the world as an amateurish, amia- 
ble, dilettante affair, without fibre or purpose. 
It should prove itself to be decidedly the 

opposite — strong in purpose, in leadership, 
in conviction, in practical aims for the lift- 
ing of humanity toward God. 


Last November, Synodical Missionary Rev. 
C. K. Powell was in Costella county, 
Colo., and urged the organization of a 
Sabbath-school at Ft. Garland, but the 
time was not then ripe. A letter from a 
volunteer worker, Mr. W. C. Buell, who 
teaches one of the Women's Board schools 
among the Mexicans at San Pablo, reports 
the organization of the school last July. 
Mr. Buell writes: 

One man told me that he had lived here twelve 
years and that his daughter, eighteen years old, 
had never been in a place of worship. He wished 
we might have a Sabbath-school and services. In 
reply to the question, "Is there a man in your 
community who is qualified especially in his char- 
acter to take charge of the school ? " the man hung 
his head as he answered, "No ; I do not know as 
there is." 

But I think God has provided for this time of 

Among the congregation who gathered yesterday 
morning at the service was a good woman who had 
come with her family of boys and girls six and a half 
miles. She is the daughter of a Methodist minister, 
an energetic and business-like woman, a good singer 
and I believe will prove a devoted Christian. When 
she turned to her little girl about eleven years old 
and said, " This is the first service she has ever been 
to," you may be sure I felt rewarded for all the 
hard work that had preceded the service. 

The offerings received on Rallying Day 
will be devoted to two especial lines of 
Sabbath-school work, each of peculiar in- 
terest. These are, the supplying of mission 
schools with appropriate literature, and the 
purchase of Bibles as rewards for memor- 
izing the Shorter Catechism. Nearly fifteen 
hundred of these Bibles were distributed 
last year, at a cost of nearly $1000, while 
the interest accruing from the Bible Fund 
amounts to less than $300 per annum. We 
believe that money is well spent that en- 
courages the children of the Presbyterian 
Church to commit perfectly to memory the 
Westminster Shorter Catechism, and by 
reason of our large purchases for this object 
we are able to give, at comparatively small 
cost, a very beautiful Oxford Bible. The 
offerings on Rallying Day will therefore be 
used to lead hundreds of the children to 
rally around the word of God and the old 
Westminster Standards. 




Cottonwood Presbyterian Church, Nebraska. 



The above is a picture of a Presbyterian church 
which grew from our Sabbath- school work in 
northwestern Nebraska. It is situated twelve 
miles from Crawford, in a picturesque valley of the 
foot-hills of the mountains. It furnishes the gos- 
pel to a community of about forty families. It was 
organized seven years ago with fourteen members. 
Nearly one hundred persons have professed their 
faith in connection with it. 

After two successive years of drought, the people 
had neither seed to sow nor money to buy with. A 
friend furnished the seed, the Lord gave an abun- 
dant harvest, the people gave one-third of the crop 
to the church, the Board of Church Erection gave 
them $250, and their building was completed. 
They were four years without a pastor, having only 
the occasional assistance of a Sabbath-school mis- 

The missionary who organized the first Sabbath- 
school in this neighborhood is a graduate of the 
Omaha Theological Seminary, and is now their 
pastor. They have in the past year erected a neat 
parsonage, and though they have suffered much by 
crop failure they have contributed to every Board 
and raised $131 for their pastor's salary. 

Thirteen young people, who first confessed 
Christ with this church, have been sent away to 
school, college or academy to work their own way 
to an education. Two of these we hope will be 
Presbyterian ministers. Eight of these are in the 
picture above. The pastor's wife and mother now 
maintain free of charge a private school in the 
church building, where several young people are 
preparing for the academy or college. 

Four children in the picture have been dedicated 
by their mothers to the gospel ministry, if the 
Lord shall call them. A calf has been given each 
to "endow" the child for a college education. The 
parents are poor, but grass is cheap and the range 
free, and the parents promise to keep the calf and 
its increase until the child is seventeen and educate 
the boy with the proceeds. 

In this neighborhood there are several large 
families — one with thirteen children, one with ten, 
two with nine, and two or three with eight — all 
bright, healthy and strong, the very material for 
long life and hard work. The death of a child is a 
rare thing in western Nebraska. Look at that in- 
fant class in front and those boys and girls behind 
them, and ask yourself if you could have the heart 
to withhold the gospel from such bright young peo- 
ple. What will they be in twenty years if that 
church continues its work in that neighborhood ? 


Mercer Home. 


The John C. Mercer Home for Disabled 
Clergymen of the Presbyterian Faith is 
located near Ambler, Pa., sixteen miles 
north of Philadelphia, and is reached by 
the North Pennsylvania Railroad. 

This building was formerly the residence 
of a wealthy lady, Mrs. John C. Mercer, 
and is furnished in a style of comfort ap- 
proaching luxury. The picture presents 
the Home as it stands upon a hill, called 
familiarly " The Mount," and it is beautiful 
for situation like Jerusalem of old. 

The climate of this part of Pennsylvania 
has always been regarded as salubrious, the 
water used at the Home is pure and sweet, 
and nature has apparently done everything 
that needs to be done to make the place 
attractive and a retired life at Ambler 

This Home is not under the control of 

the Board of Relief, like " The Ministers' 

House," at Perth Amboy, N. J., but it was 

left by the will of Mrs. Mercer to a Board 


of Trustees, which is a close corporation, 
electing its own successors, and controlling 
the trust, but the residents of the Home 
are limited to disabled ministers of the 
Presbyterian faith, " who do not use 
tobacco in any form;" and, up to the pres- 
ent time, the will has been so construed as 
to exclude the wives of ministers, and 
accordingly only ministers have been ad- 
mitted to its privileges. 

The clergymen who reside there are fur- 
nished, free, not only with food and clothing, 
but those who have no income are also sup- 
plied with railroad tickets to and from 
Philadelphia, at regular periods, and also 
with a limited amount of pocket money. 

There are horses and carriages to take 
the residents to the village of Ambler to 
attend church, to do shopping, and to take 
the cars when they visit Philadelphia. 

The General Assembly of 1894 called 
attention to this Home, and gave it a 
hearty commendation, as "an aid and a 
relief to our Board of Ministerial Relief, 
to the extent that it would provide for aged 
and disabled ministers who are wholly, or 

1 897. J 



in part, dependent on that agency of our 
Church for their well-earned support in 
their time of need." 

This Home is only intended to accommo- 
date twelve persons, and it has an ample 
endowment for this purpose. The trustees 
keep two horses and four cows, and help 
sufficient to look after the welfare of the 
place and the comfort of the guests; and, 
if our Presbyterial Committees on the Board 
of Relief could persuade our aged men to 
go there to spend the days of their honor- 
able retirement, it would save a large sum 
of money to be distributed among needy 
families who cannot avail themselves of the 
privileges of this Home. 

The managers of the Home give their 
services gratuitously, and will be delighted 
to see more, of our Presbyterian clergymen 
avail themselves of the comforts of a resi- 
dence there, so generously provided for 
them by the will of Mrs. Mercer; and 
after visiting the place and learning all we 
can about it, we see no reason why any 
Presbyterian minister, who does not use 
tobacco, cannot be happy and comfortable 
there where such abundant provision has 
been made for those who are to occupy the 

There ought not to be any hesitancy 
about accepting the provisions and accom- 

modations of this delightful Home, when it 
was established through the munificence of 
the testator and her heartfelt desire to do 
something generous for a class of men for 
whom she had the profoundest veneration. 

The second picture shows the general 
character of the surrounding country, 
which is one of the choicest suburbs of all 
the country adjacent to Philadelphia, and it 
ought to be regarded by the whole Presby- 
terian Church as a wonderful blessing of 
divine providence that such a quiet, health- 
full retreat has been prepared for men who 
have given the energy of their youth and 
the strength of their maturer life to the 
activities of the ministry of Christ. 

This Home is certainly a lovely spot. It 
is surrounded on all sides but one with 
beautiful trees. The rear of the building 
is on the brow of the hill, and from the 
back piazza of the Home you have an un- 
obstructed and a magnificent view of the 
broad valley stretching out far and wide 
between ' ' The Mount ' ' and the hills be- 
yond, on which is located the village of 
Ambler. This beautiful view of farms, and 
hills, and village, never loses its charms, so 
that here is an attractive home for a retired 
minister, and especially for one who loves 
the country with its green carpets, and wide- 
branching trees, and sweet songs of birds. 

View'of Mercer Home from distance. 




We think, therefore, that we are doing 
a great kindness to our aged ministers to 
call their attention to this haven of rest. 
While enjoying there the quiet and retiracy 
of a charming home in the country, they 
have the privilege of running into Phila- 
delphia on Monday morning to attend the 
Ministers' Meeting and sharing the social 
joys and intellectual feasts of the Monday 
morning gatherings, and they are conse- 

quently not shut out from associations with 
which they have all their lives been familiar. 
Aged ministers who are alone in the 
world would do well to inquire into the 
merits of this Home, and chairmen of 
Presbyterial Committees on the Board of 
Relief may do a good service to ministers 
and the general cause by calling the atten- 
tion of ministers to this well-appointed and 
well-endowed institution. 



A letter was lately received at the office 
of this Board from a pastor in one of our 
central States, in which there was kindly 
criticism of the methods used to obtain 
money for benevolent work, and also some 
pungent suggestions as to the cause of the 
falling off in supplies. 

While not agreeing with the writer in all 
the statements that he makes, yet much 
that he says is so closely to the point and 
put in such an incisive way that we think 
it may be read by a larger circle with inter- 
est and profit. 

After asking to have envelopes for the 
collection sent him, and expressing his fear 
that neither the Assembly nor the Boards 
appreciate the difficulty in obtaining money 
at the present time, he proceeds to say : 

" You can see by inclosed card that I 
am trying to do all I can for all the Boards. 
We who are trying to carry the Presbyterian 
churches along Presbyterian lines have a 
thousand hindrances to meet of which the 
Boards know nothing. 

" Of course in New York, Philadelphia, 
Chicago and such places it may not be true 
and is not true, but as an example of a 
hindrance, I will say the heterogeneous ele- 
ments from Methodist, Baptist, Episcopa- 
lian, Disciples, Congregational churches, 
and especially the large numbers from the 
outside who have been received into our Pres- 
byterian churches during the past twenty 
years, constitute a large element of non-Pres- 
byterians who cannot be expected to know, 
and many of whom do not wish to know, 
Presbyterian ways and doctrines. The ' old- 
time ' Presbyterians give as they are told 

in proportion, but these extraneous ele- 
ments do not. Of course, the Boards do 
not have to wrestle with these and so know 
nothing about them We are carry- 
ing along thousands of people who give 
nothing year by year. 1 have seen this 
personally exemplified in California, Mis- 
souri, Illinois, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, 
and I take it these six States are fair repre- 
sentatives of all 

" I have not the slightest criticism to 
make of an adverse kind in regard to any 
of our great Church Boards. I trust that 
I can appreciate in a certain measure, at 
least, their difficulties and embarrassments. 
I firmly believe them to be manned by earn- 
est, intelligent, Christian gentlemen, both 
lay and clerical. I am Presbyterian, 
supra, infra, hyper, etc., etc. Calvinistic, 
tooth and nail, eyes, nose, mouth, hands, 
feet and all, but I am sure we need some 
sort of change in our methods of systematic 
beneficence. To sum up : There are several 
very serious things in the way of our benev- 
olent work as now carried on: 

"1. Board debts, where they exist. 
( Very had!) 

" 2. All pastors are not qualified for fine 
financiers or money-getters, and they can- 
not help it. (Lamentable!) 

" 3. The various non-Presbyterian, 
heterogeneous elements gathered during the 
last twenty years into Presbyterian churches. 
( Very serious!) 

" 4. Large failure of the wheat crop 
during the past two years all over the Cen- 
tral Western States. ( Worth considering!) 

"5. The very great stringency of money 
along all lines of business at present. (De- 




"6. The death of many of the old 
staunch heavy givers of Presbyterian pro- 
clivities in ten years past, with no others to 
take their places. {Suggestive /) 

" There are many other good reasons, but 
I will not weary your patience. It is as 
evident as noonday to me that the old 
methods will not fit our present conditions 
as a Church at all." 

There is much of truth in what our 
brother thus forcibly brings before us ; but 
are not the present conditions the inevitable 
result of rapid growth both in the Church 
and in the nation ? 

Evidently, the first necessity is for our 
pastors to appreciate, as the writer of the 
letter does, the difficulties and then for each 
in his own place and in his own way to set 
to work to remove them. 

We are not disposed to think that Chris- 
tian people are less interested now than 
formerly in the progress of the kingdom, 
nor that they are less willing to contribute 
to carry forward the great undertaking; 
but in consequence perhaps of the hurrying 
character of the age, of the enormous 
pressure of material interests, of the fierce 
strife into which all seem obliged to plunge, 
there is probably far less of intelligent 
knowledge of the particular work in all its 
branches that our Church is carrying on. 
Men and women need now, as never before 
in our churches, to be instructed in regard 
to the practical method of honoring their 
Lord and Master. 

Just so far as this is faithfully done by 
our pastors and church officers, just to that 
extent will the needed supplies be forth- 
coming to keep the Christian army in the 
field and carry the work to glorious success. 


Judge Morris writes : 

In returning to you, properly signed, the re- 
ceipt for the grant to our church by your Board, 
allow me to express our most heartfelt gratitude 
to yourself, to the Board and to the Church at 
large. I had never realized, at least fully, what 
a grand work your Board does. One has to come 
into the woods to understand, first, how much a 
church building means, not only looking at the 
question from the standpoint of religion, but from 
the standpoint of public morality — from a patri- 
otic standpoint — and, second, how impossible it 
would be to have churches in communities of this 
kind without the help of some such organization 
as yours. Certainly we could not have ventured 

to build had we been dependent on our own 
efforts entirely. I sometimes say to my father 
that he need not feel that his life work is past, that 
his work is going on through the men that he has 
helped equip for their work, and so with you. We 
will go ahead in a small way here, which may. 
however, become a large way, and you may feel 
that you have made this work possible. 


Enclosed please find the blank filled out as 
fully as needful, upon the Hot Springs Colored 
Presbyterian Church. Everything there is cer- 
tainly now in a condition for them to go forward 
and do good service for God and their fellow-men. 
Accept heartiest thanks for the great help granted 
by your Board in this enterprise. May heaven 
open many new avenues and refill old ones by 
which your ability to help will be increased for 
the future ; certainly the need is great. 


Rev. John P. Williamson, D.D., the vete- 
ran missionary among the Sioux Indians, 
writes from Greenwood, S. D. : 

I enclose the receipt of the trustees of Hill 
(Indian) Church for the $400 granted by the 
Church Erection Board to aid in the erection of 
their present building. 

This aid has been a great blessing to the con- 
gregation. They now have a church building 
well worth $1200, without any debt. Of this 
amount they raised cash among their own people, 
$280. They contributed work and material, $300. 
They used material from the old church worth 
$100. Eeceived from friends elsewhere $161, and 
the contribution of the Board, $400. For all this 
we are heartily thankful. 


The Rev. George E. Gillespie, of Port 
Jervis, N. Y., in sending the contribution 
of his church, adds : 

Our church has just taken out its old seats, in 
order to entirely refit our church, and they are at 
present stored in the basement. They are good 
pews of old style, and I thought if you knew 
some worthy church which needed pews, I might 
make arrangements to give some to them with no 
expense to them save freight. If you know of 
any will you kindly let me know ? 

The only solution of the difficulty en- 
countered by our Boards in carrying on the 
aggressive work of the Church with empty 
treasuries, writes the Rev. W. H. Sawtelle, 
lies in the working out of the principles of 
Systematic Beneficence. 



[Recommended by Standing Committee 
and adopted. ] 

The wisdom of the appointment of this 
Board has been abundantly proved by the 
work which it has done in the fourteen 
years of its existence. It has discouraged 
and prevented hasty and unwise founding 
of institutions in places or under conditions 
in which they could not be sustained. It 
has given valuable advice to presidents and 
boards of trustees which has greatly aided 
them in the efficiency and success of their 
work. It has insisted on thorough busi- 
ness methods in permanently securing prop- 
erty, wise use of money, and economy of 
administration, thus saving the Church from 
much waste both of money and effort. It 
has wisely aided where its help would 
accomplish most, giving the benefit of its 
careful experience and observation, and 
stimulating the gifts of men and women 
who wished to be sure that their money 
would be wisely used in Christian education. 


It is not too much to say that many hun- 
dreds of conversions and the choice of the 
gospel ministry by hundreds of young men 
have resulted mainly from the work of the 
institutions fostered by this Board. One 
hundred and four conversions and one hun- 
dred and eighty-one men preparing for the 
ministry are reported from the 2711 stu- 
dents in the thirty institutions aided by the 
Board last year. Systematic Bible instruc- 
tion is insisted on for all students and faith- 
fully given in all those institutions. 


These schools have been able to secure, 
through the Board's help, and at compara- 
tively small salaries, teachers thoroughly 
qualified for their work and consecrated to 
it. The earnest, self-denying Christian 
work of many of these teachers is worthy 
of the highest praise. 


The committee has carefully examined 
the fourteenth annual report and the 

records of the Board for the past year, and 
strongly commends the combined zeal, 
prudence and wisdom which characterize 
all its official actions. Individual opinions 
may sometimes differ in particular cases, 
but the combined work can hardly be im- 
proved. The Board's rules requiring clear 
definite statements of expected income and 
outgo, and also requiring a distinct state- 
ment from each institution at the close of 
the year, that the Board's money will posi- 
tively finish paying every cent of the ex- 
penses of that current year before its last 
payment shall be made, have brought into 
many schools clear business methods which 
are immensely valuable for their perma- 
nent work. 


The Board has never closed a year in debt, 
and all appropriations promised to any in- 
stitution have been paid when the required 
conditions were met. 


The following condensed treasurer's report 
will be of interest in this place: 

C. M. Charnley, treasurer, in account 
with ' ' The Presbyterian Board of Aid for 
Colleges and Academies:" 


To receipts to April 1, 1897: 

a. ' ' General Fund : ' ' 

Churches and S.S $29,751 97 

Individuals 7,532 54 

Interest 2,950 60 

$40,235 11 

b. " Property Fund :" 

Churches and S.S $91 50 

Individuals 3,304 00 

Legacies 100 00 

3,495 50 

c. " Direct : " Churches. . . . $9,316 86 
Individuals 23,320 47 

32,637 33 

d. Sustentation $853 36 

Transmission, Churches 337 75 

Interest 427 08 

1,618 19 

$77,986 13 
To cash on hand April 1,1896 17,765 27 

$95,751 40 
This report shows an increase for the 




General Fund from churches and Sab- 
bath-schools of $1451.97, and from other 
sources of $3550.44, which is gratifying. 
A decrease of gifts for Property Fund and 
from individuals is probably accounted for 
by the season of depression through which 
we are passing. 


This Board, according to the Assembly's 
direction, gave us an itemized account of 
administrative expenses down to the last 
five-cent piece. We carefully examined 
and heartily approve this account, and 
recommend the same plan for next year. 
Attention is called to the fact that adminis- 
trative expenses were reduced last year 
nearly twenty-two per cent., and that the 
budget for next year shows a further reduc- 
tion of ten per cent, on this, beginning with 
a voluntary reduction of $400 in the salary 
of the corresponding secretary, and the 
voluntary acceptance of only a clerk's 
salary of $600 by the treasurer. The 
confidence felt in this Board by those who 
know it best is well shown by the fact that 
its contributions from Chicago Presbytery 
are nearly double those of any other, ex- 
cepting Pittsburg, where one church gave 
nearly $1900. 


If all our churches, especially those in 
the Eastern States, could know what good 
work this Board is doing, and would give 
it one offering, every good thing in this 
report might be more than doubled during 
the next year. Less than half of our 
churches gave anything to this cause last 
year. A sorrowful record. Brethren, 
remember that the tribes settling east of 
the Jordau were required to help their 
brethren on the west to possess their land 
before they could rest at home in their own. 
Will not you do likewise ? There is need 
for special effort in this direction just now, 
lest institutions of great promise and 
efficiency go down or pass out of our hands 
for lack of a few thousands or even hun- 
dreds of dollars to secure them and keep 
them going till better times. 


The committee make the following recom- 
mendations to the Assembly : 


1. That the records of the Board be 
approved as far as written. 


2. That the Assembly approve and com- 
mend the work and plans of the Board, and 
rejoice in the results achieved through this 


3. That the Assembly recommend this 
Board for an offering from every church, 
and that the church contributions for this 
work be $150,000 for the coming year. 


4. We recommend that the excellent 
literature of the Board be utilized by our 
pastors and sessions, both for the stimulation 
of gifts to this Board and for awakening 
and increasing intelligent interest in the 
work of Christian education. 


5. That as the Day of Prayer for Colleges 
is the last Thursday of January, the Sab- 
bath preceding or succeeding be observed 
throughout the Church as Education Day, 
Avhen the subject of Christian Education 
shall be presented from the pulpit and offer- 
ings be made for this Board. 


6. That the " Plan for the Classification 
of Presbyterian Educational Institutions," 
designed to indicate to the Church the exact 
grade of the institutions applying for aid, be 
approved by this Assembly, and that the 
Board be directed to report institutions in 
accordance with this plan. 


7. That the members of the Board whose 
terms of office expire with this session of 
the Assembly be reelected as follows : Min- 
isters — David S. Johnson, D.D., J. G. K. 
McClure, D.D., William P. Merrill, M. L. 
Haines, D.D. ; Elders — Hon. Dan. P. 
Eells, Henry J. Willing, Thomas Lord, 
and in place of Hon. James McMillan, 
Charles M. Charnley. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
Geo. L. Spining, Chairman. 
Eagle Lake, Ind., May, 1897. 



Westminster Theological College, Cambridge, Eng. 


We have had prepared for this number of 
our magazine, from a cut in the Herald and 
Presbyter, a picture of the theological hall 
which is to take the place of the building 
at present in use in London. The princi- 
pal of the college is Rev. Oswald Dykes. 
In his address at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the new college, May 25, 1897, he 
alluded to the fact that it was in Cambridge 
that Puritanism, with its Presbyterian ten- 
dencies, hundreds of years ago found its 
staunchest defenders. To this fact we called 
attention, in presenting to our readers the 
beautiful picture of Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, in the June number. Some of 
the greatest names of the Reformation 
period have been associated with this great 
university, and with the struggle to secure 
a Scriptural form of government, as well 
as of worship and doctrine, in the Church 
of England. 


First of all should be mentioned Bucer, 
one of the leading reformers in respect to 
character, learning and influence, who came 
to England in 1549 to be theological pro- 
fessor at Cambridge, and a chief adviser in 
those matters of Church doctrine and polity 
which at that time attracted so large a 
share of attention. In his review (A. D. 

1552) of the first Book of Common Prayer, 
which was issued under King Edward VI, 
he showed that some of the most charac- 
teristic features of Romanism had been 
retained. The result was a revision of that 
book, and the elimination of a number of 
objectionable features, including the word 
" altar," by which in the first Prayer Book 
the Lord's Table had been designated. 
Bucer proceeded to prepare a draft of a 
more truly primitive system of Church 
government, taking the Holy Scriptures as 
final authority, and deducing from them a 
Ministry of Doctrine, to be confided to pres- 
byters who give evidence of a divine call to 
preach; a Ministry of Discipline, to be con- 
fided to those who have gifts for ruling 
(seniores ecclesite) ; and a Ministry of Dis- 
tribution, to be confided to deacons. The 
treatise was called " De Regno Christi, " 
and was dedicated to King Edward. That 
monarch was led by it to draw up with his 
own hand a scheme of Reformed Church 
polity, in which Bucer' s leading ideas were 
embodied. He had already given evidence 
of his sympathy with that reformer's views 
by granting (A.D. 1550) a charter to the 
" Church of the Strangers " (Ecclesia Per- 
egrinorum) in London for the benefit of the 
5000 exiles for the sake of religion who 
had come to England from the continent. 
There were several congregations of different 
nationalities presided over by John A'Lasco, 
an able Polish reformer, with four col- 




leagues. The scheme of government was 
largely PresbyteriaD, the object of the king 
being to set before the eyes of the people an 
object-lesson in reform. 

A new order of things came in with the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth. She assumed 
the functions of the archbishop herself, and 
issued to the bishops with her own hand, 
May 7, 1577, her edict for the putting 
down of " Prophesyings. " On the death 
of Grindal in 1583 she put Whitgift into 
the archiepiscopal chair, and found in him a 
constant and willing tool. 

At Cambridge, meanwhile (A.D. 1565), 
she had been exasperated to find three 
hundred students of St. John's College 
throwing aside the white surplice which 
was to them a badge of priesthood; and 
she had visited her wrath upon Dr. Hum- 
phrey, the president of Magdalen College, 
and upon his friend, Dr. Thomas Sampson, 
by shutting them up in jail for refusing to 
conform to the ceremonies. 


"Than Thomas Cartwright," wrote Beza, 
" I think that the sun doth not see a more 
learned man." " A man of genius," 
says Froude. " A popular preacher," you 
would exclaim, could you see the windows 
taken out of the cathedrals in order that 
the crowd outside might get within earshot 
of his preaching. He was matriculated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1550, 
and was appointed Margaret Professor of 
Divinity in 1569. He was not admitted 
to priests' orders, but preached by virtue of 
a license from the chancellor of the univer- 
sity. It seems that the chancellor, by virtue 
of an old papal bull, had the peculiar priv- 
ilege of licensing twelve preachers yearly 
under the common seal of the university, 
and so authorizing them to exercise their 
gifts during the term of their natural lives 
without obtaining any license from a 
bishop. With this may be compared the 
singular fact that there existed at this 
period many parishes in England which 
were exempt from episcopal jurisdiction. 
Distressed Presbyterian ministers found in 
them convenient places of retreat. 

Cartwright, in his role as reformer, 
taught in his ' ' Six Articles ' ' that the 
Church should be brought back to apostolic 
usage, that each congregation should be 
governed by a parochial presbytery, that 

there should be ' ' bishops and deacons ' ' 
set over the people (according to Phil. 1 : 
1); the bishops (presbyters) to attend to 
the preaching of the word, and the deacons 
to the care of the poor. He incurred the 
displeasure of Archbishop Whitgift, and 
was compelled to betake himself for a time 
to the continent. The year of his return 
to England (1572) was annus mirabilw. 
In France great numbers of Protestants 
were massacred on St. Bartholomew's Day. 
In Scotland John Knox died. In England, 
Field, Wilcox and others addressed an 
" Admonition to Parliament," praying for 
a reform as to the clergy, the liturgy, and 
the government and polity of the Church. 
Elizabeth promptly sent the chief authors 
to Newgate jail ; but before the year was 
over Cartwright was back and ready with 
a second " Admonition," to the same effect 
as the first, and no small controversy 
ensued. The year was further marked by 
the setting up at Wandsworth, in Surrey, 
of a Parochial Presbytery, or session, of 
eleven elders chosen from the congregation 
to cooperate with John Field, lecturer of 
the word (but not minister of the parish) 
in matters of Church rule and discipline for 
the Presbyterian portion of the parish- 
ioners. Here was a Church formed within 
a Church, a device according to the exi- 
gency of the times, and an example soon 
followed in hundreds of other parishes in 
England. It was under the superintendence 
of a conference or classis in London. 


In 1584, twelve years after the annus 
mirabilis, the Cambridge University Press 
issued a " Directory," or " Book of Disci- 
pline," which the Presbyterians had pre- 
pared after prolonged consultations. In 
November of that year it was presented to 
Parliament with the request that it might 
be " from henceforth authorized, put in 
use, and practiced throughout all her ma- 
jesty's dominions under the title of " A 
Book of the Form of Common Prayer, the 
Administration of the Sacraments, etc' " 
This is described as " a book of rare dignity 
and power," and it received the subscrip- 
tion of 500 of the clergy of the Church of 


The times were not propitious for the suc- 
cess of such a movement. Archbishop 



Whitgift, with the aid of his " Test Arti- 
cles," to which subscription was required, 
and his new " High Commission," armed 
with arbitrary power, made the lot of those 
who had Presbyterian tendencies hard. 
They fared no better when James I. came 
from Scotland, and, at the " Hampton 
Court Conference," disgraced himself by the 
ridicule and conlemptwith which he treated 
the Puritan ministers. Things went from 
bad to worse when Charles I., in 1625, with 
Laud for his agent, entered upon the task 
of enforcing his will as to worship and 
Church polity by persecution and harsh 
treatment. But the result was a state of 
great excitement, with deep sympathy for 
the oppressed. 


After Charles I. had quarreled with Parlia- 
ment, and the civil war broke out, an 
ordinance was passed, to take effect Novem- 
ber 5, 1643, by which prelacy was to be 
dissolved. The Westminster Assembly was 
then summoned to devise a form of Church 
government and discipline to take its place. 
A notable scene marked the 15th of Sep- 
tember, 1643, when the members of the 
Assembly entered St. Margaret's Church 
from one side and the members of Parlia- 
ment came in from St. Stephen's Chapel 
(then the meeting-place of the Commons) on 
the other, and the " Solemn League and 
Covenant ' ' was sworn to by the whole body 
of representatives of Church and State with 
hands uplifted to heaven, thus committing 
England to the Presbyterian order. The 
League provided for the preservation of 
the reformed religion in doctrine and polity 
in the Church of Scotland against all ene- 
mies, for a reform of religion in England 
and Ireland in the same respects, and for 
an endeavor to bring the three kingdoms to 
" the nearest conjunction possible in all 
these matters." 

London, then a city of 150,000 inhabi- 
tants, welcomed the new order of things with 
enthusiasm, and the period of Presbyterian 
ascendency was marked by moral energy, 
educational zeal, literary activity, lofty 
patriotism and pulpit power. We name 
Stephen Marshall, a graduate of Cam- 
bridge, as a typical representative of that 
interesting period. He was lecturer at St. 
Margaret's, and the greatest preacher of 
his day. 

The first Presbyterian provincial synod 
met May 3, 1647, in the Convocation House 
of St. Paul's, and afterwards in Sion Col- 
lege in London Wall. It was only in 
London and Lancashire, however, that the 
Presbyterian polity found favor. Rapid 
changes occurred. Cromwell's army took 
London. " Pride's Purge," December 6, 
1648, cleared the house of about 200 Pres- 
byterian members, and the " Rump," with 
its fifty Independents, under the dictation 
of the army, resolved on the beheading of 
the king, January, 1649. The London 
Synod, twelve days before the execution, 
adopted a strong remonstrance under the 
title of "A Serious and Faithful Represen- 
tation of the Judgment of the Ministers of 
the Gospel within the Province of London, 
in a Letter to the General and His Council 
of War." While it is true that, after the 
death of Oliver Cromwell, and the abdica- 
tion of Richard, the Long Parliament recon- 
vened, February 21, 1660, and declared 
Presbyterianism to be the established faith 
and order of the Church of England, but 
with express toleration for tender con- 
sciences; and while it is true that Charles 
II. in 1661 summoned the Savoy Confer- 
ence, composed of twelve bishops and 
twelve Presbyterian divines (the second 
name on the list being Dr. Tuckney, master 
of St. John's College, Cambridge), to 
revise the Book of Common Prayer, nothing 
served to hinder the passing by the new 
Parliament of the " Act of Uniformity," 
May 19, 1662, which required thereordina- 
tion of Presbyterian ministers, assent and 
consent to everything in the Prayer Book, 
and an oath renouncing the League and 
Covenant. On Sunday, August 24, 1662, 
two thousand ministers, one-fifth of the 
entire clergy of the Church, renounced 
their benefices rather than submit to the 
rigor of this act. It was the anniversary 
of St. Bartholomew's day. The reign of 
William of Orange brought legal sanction 
to Presbyterian worship and discipline, but 
existing prelatic and canon law hindered 
the setting up of a general ecclesiastical 
polity. William's " Scheme of Compre- 
hension," which might have brought into 
the Church of England two-thirds of the 
dissenters, proved a failure. Some import- 
ant names, like that of Peter King, a 
nephew of John Locke, and Philip and 
Matthew Henry, mark the epoch, but the 




days of the decadence of the Presbyterian 
cause were come, due, in no small measure, 
to the lack of university and high- class 
education. We have not space to give the 
story of the revival and reorganization of 
the Presbyterian Church of England. We 
can only note, as a matter of historic inter- 
est, the return to Cambridge, under circum- 
stances which Principal Dykes regards as 

auspicious. " If we are to seek again," 
said he, " our ancient alliance with the 
higher education and learning of our land, 
it is in Cambridge we must seek it." Our 
prayer is that in learning, as well as in 
fidelity to Presbyterian doctrine, worship 
and polity, the Church of our day may be 
worthy of the fathers. 


Dayton Academy. 


Dayton Academy is one of our smaller 
boarding schools, situated at Carthage, N. 
C. , and is under the management of Rev. 
H. D. Wood, who in addition to his school 
work has charge of two churches. His 
work is within the bounds of Yadkin Pres- 
bytery and Synod of Catawba. Mr. Wood 
is one of the most faithful and industrious 
workers under the care of the Board, and 
enjoys the confidence of the people of the 
community in which he has so long 
labored, both white and black. In com- 
menting upon a complimentary notice of 
himself which appeared in one of the local 

papers of Carthage, Mr. Wood replied^ in 
part as follows: 

" If, as you say, we have the good opin- 
ion of the people here after many years of 
service, then we have the next best thing 
to the benediction of the Lord himself — 
the approval of good people. 

" With reference to your comments upon 
the relations between the races here, I 
I have traveled extensively in this and other 
countries, and I have yet to see the place or 
the people that compares with Carthage in 
its opportunities for the colored man. But 
the success of our efforts, and the general 
prosperity of my people here, is largely 
due to the sympathy and help of the good 




white citizens of this town. We do not 
claim to have wrought miracles or worked 
wonders in the prosecution of our church 
and school work, but we feel sure that on 
this line we have helped in the general prog- 
ress, and that in the expenditure of thou- 
sands of dollars in the establishment and 
extension of this work, we have contrib- 
uted not a little to the material progress of 
this community. 

" You say, Education is the watchword 
of the colored people. This is quite true, 
but I think we make mistakes in our zeal 
along this line. It is admitted that educa- 
tion is a powerful factor in shaping human 
conduct and building human character, but 
we need to know also that there is nothing 
more dangerous to the human race than 
education without the capacity to make 
proper use of it. 

" Our education must be Christian educa- 
tion. Only such an education will bring us 
into right relations with life and its du- 
ties, as it fits one for faithful service in the 
lowliest as well as in the loftiest stations, 
exalts the common tasks, and enables us to 
see that it is better to suffer a temporary 
defeat in a right effort than to win a transi- 
tory triumph in a wrong one. As one has 
well said, it is better to be right than 
president. ' ' 


Having attended the recent commencement 
exercises at Ingleside Seminary, Burkeville, 
Va., writes a correspondent of the Board, 
I would like to make some report of what 
my eyes saw and ears heard, hoping thereby 
to give encouragement and stimulus to the 
good work. Traveling through the country 
one cannot fail to be impressed with the 
little cabin homes, and the help the inmates 
must need to secure these educational ad- 
vantages. A short sojourn at Ingleside is 
equally effective in convincing one that this 
institution in its scholastic training, indus- 
trial education and religious influence, 
is a powerful factor in the uplifting of 
these needy people. Sixteen young ladies 
were graduated on June 2; the baccalaure- 
ate sermon by the Rev. G. C. Campbell, on 
the Sunday previous, was a stimulating 
appeal to the members of the graduating 
class to faithfully discharge the responsibili- 
ties resting upon them — responsibilities com- 

mensurate with the privileges they had 
enjoyed. The communion service was also 
observed the same Sabbath ; all but three of 
the one hundred and five pupils are profess- 
ing Christians. 

An interesting exercise in the Shorter 
Catechism found a place in the evening ser- 
vice; thirty-five students have this year 
committed the same to memory, each one 
reciting it, accurately and entire, at one 

The varied and interesting exercises of 
"Class Day" were concluded by placing 
a rock, instead of planting a tree, 

" Upon the grounds of Ingleside 
As our memorial to abide," 

it being chosen for its symbolic character, 
as we learned from the class poet, who thus 
apostrophized : 

" O, Rock ! thou emblem of what we 
As Christian women ought to be, 
In firmness and integrity." 

The motto of the class of '97 was " Grada- 
tion," and by a happy coincidence, Dr. J. 
R. Miller's book, entitled " In His Steps," 
was given to each graduate. The essays 
were thoughtfully prepared papers on prac- 
tical subjects, and specimens of class work 
and skillful needlework were on exhibition. 

The faculty was very much gratified that 
Mr. R. S. Davis, a member of the Board 
of Missions for Freedmen, was able to be 
present at the commencement exercises; at 
the close, Mr. Davis presented the diplomas 
to the graduates in well -chosen words. 

It was pleasant to note that the Sabbath- 
school missionary for that district was pres- 
ent, and that a time was appointed for 
conference with those young women who 
had expressed a desire to organize Sunday- 
schools in their home neighborhoods. But, 
indeed, it would be strange if they had not 
imbibed the missionary spirit after having 
been for four or five years under the influ- 
ence and training of such a noble band of 
consecrated Christian workers. 

We wish the number of visitors to this 
and similar institutions in our Southland 
might be increased, feeling confident that 
there would be a corresponding increase in 
the resources of the schools that are doing 
so much to elevate, physically, mentally 
and spiritually, the people among whom 
these are located. 


Current Topics at the Board's Rooms. 

The increase of $23,181.14 in the 
receipts of the Board's treasury during the 
month of July over the same month Jast 
year, and of 811,128.98 in the receipts 
during the first quarter of this fiscal year, 
have brought joy and hope and thanksgiv- 
ing to the hearts of the officers of the Board. 
It is felt that we have touched bottom. 
From this onward we may expect a steady 
improvement in our finances. The new 
arrangement between the Board and the 
Women's Societies is taking encouraging 
shape with the hope of large gain among 
the Young People's Societies in their mis- 
sionary interest, while the Board is reaching 
out to increase the activity of the Sabbath - 
schools along the same line. The news 
from Oroomiah of the movement among 
the Nestorians towards the Russian Church 
creates no little anxiety as to the effect of 
this national agitation upon our Church mem- 
bers, though the last letters are hopeful that 
the bulk of them will resist the allurements 
and intimidations suddenly pressed upon 
them. Mr. Speer's report of his visit to 
the Persian missions recently received 
strengthens our hope of the steadfastness 
of these churches. It has given the gen- 
tlemen at the rooms much pleasure to take 
by the hand Mr. Ibuka, the much-esteemed 
president of the Meiji Gakuin, now on a 
short visit to this country. 

Movements to Raise the Debt. 

The missionary spirit seems to have ruled 
prominently in the great convention of 
Christian Endeavorers at San Francisco. 
President Clark's annual address on the 
theme, " A World-encircling Movement," 
was preeminently calculated to foster this 
spirit. Other causes added depth to the 
missionary thought and purpose of the 
assembled thousands. It was fortunate that 
the Presbyterian rally was under the lead 
of such enthusiastic foreign missionary 
advocates as Dr. Davies of New York and 
Dr. Chapman of Philadelphia, through 
whose eloquent and fervent pleas for the 
cause it doubtless is due that the meeting 

decided to make an effort to secure twenty- 
five cents per member from the Presbyterian 
societies for the debt of the Foreign Board. 

Already a movement had been inaugu- 
rated at the Board rooms with a similar aim. 
Members of the Board, officers and em- 
ployes, together with a number of foreign 
missionaries at home on furlough, have united 
in special subscriptions for the debt, with a 
fair promise of most important results. 

The action of the Presbyterian young 
people has the hearty indorsement of the 
Foreign Board. It hopes to see it pressed 
with vigor and promptness. Until the 
incubus of debt is removed, the present 
depressing conditions on the foreign fields, 
due to drastic retrenchments, must continue. 

Female Education in China. 

Mr. Speer, since his recent visit to Can- 
ton, calls attention to the fact that five hun- 
dred women and one thousand girls have 
gone out of the seminary, some of them to 
give all their time to Christian service, and 
hundreds of others to proclaim the gospel 
through the activities of common life. The 
wife of Li Hung Chang's doctor was one of 
these. Others are in Vancouver, San 
Francisco, Portland, Oregon, and Chicago. 
" Wherever they go," writes Mr. Speer, 
" a knowledge of the gospel goes." 

Russia's New Move in Persia. 

The long-time-expected and much-feared 
advance of Russian influence in Persia has 
come. It is not a showy one at the outset, 
but it bodes no good for our Protestant 
institutions. Russian priests have come to 
Oroomiah to open schools. The Christian 
population, groaning under Mohammedan 
oppression, and seeing in their coming the 
promise of political deliverance, have wel- 
comed it with wild enthusiasm. Thousands 
of men, women and children flocked to their 
side, kissing their garments, prostrating 
themselves before them as their saviours. 
In the hope of special favor, multitudes of 
the Old Nestorian Church are enrolling 
themselves as adherents of the Russian 





Church. Our missionaries write in much 
sorrow that many of our church members, 
too, were being swept away by this whirl- 
wind of excitement. It is most unfortunate 
that just at such a juncture our missionaries 
must close up their schools of all grades be- 
cause the cnurches at home could not send 
them the funds. This Russian movement and 
the welcome given them by the Christians has 
inflamed the Moslem population still more 
against the Christians, and one fears what 
may be the outcome should Russia now 
desert the followers of the cross as she has 
done in other lands at critical times, after 
involving them in similar peril with the 

Prince Eui Wha of Korea. 

The visit of this young prince to this 
country, at the instance of his royal father, 
is an event of much significance. The 
well-known history of the confidential rela- 
tions between the king and our missionaries. 
Dr. Underwood and Dr. Arison, finds fresh 
illustration in the king's desire that his 
second son should come to America for his 
education, to be, if possible, under the 
wing of the officials of this Foreign Mis- 
sionary Board. Those who pray for the 
hastening of the time when the kingdoms 
of this world shall become the kingdoms of 
our Lord and his Christ, should make the 
coming of this youth a subject of very 
special prayer. 

Transforming Power of the Qospel. 

Two incidents reported by Mrs. De Heer, 
of Benito, Africa, bring the effects of 
heathenism and the Christian faith in for- 
cible contrast. In the one instance a 
heathen Balingi died. The rage of his 
friends knew no bounds, supposing he had 
been bewitched. They opened his body and 
insisted that they found proof positive that 
he had been killed with witchcraft, and 
they vowed revenge. They tore down the 
house of the deceased man, destroyed his 
garden, and in short behaved as only 
heathen can under such circumstances. 

The other instance occurred within a 
stone's throw of the first and a few days 
previous. Mrs. De Heer writes : ' ' One 
week ago one of our most faithful church 
members was laid to his rest in the hope of 
a glorious resurrection. As the end drew 
near he earnestly requested that the usual 
mourning might not be held for him, say- 

ing, ' Why should you mourn that I have 
left this world of sin ? I hold it but as 
filthy rags in comparison with the country 
to which I am going. ' Just at the last he 
turned his face to the wall, murmured the 
names of two members of his family who 
had died in the faith, repeated several 
times ' Akeva Upangiyi ' (I thank thee, 
Lord), and was gone." 

Foreign Missions in the Sunday-school Lessons. 

The Book of Acts may be studied with 
interest and profit simply as a book of an- 
cient travels, or as a sketch of early Church 
history. But to go through our present 
Sabbath-school lessons in this book without 
catching something of its foreign mission- 
ary impulse is to lose its principal teaching. 
It was the word " Go " in our Lord's last 
great command that turned the Apostle 
Paul into a persistent traveler and enthusias- 
tic Christian missionary, instead of a Jewish 
Rabbi. It was his intense and grateful ap- 
preciation of the preciousness of Christ's 
plan of salvation that drove him from 
continent to continent, and country to coun- 
try, preaching the good news. The Sunday 
School Times makes note of one Presbyte- 
rian Sabbath-school superintendent, Charles 
T. Jamieson, of Urbana, O., who evidently 
believes in bringing out the foreign missions 
idea which runs through these lessons from 
the Acts. His blackboard treatment of 
the fifth lesson on Paul's First Missionary 
Journey showed effectively the continuity 
of the missionary work from Christ's fare- 
well order to the Church right down to our 
own day and conditions, closing with the 
most legitimate deduction that "for us 
now to be indifferent to foreign missions, or 
even to lack enthusiastic zeal in their behalf, 
is not only to lack the spirit of Christ and 
disobey his positive orders, but to betray 
his cause through the basest and most sel- 
fish ingratitude." 

Light and Contentment in Lonesome Darkness. 

Mr. Speer draws this graphic picture in 
one of his recent letters from China : 

" An ancestral temple stood forth as the 
most conspicuous object in the neighboring 
village. The hum of the boys studying 
aloud in a heathen school came across the 
fields. We passed the poor house of a 
well-to-do farmer, and stopped before the 
lurid, ugly pictures of some of the gods 




which he had posted on his door by way of 
propitiation. Over the gate of another 
village near by were the charms which 
besought special blessings to descend upon 
the village, and near it was a wide-spread- 
ing tree, under which was the village shrine. 
Stocks and stones and images made with 
hands! Were there any in these valleys 
who worshiped the living God ? And 
then a little turn brought into view the 
Christian school, with its score of Hakka 
boys, with the silver ring about their necks, 
according to the Hakka custom, and the 
solitary mission house, white and trim, bear- 
ing witness that the kingdom of God had 
come nigh. China is all the more a lonely 
land because of the vast multitude of its 
Cliristless people. And here in a lonely 
part of the lonely land was this little cen- 
tre of four true lives, alone and yet not 
alone, for he that sent them was with them. 
" As we travel on to stations yet farther 
inland, our hearts go back to this little 
group of four, remote from all companion- 
ship, establishing a new work among a 
strange people, who do not care for the 
gospel or for them, but who need to be won 
slowly and patiently, and taught as they are 
willing to receive and able to bear. The 
Church at home owes them a debt of sym- 
pathy and prayer, which it will be to the 
enrichment of her own spiritual life to pay. ' ' 

Prayer for Foreign Missionaries. 

In one of the several notable addresses 
made by the distinguished traveler, Mrs. 
Bishop, at the last May meetings in London, 
she made a special plea for more prayer in 
behalf of the missionaries. She bears her 
testimony to the godly and self-denying 
lives, the zeal and devotion of nearly all 
the missionaries of all the Churches whom 
she had met in her extensive journeys; but 
her close contact with them has emphasized 
her sense of the spiritual deprivations to 
which they are subject; " no contact with 
numbers of godly men;" "no heart- 
searching addresses from eminent preach- 
ers," " no throbs of great nligious move- 
ments, and no intellectual stimulants." 
Then, besides, there is the " deadness 
of the surroundings;" " the benumbing 
influence of courteous and friendly 
heathen who lead moral lives;" " the 
enfeebling of the passion for souls." These 
and other temptations, tending to weaken 

the religious life of the missionaries, she has 
realized herself during her six years' resi- 
dence in heathen and Mohammedan coun- 
tries. Therefore she a*ks in behalf of these 
missionaries, a larger interest in the prayers 
of Christians at home. She said, " Pray 
for them in their known and unknown 
trials, that they may receive strength from 
above, and guidance and help and patience; 
and pray that they may have perseverance 
in well-doing, that the enthusiasm — the 
God-given enthusiasm, may I say ? — with 
which they started on their labor of love, 
on their Christlike errand, may be sustained 
to the very end, and may be rightly guided 
for the conversion of souls." We believe 
every missionary will welcome this appeal 
from Mrs. Bishop for more prayer in behalf 
of himself and fellow-missionaries. 


A noble-hearted layman in the Hamath 
Church, Syria, who has just given $50 to- 
wards building a little village church, now 
offers to pay the entire salary of the pastor 
this year. 

Rev. George Cornwell, of Chefoo, reports 
fifty -five members received into the Church 
in connection with his itinerating work in 
the country during the previous five months, 
and others were soon to come in. 

From Tungchow the word comes: " At 
our last communion season the church was 
so full that a number went away, not being 
able to find seats. The people are listening 
more willingly now than ever before except 
during the war." 

The Christian Endeavor Society at La- 
kawn, Laos, has changed its day of meeting 
to Friday afternoon, that its members may 
have opportunity to visit the adjoining 
villages in companies on Sundav afternoons 
and work for the Master. 

A Brazilian lady belonging to one of the 
most influential families in Sao Paulo has 
recently come into the College Church, 
attracted to evangelistic truth by the words 
and life of her son, a member of the Pro- 
testant College of Sao Paulo. 

In the Nodoa school in Hainan, forty -five 
boys and young men are enrolled, of whom 




twenty-four are paying the whole or a part 
of their board. A pretty good beginning 
for a work so recently started. Better than 
this, seven are already Christians. 

A devoted Christian woman of the Bethle- 
hem Church at Chieng Mai, who has raised 
nine children, all of whom, with one 
exception, are members of the Church, 
recently summoned all her children and 
grandchildren to her dying bedside, and in 
the midst of her prayer for them, her spirit 
took its flight. 

The new buildings for Tungchow College 
were completed at a time to take advantage 
of the increasing friendliness towards foreign 
learning among the Chinese since the war. 
Several men of literary standing have ap- 
plied to send their sons next year. The 
thirteen graduates of this year found 
responsible positions at once. 



July 6 — From Allegheny City, Pa. , returning to 
the Mexico Mission, Mrs. Isaac Boyce and four 


June 24 — At Tacoma, Washington, from the Hai- 
nan Mission, Rev. Alfred E. Street. 

June 30 — At Vancouver, Washington, from the 
Canton Mission, Dr. Mary W. Niles. 

July 2 — At New York, from the Western Per- 
sian Mission, Rev. E. W. McDowell and Miss 
Katie Ainslie; from the Korea Mission, Mrs. D. 
L. Gilford ; from the Syria Mission, Rev. O. J. 

July 9 — At New York, from the Western Per- 
sia Mission, Miss H. L. Medbery and Miss May 

July 21— At Seattle, Wash., Rev. J. C. Garritt 
and family, from Central China Mission. 


From the Peking Mission, Rev. and Mrs. C. 0. 

From the Western Persia Mission, Mr. E. T. 
Allen and Miss May Wallace. 


May 30— At Tungchow, China, Clara J., wife 
of Charles Lewis, M.D. 

June 20— At Jullundur, India, Mrs. Newton, 
wife of Rev. C. B. Newton, D.D. 

Mission, which occurred at Jullundar, 
June 20. Mrs. Newton joined the mission 
in 1870 as a single missionary (Miss Mar- 
garet B. Thompson), and next year was 
married to Dr. Newton. In the spring of 
1895 she returned to the United States with 
health seriously broken, but after treatment 
and rest it was deemed safe for her to rejoin 
her family early this year. Her enfeebled 
constitution, however, proved unequal to 
the climate, and she soon sank under its in- 
fluence. Mrs. Newton was a devout Chris- 
tian and a devoted missionary, cooperating 
efficiently in various branches of the work, 
notwithstanding the multiplied cares of a 
large family. Her husband and six chil- 
dren survive her, three of her sons being in 
the United States for education. 

And yet another wide circle of friends has 
been startled and grieved by the sudden 
death of Mrs. Alice J. Lewis, at Tungchow, 
wife of the medical missionary, Charles 
Lewis, M.D. Mrs. Lewis went to China 
as a bride only last fall, in excellent health 
and spirits, and with every human promise 
of a missionary career of extended happi- 
ness and usefulness. But she was suddenly 
attacked by the most malignant type of 
smallpox, and after an illness of but two or 
three days, passed away on May 31. 

She had already won a large place in the 
esteem and affections of her missionary 
associates. She was a young woman of 
rare graces of mind and heart, and most 
lovingly devoted to the work to which she 
had consecrated her life. The prayerful 
sympathies of multitudes go out to Dr. 
Lewis in this hour of sore bereavement. 


It is with deep sorrow we announce the 
death of Mrs. Newton, wife of the Rev. 
Charles B. Newton, D. D., of our Lodiana 



The Great Commission ; what is it ? 

It is our Lord's final command, given to 
his disciples between his resurrection and 
ascension, to " preach the gospel to every 
creature. ' ' If we study the recorded utter- 
ances of Christ during that interval, we 
shall find them limited to a very few sub- 
jects. His first effort was to convince his 
followers that he had really risen; that he 
was the same person who was laid in Jo- 
seph's tomb. Then, he pointed out to them 
the agreement of his death and resurrection 
with the Old Testament, and prepared them 




for his ascension ; beside these, the most of 
his sayings are connected with his " last 
command." He first announced it when 
he met the apostles as a body in the upper 
room, in the evening of the day of his 
resurrection. Accounts of this interview 
are given in Mark, Luke and John. After 
his salutation of "Peace," he reproached 
them for their fear of him and their unbe- 
lief as to his resurrection, convinced the 
doubters present of his identity, showed 
them the connection of the events of his life 
and death and rising again with history 
and prophecy, and then declared that they 
were his witnesses to proclaim these truths 
to the world. Following this declaration, 
he uttered the solemn injunction, "Go ye 
into all the world and preach the gospel to 
every creature ;' ' at the same time stating 
the consequences of believing and of reject- 
ing the gospel, telling of the wonders they 
should be able to do as its heralds, and 
bidding them await in Jerusalem the prom- 
ise of the Father, of which he had told 
them before. Repeating the blessing of 
peace, he reiterated his commission, in the 
words, " As my Father hath sent me, even 
so I send you, ' ' and then breathed upon them, 
saying, ' ' Receive ye the Holy Ghost. ' ' 
Thus, under the most solemn auspices, the 
Great Commission was given to the official 
body of apostles. 

Later, the disciples in general, including 
apostles, betook themselves to Galilee, as 
they had been advised to do, both by the 
angels who appeared at the sepulchre and 
by Jesus himself. The two interviews 
there are full of interest and instruction. 
The former was with seven of the apostles 
on the shore of the lake. In it Jesus in- 
dicated his restoration of Peter to his 
apostolic office and functions by the thrice- 
repeated question, " Lovest thou me?" and 
the corresponding injunctions, " Feed my 
lambs," " Feed my sheep." Remember 
that Peter was to be the leader among the 
apostles, and notice that Jesus made the 
feeding of his sheep and lambs the test of 
love to him. It was a more personal com- 
mission to Peter and through him to his 
companions that out of love to him they 
should perform his great command already 
given in the upper room. 

The second interview in Galilee is de- 
scribed in Matthew's gospel and alluded to 
in Paul's first epistle to the Corinthians. 

The brethren, assembled from all parts of the 
laud, came together by appointment, at a 
certain mountain, where Jesus was seen by 
them. Almost all worshiped, though a few 
were in doubt. To this assembly, includ- 
ing both apostles and church members, he 
renewed his parting command, in these 
words: " All power is given unto me in 
heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and 
teach all nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe 
all things whatsoever I have commanded 
you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even 
unto the end of the world." Here was the 
warrant — " all power;" the order — " Go 
ye;" the assurance — " I am with you." 
Luke adds, in the Acts, a description of his 
ascension, which took place shortly afterward, 
from the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem. 
The disciples were gathered about him for 
what proved to be their final interview. They 
ventured the question, of such deep interest 
to them, " Wilt thou at this time restore 
the kingdom to Israel ?" Jesus declined 
to answer, but assured them that, though 
his earthly kingdom might not be at once 
established, they should be gifted with 
divine power when the Holy Ghost had 
come, and that for a purpose: " Ye shall 
be witnesses unto me, both in Jerusalem, 
and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto 
the uttermost part of the earth." Then, 
blessing them, he was taken up to heaven 
in a cloud and they saw him no more. 

See how repeacedly and explicitly this 
command to preach to all men was given. 
To the body of apostles as such; to their 
leader, Peter, and his companions; to the 
apostles with the five hundred brethren; 
to the apostles and others who surrounded 
our Lord at his ascension. See how uni- 
versal he made it : " Go, teach the gospel 
to all nations ; " " Preach it, " "to every 
creature;" " Be witnesses unto me with it, 
both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and 
in Samaria, and to the uttermost part of the 
earth. ' ' 

This was to be the work of the Church, 
henceforth; of its officers not only, but of 
each and all of its members ; to witness for 
Christ, everywhere, by teaching and preach- 
ing until the whole world should be reached, 
even " every creature." 

Then the question for us is not, Is it 
expedient for us to engage in Foreign Mis- 




sions ? There is nothing else to be done, 
if we respect our Lord's authority. The 
question is not, Shall we do anything ? 
but How much must we do, to spread 
the gospel everywhere ? What is our 
part, yours and mine, in the carrying out 
of this Great Commission ? Of course, it 
involves preaching and teaching at home 
and in the home land; the Lord's order is, 
" In Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in 
Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of 
the earth." 

. While the first obligation is to those at 
home, we are not to wait until all at home 
have received the gospel before we carry it 
beyond ; for while these who have already 
heard it are neglecting their opportunities, 
thousand abroad, who have never heard it, 
are perishing. We must get it to all we 
can, as fast as we can. In an epidemic of 
yellow fever or cholera, we surely could 
not wait until one patient had been entirely 
healed before administering medicine to 
another; we must furnish treatment 
promptly, or the carnage will be unlimited. 
This was what the first disciples found it 
hard to understand. They were disposed, 
in spite of the Saviour's injunction, to stay 
" in Jerusalem," and labor; but the Lord 
allowed persecution to come, and thus 
drove them out into " all Judea and Sama- 
ria." Peter would have confined the 
preaching to Jews ; but the Lord sent the 
vision of the clean and unclean beasts and 
showed him that he was to go to Cornelius 
the centurion, a Gentile. Paul would 
have stayed in Asia; but "the Spirit 
suffered him not," driving him down to 
Troas, where he heard the call of the Mace- 
donian, and knew that God wanted him in 
Europe. Acting on this principle of 
" teaching all nations," " preaching the 
gospel to every creature," the Church of 
the first two or three centuries, which was 
eminently a missionary Church, spread the 
word of God through western Asia and 
southern Europe, until the Roman empire 
was practically reached with the gospel. If 
the Church had only continued her mission- 
ary operations, how different would her 
future have been ? But she began a long 
and dreary series of contentions as to 
" who should be the greatest," which sapped 
her strength and life and landed her at 
length in the " dark ages," in which the 
glorious word became almost a dead letter. 

From those blighting strifes of a formal 
Church it took two centuries to recover. 
Only at the beginning of the present 
century, did the Reformed Church enter 
again upon her God-given mission of saving 
the world, and look at her wonderful de- 
velopment and progress! 

The Lord has gifted his Church with 
innumerable facilities and agencies, enabling 
every member to have an active share in 
this missionary work. By means of a 
central " Board," which manages all the 
business details, the cooperation of even 
the smallest giver is possible, and such may 
know that his gift will reach its destination. 
There is no excuse for lack of interest and 
effort in obeying our Saviour's last com- 
mand. The world field is open; the in- 
strumentalities are at hand ; the messen- 
gers are ready (thank God), to carry the 
glad tidings. Why should the work cease ? 
Why should it go backward ? The reason 
can only be that Christians at home are not 
willing to share the privations which are 
inevitable on the distant field. If the self- 
sacrifice which is practiced by many of our 
missionaries, both home and foreign, 
could be everywhere duplicated by the 
Church at large, there would be no thought 
of retrenchment or of anything but steady 

The question for each disciple is, How 
much does the Lord's final command mean 
to me ? I have shown that it was given 
under the most affecting and solemn cir- 
cumstances ; that it clearly applies to every 
member, as well as every officer of the 
Church, and so to me; that it is worldwide 
in its scope, and not discharged until " the 
whole creation ' ' has heard the gospel ; that 
it is urgent, innumerable lives depending 
upon its speedy fulfillment; that obedience 
to it is charged with blessing, and disobedi- 
ence fraught with barrenness; that it in- 
volves the one great business of the 
Christian and the Church, the great object 
for which the followers of Christ have been 
left on the earth ; that it is feasible, owing 
to the agencies which the Lord has pro- 
vided ; that even I may have a share in its 
accomplishment. How much, then, does 
it mean to me f Is it my daily thought 
and prayer to have a part in its fulfillment ? 
my daily care to plan for its fruition ? 

" Ye are my friends if ye do whatsoever 
I command you." 




Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

Sejjtcmber— Missionary Schools. 

(a) Importance of reaching the young. 

(b) Mission Schools— day and boarding— girls' and 

(e) Colleges and female seminaries. 
(d) Industrial training. 

Deut. 4:10; Prov. 22 : 6 ; Matt. 28 : 10. 

" Report of the Centenary Conference on the 
Protestant Missions of the World," held in Lon- 
don, 1888. 2 vols. (This may be purchased from 
the Foreign Missions Library, 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York, for $1.50, postpaid. ) 

"Student Missionary Enterprise." Max W. 
Moorehead. Revell, New York. $1.50. See 
"Educational Conference," pp. 171-186. 

" A New Programme of Missions." L. D. Wish- 
ard. Fleming H Revell Co., New York. 50 cts. 

"Strategic Points in the World's Conquest." 
J. R. Mott. Fleming H. Revell Co., New York. 

"Encyclopedia of Missions." See Education, 
under head, " Methods of Mission Work," Vol. 
ii, p. 87. 

"Missions in the Far East." E. A. Lawrence. 
Harper Bros. Sunday School Times, July 17, 
1897, " Heredity in Missions," Editorial. 


[The more important conclusions growing 
out of the remarkable tour of Mr. J. R. 
Mott, of the Student Volunteer Movement, 
to promote Christian life and work among 
the students of foreign lands, are summed 
up in Mr. Mott's report, which is now pre- 
sented to the public in an attractive 
volume entitled " Strategic Points in the 
World's Conquest." Among other valu- 
able information furnished by Mr. Mott 
is his testimony to the great value of the 
educational work being done in those lands 
by Christian missionaries. His tour occu- 
pied some twenty months of time. It was 
carried on in twenty-two different missions, 
including those of Europe, Australasia and 
Asia. He visited 144 universities, colleges 
and schools. He attended twenty- one 
conventions and conferences, where over 
5500 delegates were present, of whom fully 
3300 were students and teachers represent- 
ing 308 institutions of higher learning. He 
met personally some 1300 missionaries, 
representing over eighty different missionary 
societies. Extensive interviews were held 
with hundreds of these, as well as with 
government officials, merchants, and many 
native pastors, teachers and students. 

Such experiences gave him exceptional 
opportunities for pronouncing upon the im- 
portance of educational work as conducted 
under foreign missionary auspices. We 
have therefore gathered together from Mr. 
Mott's report several paragraphs bearing 
on this subject, which is the one before our 
churches during the present month.] 


' ' We confess that we started on this tour 
somewhat disposed to look upon educa- 
tional mission work as less important than 
directly evangelistic work. A careful 
study of the cpiestion in four or five mission 
countries has led us to attach the greatest 
possible importance to educational missions. 
No country has done more to deepen this 
conviction than India. Without doubt 
educational missions have opened a larger 
number of doors for the preaching of the 
gospel than any other agency. They have 
furnished the most influential converts. 
They have done more than all else combined 
to undermine heathen superstitions and 
false systems of belief. They are to-day 
the chief, if not the only force to counter- 
act the influence of the secular character 
and tendency of the government institutions 
of learning. In the interest of the ultimate 
success of the enterprise, we believe that 
educational missions would be abundantly 
justified, if they were doing nothing but 
teach science, history, philosophy, ethics 
and political economy, in their right rela- 
tion to Christ." 


" If we would not think of doing without 
Christian colleges and universities in Chris- 
tian lands, what could be more short-sighted 
and suicidal than to do without them in 
India. Nothing impressed us more than 
the mighty influence of such institutions as 
the Duff College, the Forman Christian 
College, the Lucknow Christian College for 
Women, and the Madras Christian College. 
Institutions like these should be multiplied 
and the amount of money expended upon 
them greatly increased. Occasionally we 
still hear persons interested primarily in 
direct evangelistic work speak disparagingly 
of educational missions. As well might 
the life-saving service disparage the light- 



Shall this leadership be 
heathen, agnostic or Chris- 
tian ? It certainly will 
not be Christian unless 
there be in the present 
generation a great increase 
in the number of Christian 
workers among students. 

' ' The more we studied 
the work of men like 
Wilder and Moorhead of 
Poona, Wright Hay at 
Dacca, Larson at Madras, 

"It is imperative that 
more be done to reach the 
educated classes of India. — 
Their numbers are surpris- 
ingly great. In compiling 
statistics for all India, we 
found that there are not, 
less than 30,000 students' 
in colleges granting the 
B.A., or some profes- 
sional degree ; and at east 
70,000 students in the 
two highest classes of the 
high schools. Besides these 
students, there are tens of thousands of 
young men in India who have been stu- 
dents in the universities and colleges for 
a period of years. The number of stu- 
dents is not only large, but rapidly in- 
creasing. Statistics show that the total 
number who passed the entrance examina- 
tions in the ten years ending 1882-3 was 
23,472. In the ten years ending 1890-1 
it had increased to 41,467. The number 
taking the B.A. degree alone in the ten 
years ending 1882-3 was 2391. In the ten 
years ending 1890-1 it had increased to 
7159. Moreover, the student class is stead- 
ily increasing in influence. Nearly all of 
the most important positions in the civil 
service which are open to Indians are filled 
by students. In attending the Indian 
National Congress, I was impressed by the 
large number of delegates holding univer- 
sity degrees. More and more India will be 
governed and its thought life moulded by 
the student class. The burning question is, 

Girls' School, Shanghai. HarrietJEouse School, Bangkok. 

and of the members of the Cambridge mission 
at Delhi, the more we were impressed with 
its very great value, and the more we wished 
that their number might be iucreased one 
hundredfold. Another vital need is a few 
men of commanding ability, backed by 
ample funds, to superintend the prepara- 
tion and distribution among educated young 
men of the books embodying the best 
Christian thought of all ages. After visit- 
ing scores of book-stalls, my impression is 
that the forces of infidelity, skepticism 
and unitarianism are far more alert to the 
value of this policy than is the Church of 


w 'The promotion of modern learning and 
the employment of modern educational 
methods are almost entirely in the hands of 
the missionaries. With the exception of 
about half a dozen government institutions, 




all the real institutions of higher learning 
are under mission control. Therefore, mis- 
sionaries are literally the instructors of the 
new China. 

" We were informed by a man who is in a 
position to know, that it is highly probable 
the government will soon establish at all the 
provincial capitals institutions of learning 
run on modern lines. If this be done, they 
will at first have to look to mission institu- 
tions for Chinese teachers. If these govern- 
ment institutions are started, nothing should 
be allowed to prevent the missionary insti- 
tutions holding the primacy which they now 
have. It should be kept in 
the interests of the kingdom 
of God. The impressive les- 
son taught bv India and 
Japan should be heeded in 
time. The mission institu- 
tions should be kept so 
strong, and Christians should 
be brought into such close 
relation to any institution 
the government may form, 
as to forestall the forces of 
skepticism and rationalism, 
and prevent their having 
any prominent part in di- 
recting the new learning. 
Modern science is to-day one 

of the strongest weapons in the hands of the 
Church of China, and Confucianism cannot 
withstand it. This weapon should not pass 
from her hands. It was our privilege to 
visit nearly all the mission colleges of 
China, and to study them with care. We 
know of no money expended on the mission 
field which is yielding larger returns when 
we view the mission problem in its entirety. 
These institutions, taken as a whole, are 
measuring up to the central purpose of 
educational missions as well as, if not 
better, than those of any other country. 
They are being conducted by a body of 

Theological Class at Batanga, Rev. A. C. Gault, Teacher. Chinese Theological Class. 




men remarkably strong, both intellectually 
and spiritually. Not one of these institu- 
tions can be spared. All of them should 
be greatly strengthened. If money is wise- 
ly poured into this work during the next 
few years, it will do much to hasten the 
civilization of the country, and to give a 
truly Christian civilization to the China of 
the coming century." 


' ' In the government school system of 
Japan there are about 230 institutions of 
higher learning. This number includes the 
institutions from academy grade up to the 
famous Imperial University, which is the 
keystone to the educational arch. These 
institutions have 3500 teachers and about 
50,000 young men and boys as students. 
Including all lower schools, there are over 
3,000,000 male students in attendance upon 
the Japanese government institutions, and 
the number is increasing year by year. 
Years ago, General Grant said that the gov- 
ernment school system of Japan was the 
best in the world. In no other country do 
government institutions wield so large an 
influence. They constitute the pathway 
to nearly all positions in the political, educa- 
tional, professional and industrial life of the 
empire. It is not too much to say that as 
go the government schools of Japan, so 
goes Japan. The alarming fact is, that 
these institutions are purely secular in char- 
acter, almost entirely lacking in moral 
instruction, and even anti-religious in their 
influence. We are told all that is Chris- 
tian is eliminated from text-books taken 
from other countries. Less than 100 of 
the 3500 professors and teachers are Chris- 
tians. We are informed that the others, if 
not indifferent, are either skeptics or athe- 
ists, and that some of the foreign teachers 
are godless and immoral. It would be 
difficult to measure the extent of the bad 
influence of such teachers upon the stu- 
dents of Japan. Possibly the greatest 
teacher in the empire tells students that 
only small men will believe in any religion. 
Another eminent Japanese teacher says that 
the only religion for Japan is science. The 
ex-president of the Imperial University 
openly states that nothing can be more fatal 
to the attainment of true knowledge than 
implicit faith in any religion. All Protest- 

ants with whom we conversed regard the 
skeptical influence of the government 
schools as a great menace. When we asked 
Bishop Nicolai, the head of the Greek 
Church, what he considers the greatest peril 
to Japan, he replied, ' The irreligious 
character of the government schools, which 
cover the land.' The leader of the 
Roman Catholic Church gave the same 
opinion. Now a few of the teachers them- 
selves in these government schools have 
expressed their conviction that moral in- 
struction should have a much larger place. 
Even Marquis Ito admits that he has long 
felt great uneasiness on account of the lack 
of moral restraints and teaching in the 
schools. A burning question is, How 
counteract this powerful skeptical and irre- 
ligious influence ? Without doubt there 
should be greatly increased emphasis on 
educational missions in Japan. Much good 
is being done by the small group of Chris- 
tian colleges. We were surprised, however, 
to find so comparatively little being done in 
a country where work for students counts 
even more, if possible, than it does in 
India. In no other country is there such 
a disproportion between the number of 
Christian and of government institutions; 
although, we repeat, this is the last country 
where this should be the case. In Amer- 
ica, the Church would not think of handing 
over the higher education exclusively to 
the State. It is still more perilous to do so 
in Japan." 



On the 18th of January, 1836, only 
two months after the arrival of Mr. Perkins 
and Dr. Grant, seven boys gathered in a 
basement room to learn their letters, and 
on the next day the boarding department 
was opened with seventeen more scholars. 
In 1838 Mrs. Grant began a school for 
girls, and doubtless her beautiful character 
and rare talents would have made a deep 
impression on her pupils, but her life was 
cut short only a year later. Female edu- 
cation really began when Miss Fiske came 
out in 18 13. On October 16 of that year 
a historic event took place, when the bishop, 
Mar Yohanuan, came into the mission yard, 
leading by the hand two little nieces, seven 




and tea years old, and handed them over 
to Miss Fiske to keep as her own. That 
act represented a great advance and a 
direct repudiation of superstition and pre- 
judice. In 1836 two village schools, 
taught by priests of the Old Nestorian 
Church, were opened in Geog Tapa and 
Ada. So the educational work began, in 
its three branches, male seminary or college, 
female seminary and village schools. 

During these sixty years, 302 young men, 
about 200 of whom are now living, have 
been given certificates of graduation. Of 
the total number, 122 took a training course 
intended to fit for preaching, sixty a strict 
theological course and twelve a course in 
medicine. The figures are not at hand for 
the female seminary, but the number of 
boarding pupils has ranged from twenty to 
eighty each year. It is safe to say that 
500 young men and an equal number of 
young women have been in these two 
schools a long enough time to receive per- 
manent impressions. In the village schools 
the pupils have varied since 1839 from 300 
to 2200 in number, and those who have 
learned to read can be reckoned by thou- 
sands. Surely there are data enough to 
form the basis of a reliable induction as to 
the results of this form of missionary work. 

1. It must be candidly admitted that 
there have been not a few failures. Per- 
haps no one has been more marked than a 
high ecclesiastic in the Old Church, who 
in his lifetime did much not only to oppose 
the mission work, but also to overthrow 
common morality. Others have drifted into 
obscurity or have been driven to shipwreck. 
Offenses must needs come, and what school 
has no prodigal sons to mourn over ? 

2. It would be a mistake to claim for 
educational work the chief place in the 
establishment of the Church or the bring- 
ing of souls to Christ. It is true that the 
first revival in 1846 began in the semina- 
ries and from them spread into the villages, 
and that in this and other revivals the 
evangelical Church was born. This only 
illustrates the fact that conversions occur in 
schools through preaching and revivals. A 
school cannot be a converting agency unless 
there be in it preaching joined with prayer 
and personal work. Preaching, on the 
other hand, without the aid of the school 
has been from the Day of Pentecost a power 
for the salvation of multitudes. So here in 

Persia the educational work has not founded 
the Church, and, in most instances (I know 
of no exception) when a local church has 
been firmly established, there has been at 
least one convert of adult age, neither in 
mission employ nor educated in mission 
schools, who has been the foundation on 
which that church has been built by God. 

3. The educational work has opened the 
way for evangelistic work. The mission- 
aries were received as teachers and the 
school work opened the way for the preach- 
ing work. So native teachers have been 
received where preachers would have been 
rejected. Men who care nothing for 
religion are anxious to have their children 
taught in the schools. One of the greatest 
encouragements to me in the educational 
work has been to look over a class of boys, 
or to meet our graduates, and compare 
them with their fathers. The son may be 
lacking in the sturdy character one wishes 
to see, but his father may be a vagabond 
beggar who lives by deceit and whose 
name is fouled with crime. And some of 
these sons of unworthy fathers are men of 
strength and honor. Education has given 
such the opportunity to rise above their 
surroundings, it has opened the door into 
dark homes and degraded hamlets, and 
has prepared the way of the Lord in 
the desert land. 

4. The educational work has furnished a 
large number of efficient workers in 
Christ's kingdom. Our preachers have all 
been taught in our schools. They have 
been the leaders and the most active work- 
ers. Without exaggeration the words of 
the apostle can be quoted with reference to 
many of them: " In journeyings often, in 
perils of robbers, in perils of mine own 
countrymen," etc. As a class they know 
and believe the doctrines that are funda- 
mental to Protestant Christianity, and they 
have so preached that many confess the 
truth of these doctrines, who are not con- 
nected with our Church. Some of them 
have carried the gospel message far and wide. 
One is a useful missionary under another 
Church in Japan. Another has been a 
leader in the Stundist movement in Russia, 
and has labored from the Don to the Amur. 
Others have carried the printed word to 
almost every city of Persia and have met 
the inquiries aud the objections of the "scribes 
and lawyers " of Islam in scores of places. 



Not least are those who have remained in 
their homes, as mothers or as peasants, and 
have there borne witness. Mother-in-law 
against daughter-in-law is a common thing, 
and the bride is often the most intelligent 
and most godly member of the household. 

5. The educational work has given stability 
to the Church. An open Bible is the dis- 
tinguishing mark of Protestantism, and an 
open Bible demands a reading Church. 
Our schools have made the Bible a house- 
hold book aud the Church a reading Church. 
At the Jubilee celebration in 1885 hundreds 
of women rose in the audience to show that 
they were readers. Last winter I was talking 
with a young woman who was desirous of 
being admitted to the church. As I spoke 
of the difficulties which she must meet, with 
a smile she said she had no fear of them. 
She had a right to be confident, for she had 
borne for years the hatred of a husband, 
from whose violence she found refuge in the 
Testament. She has learned to stand alone, 
and so have many others. 

6. The educational work has been a pow- 
erful leavening agency. Men respect 
education and the Christianity which gives 
it. Our graduates are known to the rulers 
of the land as men of character and cul- 
ture. As physicians they are admitted to 
their harems. A higher form of Christi- 
anity than the formal, ignorant ritualism of 
the old churches is thus known, and the 
religion of Christ stands higher in their 

7. The direct results of educational work 
are great. There are districts still which 
are densely ignorant, but the difference is 
great in those places where schools have 
been maintained continuously. The gain is 
incalculable, even if spiritual matters be 
put to one side. I wish I could set any 
doubter down in one of the meetings of our 
graduates. One of the college graduates 
is busy with plans for the cooperation of 
the different parties, Nestorian, Protestant 
and Catholic, trying to find ways to broaden 
education and new openings for the young 
men. I do not know that I have ever felt 
greater pleasure than in addressing the hun- 
dred or so graduates of Fiske Seminary 
who assembled this year. A nation which 
has such mothers cannot but have a future 
full of promise. 

Must we stop this work ? Has it gone 
far enough ? Has it failed ? That is the 


question which the Church at home must 
answer, and we are waiting for a reply. 


H. M. LANE, M.D. 

The Presbyterian Mission North in 1870 
started a training school in the city of 
S. Paulo, and made that the centre of its 
work. The Presbyterian Mission South 
had made Campinas, the same State, its 
headquarters, and there founded a training 

The S. Paulo school grew very slowly and 
met with many difficulties. In 1887 it was, 
however, filled to its utmost capacity, and 
the mission had sixteen branch schools in 
the interior, having adopted the policy of 
starting some kind of a school wherever 
there was the nucleus of a church. With 
the formation of the Brazilian Presbyterian 
Church these parochial schools passed from 
the control of the mission, but the parent 
school in S. Paulo remained under the mis- 
sion until 1895, when it went into the hands 
of the " Protestant College," a corporation 
chartered by the regents of the University 
of the State of New York, and having a 
Board of Trustees in the United States. 

The institution now embraces two board- 
ing departments — one for boys and one for 
girls; a mixed day-school, with graded 
primary, intermediate, grammar and high 
school courses; a normal course, for pre- 
paring teachers for Christian schools; two 
manual-training shops, with a graded course 
in wood work; a gymnasium or college 
course, which carries the students well into 
the Junior year of the American college 
course, and prepares them for professional 
studies, and a three years' scientific course. 
The lower school is called the " Eschola 
Americana." while the higher courses are 
known as " MacKenzie College," after the 
late John T. MacKenzie, who gave the 
money (about $40,000) for the main 
college buildings. The whole institution, 
in all of its branches, has for its official 
title " The Protestant College at S. Paulo, 
Brazil." The aggregate matricula for the 
present year is 517, of both sexes, and all 
ages from five to twenty-five. Of this 
number fifty-one are matriculated in the 
college. During the^last twelve years 5116 
pupils and students have been enrolled in 




I'll- l| 

The Protestant College at Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Officers and Students of Sao Paulo. 

Mackensie College 
Boarding Department. 




school and college, of whom about twenty - 
five per cent, were free. 

The day-school and two boarding depart- 
ments have been more than self-supporting 
for several years, showing annually a hand- 
some surplus, considering the number of 
free pupils they carry ; this surplus is, how- 
ever, consumed by the college, and in addi- 
tion to this and to the support of two 
professors by the Board of Foreign Missions, 
it is obliged to raise §2500 per annum to 
pay for its large corps of instructors and 
meet the incidental expenses of a complete 
college course with a quasi-university annex. 
From the very nature of the case the college 
can never be expected to become self-sup- 

It may be safely stated that the rich and 
prosperous State of S. Paulo owes its model 
schools and its progress in educational mat- 
ters very largely to the " Eschola Ameri- 
cana. ' ' 

Unfortunately the very mention of relig- 
ion is prohibited in these new government 
schools. In the Protestant College the 
Bible is woven into the web and woof of the 
whole work, from the infant class to the 
highest college course. Most of the teach- 
ers are in it chiefly because of the oppor- 
tunity for Christian work. We have abun- 
dant evidence that it is powerful as a direct 
Christianizing agency — in the consecration 
of the splendid corps of teachers trained in 
the school; in the lives of many of the 
pupils who have gone out, and in the influ- 
ence of the children of the school upon 

In spite of its open, Protestant Christian 
work, the S. Paulo schools are full to over- 
flowing. During the month of April alone 
110 applications were refused. To obtain 
a place in one of the boarding departments, 
it is usually necessary to apply a whole year 
in advance. 

The North Mission has also flourishing 
schools at Curityba, Larangeiras and Bahia. 
The South Mission removed its school from 
Campinas to Lavras Minas, where it is 
doing a great work, and has also a school at 
Araquary. The aggregate enrollment of 
Protestant schools of Presbyterian origin is 
upwards of 1000. The Methodist South 
Mission has several flourishing girls' schools 
and is pushing its work vigorously. Pro- 
testant education has won for itself an 
enduring place in Brazil aud is recognized 

as a power for good and its schools as mod- 
els to be copied from. 

All this vast country — one- fifteenth of the 
habitable world, three- sevenths of South 
America, stretching over thirty-eight de- 
grees of latitude and forty degrees of longi- 
tude — a country fourteen times as large as 
Italy, with a population that may be safely 
estimated at 16,000,000, but with a capacity 
for supporting 200,000,000, is open to the 
Christian educator. 

In one important particular, at least, the 
mission problem in Brazil, and we believe 
throughout South America, is very different 
from that in jiagan lands. The missionary 
has not to wean men from gross pagan 
beliefs, setting up against them the pure 
gospel of Christ, and win men to a new 
faith, but rather to re-Christianize an intel- 
ligent and highly civilized people whose 
Christianity has been perverted, and who 
have lost sight of the standards of life 
found in their own belief — whose menial 
processes and moral natures have been 
warped by centuries of wrong teaching, 
which has robbed society of its ethical basis 
and Christianity of its spiritual significance. 



A few years since one of the oldest and 
most successful of the missionaries of the 
London Missionary Society in China said 
in a missionary meeting: " The great weak- 
ness of our mission work in Hankow is the 
want of an educational department." On 
several occasions members of other mis- 
sions, in asking for graduates of the Tung- 
chow College as helpers, have deprecated 
the home policy of their Boards in forbid- 
ding schools." 

That the college is the ideal missionary 
school appears from the following considera- 
tions : 

1. A college education gives time and op- 
portunity to produce a profound impression 
on the heart and character. — Religion is 
preeminently a thing of the heart, and, as 
such, is generally best taught indirectly as 
the mind is prepared for its reception. Ex- 
perience shows that those who accept Chris- 
tianity in heathen lands are chiefly those 
who have been brought in contact with it 
for a considerable time, as pupils, employe's, 
or neighbors. In conformity with this 




principle it will be found that schools which 
keep their pupils long enough to give them 
a thorough education will realize their end 
most fully. They both Christianize and 
educate, and do it in a way which will best 
conserve both the education and the 
religion. Such schools will have to do for 
a time the work of both parent and teacher. 
Even boys who live in Christian homes 
generally find there a low standard of 
Christian character, and low ideas of 
Christian consecration. Until several gen- 
erations have passed the Christian college 
must be the chief agent in training young 
men for great usefulness. 

2. A college education offers the best means 
of providing evangelizing agents for mission 
work, as ivell as able preachers and pastors 
for the churches. — It is generally conceded 
that the great bulk of the work for the 
evangelization of heathen nations must 
finally be done by native agency. It is 
both impracticable and undesirable that 
missionaries from a foreign land should be 
permanently located in every heathen city 
and town. When once a vigorous, self- 
sustaining church is established in any 
heathen land, it will provide and train its 
own evangelists; but, in the meantime, 
every missionary needs such agents to mul- 
tiply and extend his own influence and 
efficiency. Where shall he get them ? 
Efficient and trustworthy agents must be 
trained for the work. In her weakness, 
the infant Church has not the strength to 
do this for herself, nor does she fully appre- 
ciate its importance. It falls naturally to 
the missionary. It is as much his duty to 
teach others to preach, as it is to preach 
himself. Men who have grown up in 
heathenism are not safe men, as experience 
has often shown. No amount of theological 
training will wholly eradicate their heathen- 
ism, and give a steadfast strength to their 
moral characters. They are not the men 
to bear independent responsibility, nor to 
carry on the work of organization beyond 
the supervision of their foreign teachers. 
To do this we need men trained in Christi- 
anity from their youth, in whose minds 
heathenism has always been antagonized 
and overshadowed by Christianity and 
whose moral principles have a deep root 
and a mature growth. These are the men 
to whom the oracles of God may be safely 
committed. A working majority of such 

men in the ministry of a Church on heathen 
soil is essential to its success. 

3. Men trained in a Christian college will 
soon become an influential factor in both 
Christian and heathen society. — In any com- 
munity the educated men are the influential 
men. They control the sentiments and 
opinions of society. It will pay us better 
as missionaries to educate thoroughly one 
man who will exert through life the pre- 
dominant influence of an educated man, 
than to educate poorly a half-dozen whose 
limited education gives them no position in 
society. An educated man is a lighted 
candle, and the uneducated will walk by 
his light. This is probably truer in China 
than in most heathen countries. The bul- 
wark of Confucianism is its educated men. 
If we are going to displace it in the minds 
of the people and wrest from its educated 
men the position they now hold, we must 
provide men educated in Christianity and in 
Western science, who will be able to out- 
shine them. Western science has every- 
where a great and increasing reputa- 
tion. Any man who is well versed in it, 
and who has at the same time a fair knowl- 
edge of the learning of his own country, 
will not fail to be an influential man in any 

4. Colleges form the most efficient means 
of promoting general education. — In most 
heathen lands Christianity begins with the 
poor and the ignorant, but it does not stop 
there. It loves light — moral, spiritual and 
intellectual. Education is its natural ally, 
and to foster it is the especial glory and 
crown of Protestantism. At the present 
day Christianity has practically taken in 
tow the education and enlightenment of 
Western lands, and when she goes by her 
agents to heathen lands she cannot, and 
should not, leave them behind her. The 
chief contention of missions is with ignor- 
ance and superstition. It is their legitimate 
work as it is their wisest policy to promote 
the general intelligence of the people. The 
easiest and the quickest way to accomplish 
this is to found a college and give a thor- 
ough education to a few. They will become 
teachers and by their influence as well as 
their teaching will create and diffuse a de- 
sire for knowledge. 

5. The higher education of a college is 
necessary to counteract the rationalism which 
commerce and secular education are carrying 



to all heathen lands. — The wings of com- 
merce are everywhere. Steam is carrying 
our modern civilization into every corner of 
the earth. With the good goes also the 
bad. While we sow the good seed, the 
enemy is sowing tares. The worn-out issues 
of rationalism will have to be fought over 
again in almost every mission field. It is 
contrary to the genius of Protestantism to 
try to evade these issues by keeping the 
people in the dark. We do not believe 
that ignorance is the mother of devotion. 
Protestant Christianity lives in the light. 
It educates always and everywhere. It is 
no more afraid of educated skepticism than 
it is of ignorant superstition. The conflict 
with this form of error is sure to come, and 
when it comes the brunt of the battle will 
fall, not on the foreign missionary, but on 
the native jjreacher and teacher. They are 
the parties assailed and they must be ready 
to make the defense. For this purpose the 
college and the high school are essential. 
No other agency is adequate. Nor will 
it do to be tardy. Skepticism generally 
comes in like a flood. To be armed 
in advance is half the battle. Secular 
education got the start in Japan from 

which the cause of truth has suffered not a 
little. If Christian missionaries are wise 
they will lead the van in educational work, 
and secure in advance for Christianity that 
position in heathen lands which she now 
holds in Christian lands. 

If the right means are used, the end — a 
Christian college — can always be secured. 
In order thereto, the important things are 
(1) the students must be largely drawn 
from Christian families; (2) they must be 
retained iu the school through a full course 
of study so as to make a profound impres- 
sion on their characters; and (3) the edu- 
cation given must not be such as will carry 
with it an overpowering inducement to enter 
on a life of worldliness whose temptations to 
vice they cannot withstand. In a word, 
the whole policy of the school must be con- 
trolled by a supreme regard for its Christian 
character. To a Christian Church just 
founded in a heathen land, a Christian col- 
lege in successful operation is a centre of light 
and power for the whole region. 

With necessary modifications, the same 
principles apply to schools for girls. With 
them also the high school or seminary is 
the most productive form of education. 


Theological Classes. 


a [Theological Class 


Canton 'Theological Department of College. 

Chefoo Normal School for lay preachers . . 

Guatemala City 

Fatehgarh. . , 




Sao Paulo . . 

Theological Class. 



Chieng Mai. 

Oroomiah . . 





Training School for preachers. 
Theological Seminary 

Meiji Gakuin 

Theological School under care of Synod 
of Brazil 

Training School for Christian workers . . . 

Theological School (temporarily susp. ) 
Theological Training Class 

Beirut Theological Seminary 




















Sao Paulo 












High Schools and Seminaries. 




Wei Hien 

Chinan Foo 

Nanking . . . 

Ningpo .... 

Allahabad . 

Ambala . . . 

Fatehgarh . 

Jullundur . . 

Lodiana . . . 

Mainpurie . 


Landaur . . . 


Khanna . . . 




Valparaiso . . 

Mexico City. 



Oroomiah . , . 


Hamadan . . . 

Bangkok . 

Beirut . 
Sidon . 

Instituto Internacional 
Forman Christian College 

Oroomiah College 

Syrian Protestant College . 

Protestant College 

Canton Christian College 
Tungchow College 


Hang Chow High School. 
Canton Female Seminary. 

Lowrie High School 

Boys' Academy 

Girls' High School 

Memorial Boys' School . . 

Girls' High School 

Woman's Training Class . 

Boys' and Girls' High School 

Mission High School 

High School 

High School 

Christian Boys' High School 

High School 

High School 

Woodstock School 

Jane Cross Memorial Training Home 
Summer Bible School 

Nanina Girls' School 

Joshi Gakuin 

Training School for Bible Women. 
Clay-Ashland High School 

Escuela Popular 

Girls' High School 
Normal School 

Fiske Seminary 

Iran Bethel 

Faith Hubbard School 
High School 

Bangkok High School 
Harriet House School. 

Beirut Female Seminary 

Sidon Seminary 

Tripoli Seminary 





































































Theological Schools and Training Classes . 12 

Students 153 

Colleges 7 

Students 1466 

Number of Day and Boarding Schools 724 

" " Pupils 30,182 

Distributed as follows : 

Africa 693 

China 3687 

Chinese in U. S 147 

Guatemala 25 


Korea . . . 
Persia . . . 



Brazil . . . 
Syria .... 




. 772 
, 3285 
. 442 
. 253 
. 389 
. 307 
. 286 
. 7748 






Rev. C. H. DjgNHAX : — The occupation of the 
new northernmost station in the Laos field, pro- 
vided for in the precious " Mitchell Memorial 
Fund," has at length been accomplished. The 
story of this advance move and the bright prospect 
that opens before this little band of Christian pio- 
neers is told effectively in the following letter from 
Dr. Denman : 

At last the long planned station is a fact. The 
rising sun of February 19 saw a band of weary 
travelers making the last stage of the journey 
whose object was the opening of Chieng Hai. We 
bade farewell to the friends in Chieng Mai Febru- 
ary 8. Mrs. Dodd and Mrs. Denman rode in 
roughly fashioned sedan chairs, carried by two 
men, who changed frequently with others. The 
children were carried in a sort of cage, large 
enough to give them some room for wiggling. 
Mr. Dodd and I rode our ponies, and we were ac- 
companied by carriers and by five elephants. 

Hospitably entertained the first night by Licen- 
tiate Rev. Oon at San Sai chapel, we traveled for 
four days in the forest, and then stopped for three 
days, including the Sabbath, at the Christian vil- 
lage near Pa Pow. Kroo Panyo had entered upon 
his work shortly before. He has reorganized the 
Sabbath-school and established midweek services, 
one day for the women and the next for the men. 
It is hoped that the church will raise their share of 
the minister's salary. 

The head prince of the city was suffering from 
rheumatism. He had tried all the native doctors, 
and declared it could not be spirits, as he had al- 
ready offered ten pigs to appease them. He said, 
voluntarily, that if the physician would help him, 
he would never try spirit treatment again, but trust 
to him. 

Four more days of travel brought us to "our 
home." Mr. and Mrs. Dodd have quarters in part 
of a semi-foreign house, belonging to one of the 
elders. Since our arrival the work has been 
pushed as rapidly as scarcity of workers and mate- 
rial admits, and we are gradually becoming more 
comfortable. The owners of Teak-wood are asking 
Chieng Mai prices, while we are offering about one- 
half, as there is no other buyer and hence no mar- 
ket. The people seem afraid, and are certainly 
afraid of work, but are coming a little more freely 
of late. 

The Siamese commissioner has been very kind in 
many ways, but especially by assistance rendered 
the carpenters in obtaining material. 

The medical work has steadily increased from 
the first day. Had we a hospital it would at pres- 
ent have at least five inmates. The number of 
patients treated in a little over a month is 140. 
Each is urged to give something for his medicine, 
and thus far the effort has been fairly successful. 
The receipts, including a few small accounts from 
last year's tours, being about fifty rupees. 

Each patient carries with him a dispensary 
ticket on which is also printed John 3 : 16. Sev- 
eral have received tracts and books as loans, which 
after having read they have returned. 

The ladies especially have been busy entertain- 
ing callers, princess and people. The organ, Mr. 

Dodd's violin, picture cards, and especially Lois 
and Katharine and their dolls, are unfailing means 
of entertainment. 

Mr. Dodd, besides assisting in the temporal 
work, has been busy with his revision of Genesis 
and evangelistic work. He made a tour of several 
days in the vicinity of Muang Pahn, distant about 
a day's journey. Reports had been received of 
several who were deeply interested and desirous of 
being taught. Mr. Dodd was cordially received 
and entertained by the headman of the village. 
Many listened as he told the story of the cross and 
seemed much interested ; one especially seeming 
anxious to learn and almost ready to give himself 
to Christ. 

Two weeks ago the personnel of the station 
moved bodily to the village of Maa Kawn, where 
three nights were spent. The Christians seemed 
glad to receive us and especially the ' ' mother 
teachers." On the Sabbath one person was re- 
ceived into communion, two others were restored 
to the sacrament, and three children baptized. 
Others are studying with a view to baptism. 

In the city a Sabbath -school has been organized 
with about thirty members. A class learning to 
read, with an attendance of about twenty-five, 
meets every evening, while between thirty and 
forty attend Sabbath services, some of whom are 
not yet open Christians. Three presented them- 
selves to the session for first examination, a few Sab- 
baths ago. Last Sabbath a visit was made to Nyung 
Leh, where there are about twenty Christians. 
Only three of that number can read, and the only 
elder is far from efficient Sheep without a shep- 
herd, indeed ! With God's blessing we hope to be 
able to help them. News comes of several in- 
quirers at a village a day's journey to the north, 
but we have as yet been unable to visit them. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dodd left the 25th for Chieng Saan, 
expecting to be gone about ten days. Thus work 
on all sides is promising. May the showers of 
blessing come. Pray, brethren, pray. 


Rev. F. E. Simcox, Paotingfu: — We have 
received into the kingdom six persons, all 
heads of families, aged from forty-six to seventy 
years. This we hope and pray is the beginning 
of a strong, progressive, spirit-filled church in 
that place. These persons have been known to 
us for over a year, and most of them have spent 
from one to two months' time with us studying 
the truth, and have given evidence of a sincere 
faith and trust in God and our blessed Saviour, 
Jesus Christ. One or two have given evidence 
of a remarkable change of heart and life — their 
heathen neighbors testifying that they are new men. 

Their testimony is something to bring forth 
praise to God for his grace. Those baptized rep- 
resent five families, and it is remarkable that all in 
these families]are favorable to the gospel, and not a 
few have accepted it in person. With three and 
sometimes four generations constituting a family, 
what a wide influence these can have. Pray that 
they may lead all to our Lord Jesus. Several 
others asked for baptism, and we hope after a 
littte more knowledge of the gospel, they, too, 
may be received into the kingdom. 



A cyclone early in July did much damage 
to the parsonage and church of Fulda, 
Minn. Five parsonage windows were blown 
in, and the chimney was blown down. 
The church windows were broken, the roof 
damaged and the chimnev blown away. 
That church has a debt of $1096. Alto- 
gether it is in the toils just now. 

The amount contributed to Home Mis- 
sions according to the Assembly Mtn vies was 
81,042,768. Of this amount §800,770 
passed through the treasury of the Board 
of Home Missions. The balance of ?241,- 
998 must have been contributed to synodi- 
cal and presbyterial missions, local chapels, 
city missions and in response to irregular 

It may be of interest to note that one- 
third of our churches receive aid from the 
Board of Home Missions; one-fifth of our 
ministers are home missionaries; one- 
eleventh of the membership is in Home 
Mission churches; one-seventh of those 
added on examination were received into 
Home Mission churches; one-fourth of the 
adult and one-seventh of the infant bap- 
tisms were administered by home mission- 
aries. The cost of our whole home mission 
work was only one-sixteenth of the con- 
tributions of the Church. 

Evangelist Rankin writes from Pueblo, 

We have had a blessed week during the month 
in Denver Presbytery, in a new and unoccupied 
field, in a country district. 

We held the meetings in our gospel tent and 
people came seven and eight miles to the services. 
There were over twenty-five hopeful conversions, 
and many backsliders reclaimed. About $400 was 
subscribed toward building a little church. 

Rev. Harlan P. Cory, of Tusculum, 
Tenn., says: 

I am more and more deeply impressed with 
our responsibility among the mountain people. 

With sixteen counties in North Carolina that 
are purely mountainous districts included in our 
presbyterial bounds and school work established 
in but three of them, surely there remaineth much 
land to be possessed. The reputation of our schools 
is disarming prejudice and we could place many 
schools if the means were at hand. 

T. B. Aldrich caught the spirit of Home 
Missions and uttered timely warning when 
he wrote that beautiful poem : 


Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, 
Xamed of the four winds, North, South, East and 

West ; 
Portals that lead to an enchanted land 
Of cities, forests, field of living gold, 
Vast prairies, lordly summits touched with snow, 
Majestic rivers sweeping proudly past 
The Arab's date-palm and the Norseman's pine — 
A realm wherein are fruits of every zone, 
Airs of all climes, for lo ! throughout the year 
The red rose blossoms somewhere — a rich land, 
A later Eden planted in the wilds, 
With not an inch of earth within its bound 
But if a slave's foot press it sets him free. 
Here it is written. Toil shall have its wage, 
And Honor honor, and the humblest man 
Stand level with the highest in the law. 
Of such a land have men in dungeons dreamed, 
And with the vision bright'ning in their eyes 
Gone smiling to the fagot and the sword. 

Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, 
And through them presses a wild, motley throng — 
Men from the Volga and the Tartan steppes, 
Featureless figures of the Hoang-Ho, 
Malayan, Scythian, Teuton, Kelt and Slav, 
Flying the Old World's poverty and scorn ; 
These bringing with them unknown gods and 

rites ; 
Those, tiger passions, here to stretch their claws. 
In street and alley what strange tongues are loud, 
Accents of menace alien to our air, 
Voices that once the Tower of Babel knew ! 
O Liberty ! white Goddess ! is it well 
To leave the gates unguarded ? On thy breast 
Fold Sorrow's children, soothe the hurts of fate, 





Lift the down-trodden, but with hand of steel 
Stay those who to thy sacred portals come 
To waste the gifts of freedom. Have a care 
Lest from thy brow the clustered stars be torn 
And trampled in the dust. For so of old 
The thronging Goth and Vandal trampled Rome, 
And where the temples of the Caesars stood 
The lean wolf unmolested made her lair. 



[In our May number, page 333, our readers 
found an article entitled Home Mission Reminis- 
cences, by Rev. Thomas J. Weeks, of Tacoma, 
Washington, over the vivid word pictures of 
which probably they both laughed and shed tears. 
The following from Mrs. Weeks is no less amusing 
and no less pathetic. Such glimpses of both the 
masculine and the feminine sides of home mission 
experience must quicken and deepen intelligent and 
helpful sympathy with the men and the women who 
are called to it.] 

My mission life experiences have not 
been as varied as those of my husband, 
having the home duties to manage with the 
accompanying anxieties, the planning of 
expenditures to meet our limited income, 
without becoming involved in debt, but a 
portion of my time has been devoted to 
duties outside of domestic work. At the 
first I was called to superintend the juvenile 
portion of our mission flock which I found 
greatly in need of training, most of the 
children having been sadly neglected. 
They were shy — darting into the woods or 
around the cabin corners when approached 
— barefooted, with unwashed faces, and 
unkempt hair. Visiting their homes and 
mothers, I found much untidiness and mis- 
management — nothing cheerful in or about 
the home. By degrees I quietly and cau- 
tiously suggested a change in household 
management, inviting them to our mission 
home, which I endeavored to keep neat 
though devoid of elegance. At first they 
were timid, but after a while their visits 
became quite frequent, and they would ask 
me all sorts of questions, as to household mat- 
ters and management. Sometimes they would 
bring old garments to me, to be ' ' fixed over, ' ' 
or ask me to trim their hats and bonnets. 
I well remember a mother bringing her five 
children to me, asking if I would look after 

them till she returned from shopping, which 
was in a half day. Meantime, the little 
ones grew hungry and cross. Their ques- 
tions regarding the culinary department, 
cooking, etc., were numerous. 

After a little their homes began to assume 
a more tidy appearance; their children 
and husbands coming to the mission service 
with more regularity, taking much more 
interest. Little flower gardens were culti- 
vated at nearly all the lowly cottages, and 
flowers in the windows. Large bouquets 
were brought by the children to the mis- 
sion services and placed around the mission- 
ary's platform. All this had a refining 
influence, and in time the confidence and 
affection of the people were won. Only 
three weeks ago two pairs of our former 
charge traveled 100 miles by water to have 
my husband unite them in marriage. 

During the first year of our mission life, 
husband was frequently absent, at different 
stations, and I was expected to conduct the 
regular service, superintending the Sunday- 
school, leading the singing and reading a 

Our daughter, fifteen months old, had 
recovered from a fractured limb, and was 
fretful, expecting me or her father to take 
sole care of her. Having to preside at the 
organ during our church services, I had to 
resort to various methods in order to manage 
the organ and child. One way was, to fix 
a dry-goods box half way between the organ 
and pulpit, in which I placed her, with 
toys to amuse her, when husband and I 
were engaged, but at times when she would 
not be thus amused, while my duty was 
at the organ, my husband held her, during 
the singing, then passed her to me, the 
congregation taking all as a matter of 

I found the women of our flock very imi- 
tative, my hat or bonnet, dress and cloak 
being frequently quite accurately dupli- 

In visiting from house to house, we met 
with many and peculiar experiences. One 
mother with eight children was busily en- 
gaged at the washtub, with bare feet, and 
an old blanket pinned around her. On 
another occasion we made a call on Saturday 
P. M., the mother appearing exhausted, as 
she threw herself into a chair near the 
table, remarking, "I am tuckered out, 
after bathing the brats, ' ' meaning her dear 




little ones. Then, as she stretched her 
weary limbs under the table, her feet came 
in contact with something. Upon examina- 
tion she exclaimed, " There's another." 
She had missed one. The little fellow 
had fallen asleep. 

At the first of our mission experiences, 
the people bad a great mania for dancing, 
commencing at 7 P.M., continuing till 
morning light. On one occasion I was 
curious to ascertain the way these entertain- 
ments were conducted and managed to get a 
peep into the hall, where I witnessed a sad 
sight. Fifteen to twenty mothers were on 
the floor recklessly dancing, a dozen babes 
bundled in a corner of the room on the 
floor, crying. During the interval of 
dancing, the mothers would rush to their 
babes to nurse and quiet them ; then drop 
the little ones and on to the dance. This is 
an outline of some of my missionary expe- 


Rev. W. J. Gregory, pastor of the First 
Church of Nichols, N. Y., has a model 
method of managing his Church benevo- 
lences, which is worthy of consideration by 
other wise stewards of the Lord's house who 
are seeking for the best plan. There is 
nothing novel or particularly striking about 
it. It is an intelligent common-sense way 
of doing the business. He has issued an 
address to his congregation of which the 
following is the opening paragraph : 

As members of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Nichols, we have fellowship with one another 
and duty to the work of the gospel in our com- 

By virtue of that membership we have fellow- 
ship also with a large body whose name is the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. of America, 
and duty to the work of that body throughout 
our own land and the world. 

The work of the Presbyterian Church is man- 
aged by " Boards." These are merely agencies 
of the Church. In her yearly meeting, called the 
"General Assembly," the Church hears the re- 
ports of the Boards of the work done in the year 
past, and directs them as to the amount and 
kind of work which they are to do during the 
coming year. 

On the following pages will be found an outline 
of the work of the various Boards and of the 
amount of work which the Church has directed 
them to do during the present year. Fuller in- 
formation will be given from time to time in leaf- 
lets to which our attention is due, and in the 
missionary periodicals. 

Let us aim to do our full share in the work of 
the Church and to lend ourselves more heartily to 
the work of the gospel at our own doors. 

Then follows a succinct yet complete 
statement of the work and claims of each 
of the eight Boards of the church. Of 
the Home Board he says : 

The Board of Home Missions is the oldest of 
the Boards of the Church. It aims to send the 
gospel to the new and destitute parts of our 
country ; to reach alike the boys who have gone 
West and the churches that have been left poor 
by their going. 

The thousands of immigrants from every land 
that pour into ours, most of whom need the gos- 
pel far more than anything else, are to be reached 
by this Board. The Spanish-Americans of our 
Southwestern States, kept down and in the dark 
by the superstitions of popery, hear the pure gos- 
pel as we send it to them through this agency. 

The pagan superstitions of the Alaskans are dis- 
pelled by our home missionaries. 

The demands of this field are constantly grow- 
ing, yet for two years we have been so slack in 
providing means for our agents to work with that 
almost no new work has been taken up, while 
many who sorely need help have been turned 
away empty. 

Loyalty to Christ and loyalty to our land ought 
to make us zealous to do more than we are asked, 
for the average cost of the work planned for this 
year is but one dollar per member ; 1,730 mis- 
sionaries, 12,763 new members, 150,000 in congre- 

After fully and impartially defining the 
scope and claims of each Board he presents 
the whole scheme as follows : 


Ayer Prop'n Offering 

Cause. Nmb's „ To ' al , of ' ! ,' e ! eco , nd 

Share Needed. whole, Sunday 

percent. of 

Home Missions.. $1 00 $930,000 31 J Nov. 

Foreign Missions. 97 900,000 31 Jan. 

Education 16 150,000 5 Oct. 

S. S. Work 22 200,000 7 May. 

Church Erection. 16 150,000 5 July. 

Aged Ministers .. 21 200,000 7 Sept 

Freedmen 27 250,000 8i Dec. 

Academies 16 150,000 5 Feb. 

$3 15 $2,930,000 100 

His concluding remarks are worthy of 
special thought: 

Such is the work of the Church, and the 
share the average member is called to take in it. 
How shall we be sure of taking the part that 
we ought ? 

I. By remembering that is a part of the work 
of the Lord Jesus Christ given into our hands. 
That is the only excuse for bringing it to your 
attention, but surely it is reason enough. Our 
love to him will lead us to make sure of doing 
our full part in his work. 




II. How much the share of each member is, 
whether more or less than that of the average 
member, must be left to each conscience. No one 
has authority to dictate to another, and if this 
part of our Lord's business be done conscien- 
tiously by each no one will want to dictate. 

III. Most people find it wise to keep the Lord's 
money separate from other funds. There is cer- 
tainly a blessing on the growing practice of put- 
ting aside from every sum of money that we 
receive God's share first. If this be done regu- 
larly there will be no trouble in finding the 
amounts needed for religious and beneficent 

As your pastor, I would not for a moment 
think of asking any one to do more than his share. 
As Christian people, I am sure no one would wish 
to do less. 

I ask each one to consider these parts of the 
work for Christ and to decide conscientiously 
what part he should take. 

Seek to enlighten your conscience by Scripture, 
by prayer and by the need before us. 

Above all else, add prayer, consecrating your 
gifts to the Master's service. 

Affectionately your pastor, 

W. J. Gregory. 

Every congregation thus watched and 
tended will be found easily doing its part. 
If every pastor would adopt and work such 
a plan there would be no Board debts. 



The beginnings of Presbyterianism in 
Montana are somewhat obscure. There 
exists a tradition of a Cumberland Presby- 
terian minister having come to Fort Ben- 
ton with his wife as early as 1857 as a 
missionary to the Indians. 

In 1864, however, came a young man to 
work among our own people. The Rev. 
George Grantham Smith, now of Bald 
Mount, Pa., writes: " I reached Bannock 
in June, 1864, went from the Third Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia, had been ordained 
by it in May of that year. My work in 
Montana was confined to Bannock, Vir- 
ginia City and adjoining camps and ranches. 
There was no Presbytery, no church, no 
Sabbath, no minister of the gospel of any 
name when I entered Montana. The ' bed 
rock ' of the church in Montana is Presby- 
terian. I preached the first sermon, organ- 
ized the first Sabbath -school and church. 
It was hard ' prospecting ' in those days. 
.... I left Montana in May, 1866, 
passed through Helena on the way to Fort 

Benton, and down the Missouri to the 

No permanent results of a visible nature 
remained of the labors of these early 
preachers. And when the Rev. Sheldon 
Jackson, superintendent of Home Missions 
for what was called the Western Territo- 
ries, including all that vast region west of 
Iowa and Minnesota to Oregon and Cali- 
fornia, and stretching north and south 
between the Mexican and British lines, 
tried to organize a Presbyterian church in 
Helena, August 1, 1869, there was not, 
probably, another church of this order 
nearer than Walla Walla, Corinne, Utah 
or Fargo. 

The members of this first Presbyterian 
church in Montana were eleven women and 
one man. 

Here is a striking illustration of the part 
which earnest women have played in the 
growth of the Christian Church. It has 
been often thus since that Sabbath day 
when Paul, a stranger in Philippi, wan- 
dered outside the city gates by the river 
seeking what he supposed was a place of 
prayer, for the Jews of that distant heathen 
city, but found certain women gathered 
together. He spoke to them. God opened 
the heart of Lydia to the word. And the 
first Christian church in Europe was 
planted in the hearts of women. So it 
was here. And Christian women have 
never ceased to be the strength and hope 
of this Church. 

Although this organization never became 
technically perfect, because no man was 
found for an elder, yet it was nevertheless 
the real beginning of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Helena. 

The reason why it did not continue 
steadily forward from that day was failure 
to obtain a minister. 


When Mr. Jackson again sought his 
scattered sheep in 1872, great changes had 
occurred in the States. On Friday, Nov. 
12, 1869, in the city of Pittsburg, the two 
divided hosts of Presbyterianism, the 
"Old School" and the "New School," 
were formally joined together into one 
reunited body. This union of forces, with 
consequent reorganization, gave not only 
economy of strength and greater efficacy, 
but better than that, it brought with it 




large increase of momentum, great quicken- 
ing of the life and energies of the whole 
Church. (Within the next twenty -five 
years the united Church more than doubled 
its size and strength. ) 

One of the chief motives in the reunion 
was more aggressive home missionary work. 
Dr. Jackson returned to Montana in 1872, 
with five ministers, four young men, the 
Rev. James R. Russel, Rev. William S. 
Frackleton, Rev. Josiah Welch and Rev. 
William C. Rommel, and one older man, 
Rev. Lyman B. Crittenden, all of them 
Princeton Seminary men. They had been 
appointed by the General Assembly at 
Detroit, May, 1872, to plant, not a church 
only, but a new presbytery in Montana. 
Mr. Welch never got to Montana, but 
went to Salt Lake City instead. Mr. 
Rommel, although one of the original 
five intended for Helena, did not arrive 
until the autumn of this year. The other 
three, with the indefatigable Sheldon Jack- 
son, proceeded to organize churches in 
Gallatin City, May 30, 1872; Bozeman, 
June 2; Hamilton (Gallatin Valley), June 
3; Virginia City, June 5; Deer Lodge, 
June 9; Missoula, June 12, and Helena, 
June 15 — seven churches in sixteen days. 
Of these four abide to this day, of which 
Helena is the largest. 

The way was prepared in Helena by Rev. 
J. R. Russel coming two weeks before the 
organization and preaching in the court 
house. Twenty members were now found 
to join themselves together. Of these, six 
of the former organization still remained. 

Rev. J. R. Russel continued in charge 
as minister until the arrival of Mr. Rommel 
iu October. 

The Presbytery of Montana was organ- 
ized in the courthouse in Helena the Mon- 
day following the organization of this church 
(June 17) with Sheldon Jackson, James 
R. Russel, William C. Frackleton, minis- 
ters, and A. T. Williams, elder, represen- 
tative of this church. Its jurisdiction 
included the Presbyterian churches in Utah 
as well as in Montana. 

Such is the beginning of organized Pres- 
byterianism in Montana. 


We may distinguish four periods in the 
life of this church. They may be called: 
1. The period of early growth — seven 

years, extending from the organization in 
June, 1872, through the labors of Rev. J. 
R. Russel, Rev. W. C. Rommel and J. 
D. Hewitt, down to the spring of 1879. 
2. The period of vicissitudes — six years 
from the departure of Mr. Hewitt in 1879 
through the labors of Rev. George G 
Smith (not the one previously mentioned), 
Rev. W. Scott Stites, Rev. William B. 
Reed, Samuel A. Harlow and up to the 
second year of the present pastor's work in 
the beginning of 1885. 3. The period of 
expansion — seven years, opening with the 
great revival in the beginning of 1885 and 
extending to the occupancy of the present 
edifice in March, 1892. 4. The period of 
consolidation — five years, from March, 
1892, until the present time. 


This was in many respects the most im- 
portant and happy stage in the church's life. 
Like the days of childhood it is remem- 
bered by those who lived through it with a 
vividness and delight which almost obscure 
subsequent history from their view. These 
were days of beginnings, always so fasci- 
nating to contemplate. The first church 
was built under Mr. Rommel's pastorate, and 
furnished complete, even to hair cushions, 
under Mr. Hewitt's, at a cost of about 
$12,000. An energetic Ladies' Aid Soci- 
ety was established, which still survives. 
It was a time of struggle for existence, and 
the raising of money was a prominent part 
of church activities. But there was no 
little earnest spiritual work done by the 
ministers, there were conversions to Christ 
in considerable numbers for Montana in 
those days, and at least one time of distinct 
revival when special services were held for 
a week by Mr. Hewitt (beginning May 13, 
1877), and several united with the church. 
The church increased its gifts and by the 
end of this period seems to have reached the 
point of nominal self-support; at least, it 
became independent of the Board of Home 

This period, too, was not without its 
serious difficulties. Probably the general 
atmosphere of a community in which the 
ladies could seriously propose a dance to 
raise money for the church, and two gentle- 
men engage in a " lively scrimmage " 
which ' ' threatened pistols " in a discussion 
over the minister's sermon on " Blessed are 




the pure in heart" — such an atmosphere 
probably was less favorable to Christian 
growth and the obstacles greater in the way 
of church work than at any time since in 
the history of Helena. The great fire of 
1874 swept the town. The depression and 
exodus two years later, in 1876, took away 
members who could ill be spared. In the 
very midst of this general depression the 
beloved minister, Mr. Rommel, left (in 
August, 1876), and the church remained 
for more than six months without a minis- 
ter, while even the two original elders, Mr. 
Pyle and Mr. Williams, were both absent. 
But in spite of all this the church held 
bravely on. 


Would that this happy condition might 
have continued! But here the church 
enters on a period which, as a whole, it will 
never be pleasant to contemplate, in spite 
of some very bright features in it. 

The resignations of elder, deacon and 
trustee at the congregational meeting of 
December 16, 1878, indicate that trouble 
seriously affecting the inward life of the 
church had arisen. 

This period, however, was not without its 
bright side. For the most part the church 
was happy in the character of its ministers. 
Faithful, devoted, able men, Rev. George 
G. Smith, Rev. W. Scott Stites and Rev. 
Samuel A. Harlow, ministered to it and all 
did good work, which still abides. Sub- 
stantial advances also mark the time. A 
parsonage was built. The beginning of 
work at the Northern Pacific depot was 
made, resulting in the subsequent establish- 
ment of a promising church. 


The beginning of the next period is 
sharply defined. Among those who came 
among us in 1884 were Col. Charles Bird, 
an army officer, and Rev. and Mrs. T. A. 
Wickes. These were earnest laborers for 
Christ and thorough believers in prayer and 
personal work. Our membership rose from 
95 in the spring of 1884, to 158 in the 
spring of 1886, and by 1889 to 232. The 
whole church was lifted to a higher plane 
and entered upon a new era of fuller life, 
broader activities and more vigorous growth. 
It has been a different church ever since. 

The enlargement of this period was in 
many other ways besides in the number of 

communicants. Now first the church be- 
came really self-supporting. It is true that 
it had long since ceased to ask aid from 
the Board of Home Missions. 

This period ended as it had begun, in a 
remarkable revival under the leadership of 
Francis Murphy, the noted gospel temper- 
ance worker, who came here in the summer 
of 1891. But there were important differ- 
ences in the two revivals. In respect to 
origin, in the earlier one God seemed to 
move first, and it literally fell upon us. In 
the later, man seemed to move first, and 
God wonderfully helped us. The earlier 
one began in our own church after months 
of secret prayer and spread through the 
city. The later one began rather in active 
effort, and was a uuion movement from the 
first. In respect to the class of people 
reached, the later movement affected men 
chiefly and reached deeper down in society, 
to a class which our churches had hardly 
touched. In respect to permanence of re- 
sults, we still mark those of the earlier 
revival of 1885 as lasting gains in our 
church's life. It is hard to point to any 
fruit of the later one that remains with us 

It should not be forgotten that in the 
enlargement of this period, external circum- 
stances were partly favorable, although not 
wholly so. These were years of special 
enlargement for Helena as a city. They 
were ' ' boom ' ' times in business. Such 
times are not the most favorable to spiritual 
growth. Many get absorbed in the pursuit 
of money. Excitement and extravagance 
ran high, and some indeed were swept away 
by covetousness and worldliness. But on 
the other hand, the incoming tide of immi- 
gration during these years brought us great 
accessions of strength. Those who came 
in among us during this period have been 
an enormous factor in the subsequent prog- 
ress of the church. 

Complete statistics of what our church 
has done in these twenty-five years are not 
obtainable. But partial statistics show 
that there have been gathered into our 
membership 638 persons, 378 of these by 
letter and 260 on confession of Christ. For 
the remaining items statistics can be found 
for only one year of Mr. Hewitt's ministry 
and the fourteen years of my own. These 
show that in these fifteen years seventy-one 
adults and 170 infants have been baptized. 




And the church has contributed in the same 
fifteen years: To congregational purposes, 
about $57,000; to beneficences, something 
more than $10,218; a total of more than 

This review of our church's life story 
will suggest many reflections to us all, some 
of which may be merely limited. Fore- 
most, it suggests thanks and praise to God 
for all his goodness. It suggests the great 
harm and sin of dissensions in the church. 
" If any man destroyeth the temple of God, 
him will God destroy. For the temple of 
God is holy, which temple ye are." And 
also it suggests the great blessing of unity 
and concord. It shows the supreme impor- 
tance of the lay members feeling a deep per- 
sonal interest in the church and standing by 
it through all times. Ministers are strolling, 
migratory. They come and go. But you 
remain and your children. It proves the 
disadvantage of frequent changes in minis- 
ters, and the value of the pastoral relation 
over that of stated supply, which must be 
annually renewed. It shows the essential 
importance of thorough conversion, and 
building up of the people on the Scriptures. 
Where are the 638 members who have been 
of this church ? Some have gone else- 
where, some gone home. But many have 
gone back to the world, forsaking not us 
only, but worse, the Lord Jesus Christ 
himself. It demonstrates the need of sys- 
tem and order in all church work, as in 
other business, and shows that quality will 
tell in the long run more than quantity. 
It illustrates the wholesome reflex influence 
of beneficence upon the life and generosity 
of the church itself. It has impressed me 
anew with the importance of preserving our 
records complete, and all documents that 
relate to the church. It has reminded me 
painfully that we have not been as quick as 
we should have been to assimilate and use 
the valuable material which comes among 
us in the persons of new members. 

Finally it has brought again vividly to 
our minds the memory of those beloved 
ones who once stood with us in the work 
and fellowship of this church, but who 
have heard God's call and gone from this 
sphere of their earnest strivings to their 
rest, from labors to reward. 

There are to-day in the Synod of Mon- 
tana 37 churches, with 2054 communicants. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH Alaska. 

APRIL The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JULY Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook . 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 


An intelligent and reliable outlook im- 
plies retrospect. We must take our bear- 
ings by looking backward as well as for- 
ward. This is, and has always been, the 
method of the Board of Home Missions in 
its estimates upon which all its appropria- 
tions are made. 

It does not seem to be generally known 
throughout the Church that the Board has 
always been thus careful, but all readers of 
the annual reports ought to have discovered 
this fact. In the Annual Report of 1894, 
on pp. 6 and 7, there is an instructive view 
of receipts from the principal sources for ten 
years and a careful estimate based upon the 
result. The expenditures for the following 
year were adjusted according to this esti- 
mate, but brought somewhat below it in 
view of the existing debt. 

Opening the report of 1896, we find on 
the first page this sentence: " It was there- 
fore necessary to retrench so as to bring all 
appropriations safely within the probable 
receipts of the year." This was faithfully 
done and resulted in the reduction of the 
debt more than one-half. 

The statement that has somehow gained 
credence that the Board has been in the 
habit of making its appropriations on the 
basis of the Assembly's recommendations 
to the churches of the amount that ought 
to be raised, is without foundation in fact, 
and is also without probability even if the 
reports of the Board did not disprove it, 
since the Board has never in a single in- 
stance appropriated as much as the Assem- 
bly has recommended. 

The estimated expenditures for the current 




year have been made after the customary 
method, so that the obligations assumed, 
plus the debt, $147,276.96, fall within the 
average receipts of the past five years. As 
these five years fall wholly within the period 
of the financial depression which has 
afilicted the country and deranged money 
matters both commercial and ecclesiastical, 
it seems to be a reasonable expectation that 
the receipts for the current year will enable 
the Board to close the year without debt. 
But all depends upon the fidelity of sessions 
and congregations keeping interest and 
enthusiasm at white heat throughout the year. 
The four months of the current year for 
which we have returns are the vacation 
months during which receipts are always 
light and irregular. For these months the 
receipts as reported by our treasurer on 
another page have fallen off" in the aggre- 
gate $12,338.98, though the Women's 
Board gained $2547.79 over the correspond- 
ing months of last year. 

There was an encouraging gain of $6990- 
.20 during the month of July over the 
month of July last year. This gain was in 
receipts from individuals and the Women's 
Board. It is an interesting fact that while 
the loss in receipts from individuals during 
the four months, April-July, was $10,907- 
.75, there was a gain in July, '97, over 
July, '96, from the same source of 

There are other considerations that must 
be noticed in the outlook. Of these the 
condition of business throughout the country 
is not the least important. If there is to 
be improvement, it must be a growth, 
and not a miracle. The impulse of better 
times is evinced in the increased receipts in 
July over the preceding months- for this 
increase comes from living sources and not 
from legacies, and overcomes the decrease in 
legacies and regular church collections. 

Another hopeful sign is the fact that the 
Church at large is coming to take a livelier 
and more intelligent interest in the affairs of 
the Board and the great work committed to 
its care. If pastors and elders will read 
carefully the reports of the Board, the 
cause will be greatly advanced. There 
come continually to the secretaries letters 
from pastors asking for information which 
might be found in the abstract of the 
Board's annual report, which is always pub- 
lished in the Assembly's Minutes and more 

fully in the bound volume of the Annual 
Reports of the Boards, which every pastor 
is supposed to have. Much of it is also 
published from time to time in The Church 
at Home and Abroad. 

Let us glance at the outlook on the great 
and growing field. Much work has been 
neglected and much suspended during these 
years of debt and depression; and now, 
with the early dawning of new prosperity 
new developments are making in mining 
regions in South Dakota, Minnesota, Mon- 
tana, Utah, Washington and Alaska, which 
call loudly for a battalion of the bravest 
and best men that can be found. But every 
one knows that the Board cannot now do as 
it did fifteen or twenty years ago in such 

To Klondyke the rush of multitudes is 
like that of '49 to California, of '59 to 
Colorado, and of '64 to Montana. Klon- 
dyke is more easily reached now than either 
of those other regions were at the times 
mentioned. Yet the sufferings will be as 
great at Klondyke as in those other places 
in their early days. In 1864 flour sold in 
Montana at $1.50 a pound. Flour is now 
selling at Klondyke at $2 a pound. But 
still men go, and the gospel which availed 
for the civilization of our wild Western 
frontier will be as badly needed in the now 
famous Alaskan gold fields, and there are 
brave capable missionaries who are ready to 
go in the name of the Lord, just as men 
went in the earlier days to our Western 
frontier. But how shall they go except 
they be sent ? 

The Klondyke communities will be per- 
manent. The gold deposits of that region 
have been known for years to be rich and 
extensive. Dr. Sheldon Jackson's reindeer 
will help to provide freight lines and food 
and raiment. The climate and soil make 
certain lines of agriculture possible. Pas- 
turage exists for herding. Men are ready 
to invest money in all of these things, but 
money has not yet sought investment in the 
interests of the kingdom of God in that 

[After this article was in type the intelli- 
gence reached us that money for such in- 
vestment had been offered. Men were also 
ready, saying, "Here am I, send me." 
An account of the prompt action of the 
Board may be found on page 159. — Edi- 
tor J 






Rev. Morton F. Trippe, Salamanca: — The Al- 
legheny field of the Seneca Mission comprises four 
reservations, viz., Tuscarora, Tonawanda, Alle- 
gheny and Cornplanter in Pennsylvania, with a 
total Indian population of 2039. 

The whites on these reservations may safely be 
estimated at 5000, almost all living in villages on 
the Allegheny reservation. These settlements for 
the most part are on lands leased by the Seneca na- 
tion, authorized by act of Congress. 

Because of the liquor traffic all are centres of cor- 
ruption to our Indians. Sandwiched between these 
white settlements our Indian villages are subject to 
constant inroads from vicious white men, who, 
with liquor and licentiousness, come only to degrade 
and destroy. 

Scenes of debauchery are witnessed in some of 
these white villages that would shame in brutality 
the cowboy revels of a western border town. Brutal 
fights and horrible assaults upon Indian women 
made drunk for the occasion are not infrequent. 

A strict or even partial enforcement of the laws 
of the State would put a stop to these outrages 
upon decency, but appeals to white officials are in 

Even the law of the United States against the 
sale of intoxicants to Indians is so perverted as to 
become a source of great evil to our people. Under 
the "fee system" of the Federal Courts, Deputy 
United States Marshals, assisted by Indians, are 
tempted to "put up jobs" on irresponsible per- 
sons and permit the guilty to escape. Tramps are 
taken to Indian homes, money is furnished, liquor 
procured and given to Indians who thus are fitted 
as witnesses. 

These, by the carload, at enormous expense to 
white tax-payers, are sent to Albany, Utica or 
Auburn to attend the sessions of the Federal 
Courts. The herding together of male and female 
for access to saloons tends to destroy all good in our 
people. Instead of stopping the liquor traffic, its 
curses are multiplied. 

A law of New York reads as follows : All In- 
dians who heretofore contracted or shall hereafter 
contract marriage according to the Indian custom 
or usage and shall cohabit together as husband and 
wife, are and shall be deemed and held to be law- 
fully married and their children legitimate." 

" Custom and usage" among the Pagan Indians 
is for a man to live with a woman until the ' ' bar- 
gain is broken." There is no ceremony whatever. 
Divorce is as simple — it is separation. While the 
Pagan Indians have regarded this "custom or 
usage" as sufficient, the Christian Indians have not 
so regarded it. They have insisted upon the usual 
forms of marriage observed among the whites. 

Indians thus "living together" on becoming 
Christians and desiring to unite with the church 
have always been married by the missionaries, and 
this has been the custom or usage of this mission 
for seventy years. 

Added to such adverse conditions are the pecu- 
liar difficulties of the field itself. There are five 
churches on four reservations. On the Allegheny 
reservation, which is forty miles long, there are 

two churches. These reservations and churches 
are not contiguous. They are far separated. To 
supply each once a month costs an outlay in travel 
of one-third of the working days of the year. The 
time of the missionary must be spread over an im- 
mense territory. 

The work must be prosecuted mainly by native 
helpers. These have an imperfect English educa- 
tion. The success of the work depends upon their 
discretion and fidelity. 

Necessarily progress must be slow. Neverthe- 
less there is an advance each year. One church 
edifice at Onoville on the Allegheny Reservation 
has been dedicated and another building at Tusca- 
rora is almost finished. Special services have been 
held on all the reservations excepting Tuscarora. 
Stated services by the missionary or native helpers 
are held at different points. On an average from 
eighteen to twenty different services are held each 

Some new work has also been undertaken among 
the Pagan Indians. As it is possible, the work is 
pushed steadily and persistently. 

An Industrial School is greatly needed. Five 
hundred Indian youth are not in school. A Chris- 
tian school is needed. 

The government schools are closed to our In- 
dians. There are four hundred Indian children 
of school age and at least one hundred youth who 
do not attend any school. Our reservation schools 
are inadequate. These Indian children ought to 
be put into an industrial school and kept there un- 
til their habits in life are formed. A Christian 
school where they can be kept away from the cor- 
rupting influences of reservation life is an impera- 
tive necessity. 

Our New York Indians, the remnants of the 
once famous Iroquois, ought to be treated gener- 
ously by the Christian people of the Empire State. 
We now share their heritage, out of which the Iro- 
quois were driven by force of arms or by vilest 
fraud, and it is not too much for them to ask and 
receive an education fitting them for the duties and 
responsibilities of a Christian civilization. 

Our State laws concerning Indians should suffer 
a thorough revision. 

With certain limitations all of the civil and crim- 
inal laws of the State should be extended over 
these reservations. 

While I do not believe that they are ready for 
" land in severalty" and citizenship, they ought at 
least to have the privileges accorded to aliens re- 
siding in our country. 

Indians are orderly and law abiding if they un- 
derstand the law. Hence the law should be so re- 
vised and published that all our Indians could have 
some idea of the nature of the statutes which govern 

We need the same aid we received last year. 

While the white man's settlements and laws are 
a snare to our Indians and an obstacle to the prog- 
ress of missionary work among them, yet this work 
must be prosecuted to the uttermost. 

These Indians are poor. We cannot get money 
from them, but we can get Christian work. 

We must not pauperize them, but aid them 
enough for encouragement only. We ask no 

We ask from the officers of the Board a most 
thorough visitation of this field. 




Eev. Henry G. Dean, Peru : — There has been 
much of encouragement and little of discourage- 
ment, which may be due to the fact that I have 
been looking and praying for the former and ex- 
pecting it and have had no desire to find the latter 
and so have not looked for it. We are united and 
moving forward. 

The last year has been the hardest financially 
that this community has seen in many years, and 
yet the minister was paid up two weeks before the 
close of the year. More money has been raised for 
the benevolent objects represented by the Boards of 
the Church, and we have paid $110 on the manse 
debt and spent a considerable sum on repairs. 

Spiritually the past quarter has been a season of 


Eev. C. C. Hoffmeister, Lake Crystal: — I 
have worked hard this quarter, but the fruits are 
not visible. Mine seems to be the joy of the sower 
rather than that of the reaper ; and it appears 
sometimes that the work of the home missionary is 
nearly all sowing. But then the Bible speaks 
mostly about the sowing of the good seed of the 
kingdom. Not much is said about the reaping of 
the harvests. 

I arranged to observe the Week of Prayer at 
Lake Crystal, insisting upon the members attend- 
ing, and laying emphasis upon the point that the 
interest taken during that week would determine 
the question of holding revival meetings afterward. 
The other churches held no services during the 
Week of Prayer, but all told we had no more than 
a dozen or fifteen in attendance. The Methodist 
minister who has the crowd told me not long ago 
that this town is dead ; that he held revival ser- 
vices last winter for five or six weeks to little pur- 
pose, and that he did not propose to do anything of 
the kind this year. If I am correctly informed, our 
church has never before observed the Week of 
Prayer. The people did not seem to comprehend 
wh at it was for. Some say, "the revival business, ' ' 
as they express it, has been overdone in this place, 
meaning that improper methods have been employ- 
ed by incompetent evangelists, till the people have 
lost interest and faith in such matters. 

Mr. Bell and myself agreed to hold meetings at 
Watonwan, and did so for four nights, when all was 
broken up by the blizzard, unusually severe even for 
this section. Those people have the least capacity 
for religious truth of any I have ever met, and 
preaching has apparently as little effect upon them as 
rain upon a duck. I went down there yesterday 
and found that the young people were to play a 
comedy in the church next Friday evening. Of 
course they have been rehearsing for some time ; 
and with such doings no wonder they have no mind 
for anything solid. With that kind of a scheme on 
hand what was the use of holding meetings, 
blizzard or no blizzard ? However, I believe that 
there is no malicious intent in their action. They 
are lacking a proper sense of the fitness of things. 
They are undoubtedly a curious lot. The only 
thing to do on this field is to keep everlastingly at 
it. So far as the town church is concerned, con- 
sidering the long time it has borne little fruit, 
though drawing from the Board, it would seem to 
have been keeping everlastingly at it already. We 

are to sow beside all waters, which certainly must 
include such fields as this. I shall still hope and 
labor for better things. 

Eev. Daniel P. Grosscup, Long Lake : — The 
peculiar feature is what seems to be a determination 
on the part of many of the people dwelling about 
the church not to be found inside of it. I am 
not charging this to my own account, for it is not 
the first of it. This was a great annoyance to my 
predecessor. Of a town of 300 people but thirty 
will attend church services. I have not given up. 
I am introducing new or varied services and am 
going to try every orthodox way to win them into the 
services. Am now trying the people's responsive 
services. Am just beginning. There is no quarrel- 
ing. The ladies have organized an aid society re- 
cently. The financial gains to go to improving the 
church building and making it inviting. 

Maple Plain : — This congregation improves. 
The Ladies' Aid society has lately put shutter- 
blinds on the windows, improved the entrance door, 
built a curtain room for primary class Sunday- 
school, etc. They have sent a "lifter" to Mac- 
alester College of $20. They and the Endeavor and 
Sabbath-school have also contributed to other ob- 

Crystal Bay : — Attendance growing. I think the 
spiritual and financial atmosphere good. Balance 
of $24 debt on organ has recently been paid. 

Eev. T. E. Markus, Rock Creek : — It seems to 
me that our Swedish people are becoming more 
and more interested in the work of our church. 

It is different at Bethlehem, where we have 
no house of worship, and many other denomina- 
tions are crowding in. The community has been 
visited by about ten preachers this week who call 
themselves free — free, they are against all denomina- 
tions, and think they are the only ones who are 
right. They put every possible hindrance in our 
way. But new settlers are coming in and every- 
thing looks promising for the future. 

Eev, T. A. Ambler, Two Harbors: — Our work 
is progressing very well. The hard times affect us 
to an extent not heretofore felt. Yet the member- 
ship is increasing ; our Sabbath-school is prosper- 
ing. We will go off the Board and be self-support- 
ing at the expiration of our present agreement. 


Eev. Arthur T. Eankin, Box Elder : — Pres- 
bytery appointed Eev. Dr. Wishard to visit Corinne 
and see if any place could be procured for services, 
and anything be done to revive the church. Our 
building was destroyed by a storm and the material 
sold before I came ; and the membership of the 
church reduced to one elder and three ladies. I 
had preached there ten times in the schoolhouse 
and once in the opera house, while the trustees of 
the school were restrained by court from letting the 
house for religious purposes. It was decided to se- 
cure a very dilapidated building — the audience 
room has been furnished for a carpenter shop and 
the vestry for a stable. It reminds one of the birth- 
place and workshop of Jesus. The furniture and 
pews have been removed to another town. The 
house is kindly offered by the bishop free for three 




years if we will fix it up. We have saved from the 
wreck of our house, pews, pulpit table, lamps, 
organ, bell and a beautiful baptismal font and com- 
munion set, ' ' Presented by Rev. and Mrs. Sheldon 
Jackson." Let the friends of the missionary 
moderator help us preserve these names in the 
memory of our Lord. A silver plate of the pulpit 
says, " Presented by Rev. G. L. Mott, Flemington, 
N. J." As the writer and his family have reason 
to thank the ladies of the church for a box, and 
one of its members for the New York Observer and 
a magazine for our ladies' society, I wonder if they 
would not help put all these thing together and have 
a minister stand behind that honored name every 
Sunday afternoon and speak for God and men. 

The bell, a gift of a good lady in the East, is now 
swinging in the courthouse in Brigham, having 
been rented for a dollar a month. It rings the 
hours day and night. Would it were in Corinne to 
call the people to worship. For last summer it 
called me up at five A.M. every Sunday to irri- 
gate the chapel lot ; and now it calls me from 
three to five the same sacred morning, to water 
fruit, flowers and garden. Who will help us to put 
these things to their sacred use in Corinne, Utah, 
where the first Christian church was planted, the 
first free school established, and the liberal 
party was born? At Corinne and Brigham the 
only Christian Sunday-schools and preaching places 
are situated in a country of 8000 inhabitants. 


S. C. Faris, D.D., Candler and Weirsdale, Fla. 
H. Keigwin, Presbyterial Missionary, " 

C. M. Fisher, Los Angeles, Grandview, Cal. 

S. R. Denner, D.D., Long Beach, 1st, " 

H. N. Bevier, San Francisco, Memorial, " 

J. H. Rennie, Ouray, 1st, Colo. 

C. Fueller, Lake City, 1st, " 
L. M. Bernal, Trinidad (Spanish), " 
S. W. Griffin, Enid, 1st, and Spring Valley, O. T. 
S. W. Mitchell, Beaver and stations, " 
P. D. Munsell, Westminster, Riverside, Cal- 
vary, Cooper and Winn view, " 

E. M. Landis, Stillwater, 1st, and Yates, " 

D. I. Jones, Chandler, Clifton and New Salem, " 
H. C. Williams, Nowata and Alliance, " 
R. C. Rowley, Brooks and Nodaway, Iowa. 
S. Alexander, Mount Ayr, 1st, " 
J. W. Day, Panora, 1st, " 
W. S. Shiels, Keokuk, 2d, " 
K. J. McAuley, Crawfordsville, 1st, " 
A. B. Cooper, Columbus Junction, " 
W. B. Phelps, Sigourney, , ' ' 
W. D. Malcom, Atalissa, 1st, " 
D. Mouw, Hospers, " 
D. S. Hibbard, Lyndon, 1st, Kans. 
D. G. Richards, Walton and Welcome, " 
J. S. McClung, Argonia and Pleasant Unity, " 
T. F. Barrier, Wichita, Endeavor and Bethel, " 
J. P. Viele, Maxson and Quenemo, " 
J. W. Quay, Burlington and Big Creek, " 

D. M. Moore, Valley Township, " 
J. C. Beyer, Great Bend, " 
H. M. Johnson, Spearville, " 
A. Schaffer, Covert, Kill Creek and Rose 

Valley, " 
H. M. Shockley, Phillipsburg, 1st, and Long 

Island, " 
M. Bowman, Fairport, Plainville, Shiloh and 

st'ition " 

E. B. Well's, Hill City and Moreland, " 
J. M. Batchelder, Osborne, 1st, " 
A. C. Keeler, Norton and Calvert, " 
W. B. Brown, Wakeeney and Hays City, " 
W. M. Carle, Bow Creek, Logan and Pleasant 

Hill, " 
H. H. Gane, Belleville, Scandia and Scotch 

Plains, " 

M. Phillips, Fairmount, Hoge and Lowmont, " 

T. D. Davis, Pastor-at- Large, " 

C. W. Backus, D.D., Argentine, " 

P. W. Brown, Kansas City, Grandview Park, Kans. 
L. R. Smith, Oakland and Bethel, " 

S. Olinger, Riley and Sedalia, " 

E. M. Halbert, Idana, 1st, and Mulberry Creek, " 

D. M. Grant, Guston and Cloverport, Ky. 
L. J. Adams, Louisville, Calvary, " 
J. Lanman, Princeton, 1st, " 
A. J. Thomson, Kuttawa and Chapel Hill, " 

F. Marston, Manchester aDd North Jellico, " 
J. R. Bennett, Sand Beach, Mich. 

G. D. Sherman, Evart, 1st, " 

E. H. Vail, Ehnira and Boyne Falls, " 
E. Smits, Alamosa, Fife Lake and station, " 
H. Wilson, Mackinaw City, 1st, " 
E. H. Bradfield, Beaverton, 1st, and Gladwin, 

2d, " 

A. H. Carver, Duluth, Lakeside, Minn. 

W. C. Laube, St. Paul, Bethlehem, German, " 
G. E. Keithley, West Duluth, Westminster, " 
G. H. Haystead, Kerkhoven, 1st, " 

D. A. MacKenzie, Grand Rapids, " 
R. Drysdale, Burbank, Hawick and New 

London, " 

E. L. Coudray, Barnum and Moose Lake, " 
J. M. Mclnnis, Western and Lawrence, " 
L. P. Paulson, Minneapolis, 1st, Norwegian, " 
J. Dobias, Tabor, Bohemian, " 

D. E. Evans, Minneapolis, House of Faith and 

Columbia Heights, " 

G. G. Matheson, Pastor-at-Large, " 

J. F. McLeod, Herman, 1st, " 

W. H. Sinclair, St. Croix Falls, 1st, " 

W. Douglas, Maine and Maplewood, " 

G. L. Guichard, Utica, Union, " 

T. D. Acheson, Mendenhall Memorial, " 

E. McClusky, Kansas City, Hill Memorial, Mo. 
C. L. Reynolds, Pastor-at Large, " 
C. Memmott, Ash Grove, Grand Prairie and 

Mt. Zion, " 

J. M. Swander, New Cambria and Pleasant 
Ridge, " 

E. Teis, Weston, 1st, " 
J. B. Brandt, D.D., St. Louis, Tyler PL, Minn. 
H. W. Marshall, Alliance, Cornwall, Mar- 
ble Hill and Whitewater, " 

W. Goessling, Bethlehem, German, " 

J. W. Millar, Havre and station, Mont. 

F. W. Pool, Helena, Central, " 
A. R. Griggs, Pony, 1st, and stations, " 
J. C. Sloan, Pastor-at-Large, Neb. 
W. E. Bassett, Valentine and Norden, " 
W. N. Steele, Hansen, « 




J. H. Montgomery, Champion, 1st, Neb. 

A. Snowden, Ashton, Austin and Rockville, " 

0. A. Elliott, Lincoln, 3d, " 

F. A. Mitchell, Utica, 1st, and Gresham, " 
W. Nicholl, Millerboro and Willowdale, " 
W. R. Adams, Osceola, " 

C. W. Lowrie, O'Neill, 1st, " 
R. M, L. Braden, Pastor-at-Large, " 
R. L. Wheeler, D.D., South Omaha, 1st, " 
K. Boude, Omaha, Bedford Pi., " 
W. B. Lower, Florence and station, " 

G. "Williams, D.D., Blair, 1st, " 
V. Losa, Zion, Bohemian, " 
W. A. Gait, Blackbird Hills and Bethlehem, 

Indian, " 
N. G. Sunby, Ceresco, 1st, " 
J. D. Kerr, Omaha, Clifton Hill, " 
J. B. Wrightsman, Farmington, 1st, and sta- 
tions, ' ' 
A. Mclntyre, Aztec and Flora Vista, 
W. S. Brown, Sand Lake, N. Y. 

D. N. Grummon, Binghamton, Ross Mem- 

orial, " 

F. W. Kirwan, Cannonsville and Lordville, " 

M. F. Tripp, Seneca Mission (Indian), " 

G.Runciman, Cattaraugus Station (Indian), " 

J. L. Harrington, Middle Granville, " 
J. F. Humphreys, Beekmantown, 

J. E. Tinker, Rockstream, " 

W. S. Crane, Pike, " 

F. A. Valentine, West Fayette, ' ' 
W. Hay, Bethany Centre and East Beth- 
any, " 

A. S. Wright, Oceanside, " 

J. C. Long, North Bergen, " 

E. J. Lloyd, Whitestone, " 
J. S. Gilmore, Congers, " 
D. J. Lawson, Margaretville, " 
J. W. Keller, Livingston Manor, " 

G. S. Parent, Fairville, " 
R. A. Ward, Huron, 1st, " 
R. G. McCarthy, Pastor-at-Large, " 
C. T. White, Hebron, " 
G. Gerrie, Milnor, 1st, N. D. 
M. J. Doak, Lucca, 1st, and Enderlin, " 
T. Hickling, Elm River and Hendrum, " 
A. Edington, Neche and station, ' ' 
C. McKibbin, Forest River, 1st, " 
W. H. Hunter, Canton and Crystal, " 
J. P. Schell, Conway, Ramsey's Grove and 


C. D. McDonald, Grafton, 1st, N. D. 

M. Stitt, Beaulieu and McLean, " 

J. S. Hamilton, Cavalier and Hamilton, " 

J. C. Templeton, Burns, Harney and sta- 
tion, Oreg. 
W. T. Wardle, Portland, Mizpah and sta 

tion, " 

W. S. Wright, Mt. Tabor and Sellwood, " 

A. H. Bauman, Bethany, German and sta- 
tions, " 
J. E. Snyder, Portland, 3d, " 
M. Drew, Portland, Westminster and sta- 
tion, " 
W. T. Scott, Fairview and stations, 

F. H. Fruiht, Damascus and Eagle Park, " 
M. Robertson, Knappa and station, 

A. A. Hurd, Bethel and Springwater, 

E. W. St. Pierre, Portland, " 
A. Robinson, Hillsdale, Mt. Olivet, " 
J. A. Townsend, Yaquina Bay and Yaquina 

J. S. Butt, Groton, 1st, and Huffton, S. D. 

A. Glendenning, Eureka, " 

G. E. Gilchrist, Gary, 1st, Lake Cochran and 

Lone Tree, ' ' 

J. P. Black, Castlewood and Hamlin, 
G. B. Reid, Raymond, 
I. S. Simpson, Union and Lake, 
J. Eastman, Flandreau, 1st (Indian), 
A. Kalohn, Germantown, 
W. W. Harris, Kingsport and Reedy 

Creek, Tenn. 

T. Campbell, Knoxville, Lincoln Park, 
A. McLaren, St. Paul's and Westminster, " 
C. M. Shepherd, Evanston, Union, Utah. 

J. H. Meteer, Richfield and Monroe, " 

T. J. Weeks, Gig Harbor, Rosedale and sta- 
tions, Wash. 

A. N. Smith, Bessemer, Mich. 
L. F. Brickels, Colby, Masonville and sta- 
tion, Wis. 

G. C. Mousseau, Green Bay, French, " 

J. H. Black, Big River, Oak Grove and Trim- 
T. M. Waller, Cadott and Chetek, " 

B. H. Idsinga, Milwaukee, German, 

A. A. Amy, Verona, 1st, " 

A. C. Stark, Milwaukee, 1st, German, 

F. T. Bartel, Melnik, Racine and Caledonia, " 
A. Rederus, Cato, 1st, and Niles, " 
M. Breeze, Cambridge and Oakland, 

— It was the New Testament which led Rabbi 
Lichtenstein into the light — a copy of the New 
Testament which nearly thirty years before he had 
taken out of the hands of a teacher to prevent 
him from reading it, and which had lain in his 
drawer for a generation, till the anti-Semitic 
agitation which culminated in the Tisza-Eszla 
trial led him to turn his thoughts to it and to 
look into it. He expected, he said, to find 
thorns, but he found roses ; he expected to find 
that the book of the Christians breathed hatred, 
but it breathed love. The opening of the book 
of the new covenant was like the opening of a 
box of precious ointment, and his room was filled 
with fragrance which was of heaven. He resides 

in Budapest, and adheres to his position that he 
can do more for his brethren as one of them- 
selves not baptized. A major in the Austro- 
Hungarian army once asked him to tell how he 
had come to receive the Christian religion. He 
replied : " When the plans for the construction of 
a railway between St. Petersburg and Moscow 
were laid before a former emperor of Russia, and 
the engineer pointed out how the line would run 
with many curves and windings, his majesty took 
the pencil and, drawing a straight line from St. 
Petersburg to Moscow, said, ' So must the line run ;' 
and so I have drawn a straight line from the Old 
Testament to the New." — Rev. Andrew Moody, 
D.D., of Budapest, in Free Church Monthly. 

Young People's Christian Endeavor. 

A Christian on duty — that is the meaning of 
Christian Endeavor. 

# * 

One Presbyterian Endeavor society reports thus : 
While we are far from being what we hope to be- 
come, we are striving for the best things. 

lightened, are worthily classed among such heroic 
characters as Marcus Whitman, Captain Gardiner 
and Dr. Van Dyck. The life story of each is admir- 
ably told, and the booklet may be slipped into a 
letter. Printed by Mary Ashton, 13 N. Warren 
street, Trenton, N. J. 

The peril to be guarded against, writes Dr. Babb, 
is that our young soldiers may look upon the dress 
parade as the chief if not the only duty for which 
they are enlisted. 

# # 

The convention was a continuous feast of good 
things, writes a correspondent from Santa Rosa, 
Cal. Readers of the Golden Rule who remained at 
home have enjoyed the feast. 

Twenty-five cents for foreign missions and twenty- 
five cents for home missions from each Presbyterian 
Endeavorer this year — this is the resolution unani- 
mously adopted at the Presbyterian Rally in San 

* # 


The members of the Church who sustain the 
principal means of grace of the Church and most 
faithfully cooperate with their pastor, are the 
real Christian Endeavorers, whether they belong to 
an organization of that name or not. This is the 
opinion of Dr. Remick, as given in The Presbyterian, 

* * 


Mary Lowe Dickinson expresses the hope that 
when those who enjoyed the convention share what 
they received with those who stayed behind, we 
may have such inspiration and cheer and strength 
as shall be like leaven in the dull mass of our 
more sluggish experiences, and shall permeate our 
home work with a nobler purpose, a higher spirit, 
a more abundant life. 

* * 

A pastor writes, "I first realized the possible 
value of my young people's society when the dele- 
gates returning from a general convention reported 
with earnestness bordering on enthusiasm the very 
sort of things with regard to missionary work and 
systematic beneficence that I had been long trying 
to instill. I seemed at last to have found an A aron 
and a Hur to sustain my hands." 

# * 

Have you seen the dainty little booklets of the 

Hero Series, prepared by V. F. P. ? Nan Inta, 

Bishop Crowther and Neesima Shimeta, three 

trophies of Christianity from lands but recently en- 

The Genera] Assembly of 1896 approved the 
Christian Training Course and commended it to the 
favorable consideration of pastors and other in- 
structors of the young. The Assembly of 1897 re- 
peated the commendation, and recommended that 
the young people of the Presbyterian Church devote 
one of their regular meetings each month to the 
course. Outline C, as presented this month, is re- 
produced in the form of a folder, and is ready for 
distribution. The Program for October will appear 
in our next issue. Look into this matter carefully. 

* * 

The consecration meeting is not for the purpose 
of consecrating ourselves over again, as though our 
last consecration had expired, but for the purpose 
of exalting the true meaning of consecration and of 
rising to its higher planes. This explanation is 
given by the Rev. W. F. McCauley, who adds : 
We need one service a month that shall be espe- 
cially personal in character, wherein we apply the 
truth particularly to our own needs rather than 
exert our strength in exhortations to others. A 
skillful leader will encourage the members to frank- 
ness and honesty in speaking of their spiritual con- 
dition and purposes. 

* * 


At the International Christian Endeavor Conven- 
tion just closed in San Francisco, our Presbyterian 
Board of Home Missions distributed a most attrac- 
tive leaflet souvenir. The story entitled "First 
and Last," enclosed within dainty covers, illumi- 
nated in the convention colors, is a true sketch from 
the life of the mountaineers. A brief statement of 
the work conducted by the young people's depart- 
ment, which adds to the value of this little memento, 
is also given. A limited number are still on hand at 
our Home Mission headquarters, and may be had at 
ten cents (10c. ) each, upon application to the 
Literature department, Room 714, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York City. 

* * 

The Christian Endeavor movement has effected 

a change in the expression of the life of the Church, 

writes Mary Lowe Dickinson in Tlw Independent. 

The icy people have thawed, the dumb have 





learned to speak, the stiff people have unbent, the 
far-away folks have drawn closer together. It has 
meant a mighty multiplication of all the Church's 
philanthropic agencies ; for it has made partici- 
pants of spectators and brought a multitude of warm 
hearts, that lingered on the outskirts of Christian 
helpfulness in touch with the world's sore needs. 
It has meant the transforming of weak or falter- 
ing disciples into manly and womanly soldiers, who 
need not spend a lifetime in girding on their armor. 

* * 

The Westminster Press issues a leaflet by Julia 
McNair Wright entitled "The Sacred Tie," the 
nature of which may be judged by the following 
excerpt : Carelessness of parents in allowing young 
people to enter society prematurely and unguarded, 
and to form engagements while their own characters 
have attained no stability, the choosing of life 
partners on the most trivial grounds, all these lie 
behind the growing and terrible evil of divorce, 
which ends many an unhappy because hasty 
marriage. The example and teaching of parents 
should uphold the bond of marriage as beautiful 
and sacred, taking hold on the one hand upon the 
sweetest sanctities of religion, on the other upon the 
fundamental conditions of social and national life. 

* # 


The new publications of the Board of Home Mis- 
sions should be in the hands of the missionary com- 
mittee for distribution. The following are the 
titles of the more recently issued leaflets : 

No. 75. Summary of Home Mission Work for 1896-97. 

No. 76. Our Future, if Three Threatening Evils are not 

No. 77. Unthought-of Results of Home Missions. 

No. 78. Especially Needy Home Mission Fields. 

No. 79. Where Rests the Responsibility for the Salvation 
of our Laud. 

No. 80. The Unpublished Chapter on the New Building. 

No. 81. Further Curtailment of Home Mission Work 
Disastrous ! 

No. 82. Satan's Master-stroke. 

No. 83. How Far Home Mission Work Has Been Affected 
by the Hard Times. 

No. 84. Result of the Neglect of Our Own Home Mission 

Any of these leaflets will be supplied upon re- 
quest in such quantities as may be desired, to any 
Presbyterian Young People's Society. Address 
Literature department, Room 714, 156 Fifth ave., 

New York. 

* * 

The Westminster Shorter Catechism was com- 
pleted by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 
about November 19, A.D. 1647, and was presented 
to the houses of the English Parliament, on the 25th 
and 26th days of the same month. It was approved 
by the General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land, July 28, 1648 ; by the English Parliament 
about September 5, 1648 ; and by the Scottish Par- 
liament, February 7, 1649. 

It was adopted by the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia as a part of the constitution of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, May 29, 1788. 

These statements of fact are found on the title- 
page of a new edition of the Shorter Catechism 
just issued by our Board of Publication. The use 
of this beautiful booklet will make the work of 
committing to memory the questions and answers a 
delightful task. 

Missionary and literature committees are now 
perfecting their plans for the winter's work, and 
the Board of Foreign Missions, 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York, is ready to aid them in the effort to de- 
velop an intelligent interest in the greatest work in 
the world. The following leaflets are furnished 
free of charge : 

Missionary Facts and Frinciples. 

The Triumphs of Modern Missions. 

Nuggets from the Annual Report of 1896. 

An Epistle to the Churches. 

Monthly Concert of Prayer for Missions. 

Three Pertinent Questions Answered. 

The following more extended leaflets will be 

sent on receipt of the price named : 

Facts on Foreign Missions, 5 cents. 
The New Light in Ancient Places, 3 cents. 
A Brief for Foreign Missions, 5 cents. 
Foreign Hospitals and Dispensaries, 5 cents. 
Medical Mission Work in India, 10 cents. 

Send for a sample copy of each, that you may 
know which will be most useful in your society. 

The victories of life are won, not on the fields 
where the decisive struggle takes place, but in the 
obscure and forgotten hours of preparation. Success 
or failure lies in the hands of the boy long before 
the hour the final test comes. The student thinks 
he can waste his opportunities and still fit himself 
for the critical moments in his mature life by hard 
work when the hour strikes, by energetic special 
preparation when the time for action comes ; but 
specific preparation is impossible to the man who 
has neglected general preparation. No man ever 
yet made a really good speech who had not made 
long, thorough and painstaking preparation ; not 
specific preparation for the particular occasion, 
but general preparation for all occasions. It is the 
thoroughly trained man who shines when he is 
suddenly called upon ; under the pressure of the 
moment all his faculties come to his assistance, and 
into fifteen minutes of talk he condenses the think- 
ing of months or years. Tap an empty man and 
you will get nothing ; tap a full man and you will 
get the best there is in him. — Condensed from The 




Rev. Hunter 

Courtesy of 

The Rev. Hunter Corbett, D.D., who has been a 
devoted and faithful missionary in China since 
1864, has done excellent service during his recent 
furlough in this country. His eloquent appeals in 
behalf of the Christless millions of that vast empire 
have awakened new interest in missions. 

* * 


The Journal of the Germantown First Presby- 
terian Church relates the following incident : A 
little girl received ten cents and arranged to dis- 
pose of it by saying first, "This penny is God's, the 
second is for papa, the third for mamma," and so 
on until the tenth was reached : "This," she said, 
"is for Jesus." She had kept none for herself, 
and her mother said: "You have already given 
one to Jesus." "No," was the quick reply, "the 
first belonged to him, this is a present." 

* * 


A suggestive remark is made by "Hadji," 
who writes the series of articles "As Seen Through 

Corbett, D.D. 
The Winonian, 

American Eyes ' ' in North and West. Speaking of 
the low wages paid to natives he asserts that an 
American burns up the day's wages of a Chinaman 
every time he lights a cigar, while his bill for 
shaving alone for the year would more than sup- 
port two Christian school-teachers during that 
time ; and then adds : We have not touched the 
subject of giving yet ; and one reason is that we do 
not know what good the little we have to give may do. 

# * 


A traveler who did not believe in missions 
visited Fiji, and counseled a Christian chief to give 
up his faith in the Bible, which he said was no 
longer believed by the cultured intellect of Europe. 
The chief pointed his visitor to a huge stone, and 
then to a large oven on the hillside, and told him 
that on the one they were formerly accustomed to 
murder their captives and in the other to bake 
them for eating ; "and that," he added, "is what 
we would have done with you if the Bible had not 
come here." 




v/1 aLCXK.U^*h#tsu^ 

cL Jcku 


Copyright, 1889, by Wilbur B. Ketcbam. 


MATTHEW 5 : 16. 

Writing in the volume " Thoughts for the Occa- 
sion" on the outward manifestation of salvation, 
the Rev. E. P. Stevens says : "He who is consci- 
ously saved must of necessity demonstrate the fact 
in his life. It is impossible for one to be a real 
Christian and keep others from knowing it. [Eph. 
2: 10.] 

I may show that I am a Christian (1) by mani- 
festing a Christly spirit in word and deed ; (2) by 
identifying myself with the church and willingly 
assuming a reasonable share in the responsibilities 
of its work; (3) by witnessing for Christ; (4) by 
my companionship and associations ; (5) by the 
choice of my pleasures ; (6) by being personally in- 
terested in the salvation of others ; (7) by living a 
consecrated life." 



It has been clearly demonstrated in the Presby- 
tery of Mankato that the young people of the 
Church, whether designated as Endeavorers or not, 
are prepared, if the way is opened, to throw them- 
selves heart and soul into home mission work. To 
the appeal last year for a special thank offering 
there was a most hearty response. A good sum was 
contributed, and there is no reason to believe that 
this "interfered, in the least with contributions to 
the Board through'the regular channels. 

Young people are glad to have placed in their 
hands, by the powers that be, some definite piece of 
work, which they may look upon as distinctively 
their own. 

In one of his misty philosophical works Thomas 
Carlyle creates a character who was in the habit of 
saying that he had as much fire in his soul as could 
burn up the sin of the world. In the souls of the 
youth of the Presbyterian Church there is fire, at a 
white heat, which if concentrated on a definite ob- 
ject would carry everything before it. In the home 
mission field there is plenty of aggressive work to 
be done. Why may not the General Assembly 
delegate to the young people of the Church the do- 
ing of some definite piece of work involving the 
raising of $50,000 or more? Nothing will so 
effectually bind our young people to the Church 
as the doing of practical work that tends directly to 
lead souls to Christ. 

Through the courtesy of the Rev. E. M. Deems, 
Ph.D., of Hornellsville, N. Y., the face of his 
sainted father appears on this page in connection 

C. F. Deems, D.D. 

with the "Little Letter in Rhyme." Many have 
read with deep interest the Autobiography of Dr. 
Deems, a notice of which appeared in a recent 




Famine Sufferers at Jhansi, India. 
Courtesy of The Oxford Journal. 


The Eev. J. B. Ely, missionary of the Presby- 
terian Board at Jhansi, India, writes, April 22, 
1897, to the Christian Endeavor Society of Oxford 
Church, Philadelphia, as follows : 

The Jhansi district is a division of the northwest 
province of India, containing 1640 square miles, or 
about one-third less than the State of Delaware, 
while its population is more than 683,000, or 
almost five times that of Delaware. 

Relief work is an important method of aiding 
the famine sufierers. All who are able to work 
are sent out each morning to labor at making roads. 
A man doing such work receives seven pice per 
day, equal to two and three-fourths cents in the 
United States, while a woman receives five pice, 
equal to two and one-quarter cents. This is barely 
sufficient to provide food enough to keep them alive. 
In the entire northwest province over one million 
persons are on the relief works. 

Much of the aid given is very practical. For 
example, six thousand yoke of oxen have been 

given to poor farmers in this district, which will 
make it possible for them to prepare the soil for the 
rains expected by the middle of June. These 
oxen were bought at the rate of five dollars per 
yoke. Seed corn has also been given, which will 
greatly aid the farmer. Tools are sometimes given to 
workmen, when absolutely necessary to help them 
earn a living. 

Julian Hawthorne, an American writer, who 
has just spent a few days in Jhansi, expressed his 
firm conviction that ' ' Christianity is the only solu- 
tion of the India problem." He said it was refresh- 
ing to find little Christian communities of honest 
men whose faces shine with the presence of the 
Holy Spirit. 

Sad as the famine is — and it cannot be described 
— it is no sadder than the recent news from our 
Board that it is necessary for them to cut down 
work, and to send no more missionaries this 

India will never be able to care for herself until 
her people allow Christ to care for them. 



Christian framing Course. 


( For Young Peoples Societies and Other Church Organizations. ) 




The topics follow the sections of the book, Our Sixty-six 
Sacred Books, by Rev. Edwin W. Rice, D.D. They may be 
followed by the single student alone, but in Class are intended 
to be set forth by proof-texts, paragraphs, etc. , read aloud as 
a Bible Reading. The "Questions" under each Study will 
excite interest and furnish themes. Each one should bring 
to the meeting his own copy of the book for reading and ref- 
erence. See Hints. 

1. The Revised and King James Versions. 
October (1). Pages 7-18. Ques., pp. 140, 141. 

2. Early English Versions. 

October (2). Pages 19-35. Ques., pp. 142, 143. 

3. Modern Versions Oiher than English. 
November (1). Pages 36-42. Ques., p. 144. 

4. Ancient Versions of the Bible. 
November (2). Pages 43-51. Ques., p. 145. 

5. Ancient Manuscripts of the Bible. 
December (1). Pages 52-01. Ques., p. 146. 

6. The New Testament. 1. How and When One Book. 
January (1). Pages 62-70. Ques., p. 147. 

7. The New Testament. 2. Writers and Composition. 
January (2). Pages 71-80. Ques., pp. 148, 149. 

8. The Old Testament. 1. How and When One Book. 
February (1). Pages 81-91. Ques., p. 150. 

9. The Old Testament. 2. Books of the Law. 
February (2). Pages 92-100. Ques., p. 151. 

10. The Old Testament. 3. Earlier Historical Books. 
March (1). Pages 101-106. Ques., p. 152. 

11. The Old Testament. 4. La'er Historical Books. 
March (2). Pages 107-111. Ques., p. 153. 

12. The Old Testament. 5. Hebrew Poetry. 
April (1). Pages 112-114. Ques., p. 153. 

13. The Old Testament. 6. Poetical Books. 
April (2). Pages 115-122. Ques., p. 154. 

14. The Old Testament. 7. Major Prophets. 
May (1). Pages 123-128. Ques., p. 155. 

15. The Old Testament. 8. Minor Prophets. 
May (2). Pages 129-133. Ques., p. 155, 156. 

!6. The Bible. Circulation and Care. 

.Tune(l). Pages 134-139. Ques., p. 150. 


The topics follow the sections of the book, The Church of 
Scotland, by Rev. P. M. Muir, Edinburgh. Use will also be 
made of T/w. Free Church of Scotland, by Rev. C. G. McCrie, 
D.D. The text should be read aloud in paragraphs by all in 
turn under the directions and questions of the Leader, and 
some of the topics should be treated in three-minute essays. 
See "Model Programs" each month in The Chukch at 
Home and Abroad. 

I. St. Ninian and St. Kentigern. 

St. Columba and His Sutcessors. 

October (1). Pages 1-14. 

2. David I — Robert Bruce. 
Approach of the Reformation. 
November (1). Pages 15-22. 

3. Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart. 
John Knox and the Reformation. 
December (1). Pages 23-35. 

4. Andrew Melville. 
The Covenants. 
January (1). Pages 36-42. 

5. The Westminster Assembly. 
The Presbyterian System. 
February (1). Pages 43-47. 

6. The Restoration of Episcopacy. 

The Revolution Settlement and Union. 
March (1). Pages 48-55. 

7. Patronage and Secessions. 

The " Moderates" and the " Evangelicals." 
April (1). Pages 56-69. 

8. The Voluntary Controversy. 

The Formation of the Free Church. 

May (1). Pages 70-82. Also McCrie. 

9. Conclusion — The Church of Scotland. 
Fitly Years in the Free Church. 

June(l). Pages 82-96. Also McCrie. 

Reference will also be made to Rev. Dr. W. H. Roberts' 
The Presbyterian System, and arrangements are making for 
studies on The Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., to begin 
in January or February. 


The topics follow a series of short lives of Modern Mission- 
ary Heroes, prepared specially for this Course, and printed, 
one each month, in The Church at Home and Abroad; 
and other fresh missionary articles appearing in the maga- 
zine. See Hints. 

1. Fidelia Fisk, Missionary to Persia. 
October (1). 

2. Medical Missions. 
October (2). 

3. Eliot and Brainard, Missionaries to the Indians. 
November (1). 

4. Influence of Christianity in Heathen Lands. 
November (2). 

5. Bishop Samuel Adjai Crowther, Missionary in Africa, 
December (1). 

6. John L. Nevius, Missionary to China, 
January (1). 

7. The Bible and Foreign Missions. 
January (2). 

8. Home Missionary Heroes. 

February (1). 

9. The Boards of the Presbyterian Church. 

February (2). 
10. John K. Mackenzie, M.D., Medical Missionary to China. 
March (1). 

II. Missions in Alaska. 

March (2). 

12. Alexander Duff, Missionary to India. 

April (1). 

13. Missionary Work in Our Cities. 

April (2). 

14. Alexander M. Mackay, Missionary to Uganda. 
May (1). 

15. Woman's Work in Missions. 

May (2). 

16. John C. Patteson, the Martyr of Melanesia. 
June (1). 


1. THE PURPOSE of the Christian Training Course is to 
meet the needs of church societies of young people and 
adults, and also of individuals, who have a limited amount 
of time for study, and yet desire to know the leading sub- 
jects of Biblical and Christian knowledge. 

2. THE APPROVAL of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. was cordially given to 
the Course in 1896 and 1897. It was formally presented to 




the Assembly by the Committee in charge of The Church 
at Home and Abroad, and was authorized to be circulated 
in the churches and printed in that magazine. 

3. THE COURSE is simple and easily followed, and is con- 
cluded in four years of nine mouths each, from October to 
June, being arranged in four Outlines, A, B, C and D, one 
for each year. 

4. THE OUTLINES are complete, each in itself, and are 
related to one another, and are divided into three Depart- 
ments — Biblical, Historical and Missionary, including the 
leading topics of doctrine, history, polity, etc. Each subject 
is treated in an elementary manner, and is connected with 
a small but standard text-book. 

5. OUTLINE A, the first year, covers the following sub- 
jeets : BIBLICAL, Doctrine and Life, The Shorter Catechism; 
HISTORICAL, Church History, Rev. Dr. Henry Cowan's 
Landmarks ; MISSIONARY, General Survey of Mission 
Fields, Selected Tracts. 

G. OUTLINE B, the second year, covers these subjects : 
BIBLICAL, the Character of Christ, Robert E. Speer's The 
Man Christ Jesus; HISTORICAL, The Missionary Idea in 
History, Dr. George Smith's Short History of Missions; 
MISSIONARY, Modern Missionary Heroes, first series, pre- 
pared by Mrs. Albert B. Robinson. 

7. OUTLINE C, the third year, covers these subjects : 
BIBLICAL, Our Sixty-six Sacred Books, by Rev. Edwin W. 
Rice, D.D. (American S. S. Union) ; HISTORICAL, The 
Church of Scotland, by Rev. Pearson M. Muir (Adam and 
Charles Black, Ediuburgh), The Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. (arrangement not yet complete) ; MISSIONARY, 
Modern Missionary Heroes, second series, printed monthly 
in The Church at Home and Abroad, 1334 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

8. THE STUDIES extend through nine months, from 
October to June, being arranged for about sixteen meetings. 
At each meeting there will be two studies, one from the Bib- 
lical, the other from the Historical and Missionary alter- 
nately, the time given to each study being about thirty min- 
utes. In addition there will be an opening of ten minutes 
devoted to The Shorter Catechism. 

9. THE MEETINGS may be provided for in different 
ways: (1) On a stated week-day evening twice a month, 
two departments each time. (2) Once a month on a stated 
week-day evening, taking the Biblical and Historical, and 
the 'ither at the Church Monthly Concert, taking the Bibli- 
cal and Missionary. (3) Once a month at the Sunday meet- 
ing, and the other once a month on a week-day evening to 

sist of three leaders, one in charge of each Department, the 
best ones obtainable in the parish, to be under the direction 
of the Pastor. 

11. HELPFUL HINTS and Model Programs will be 
furnished by the author of the Course, the Rev. Hugh B. 
MacCauley, who will conduct the Biblical and Historical 
Departments, and interesting material by the Rev. Albert 
B. Robinson, conductor of the Missionary Department, all 
of which will be printed monthly in the Church at Home 
and Abroad. 

12. THE LITERATURE required for the readings is in 
small book form, cheap but standard. Headquarters for the 
literature is the Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1334 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. Prices are as follows, 
postage paid : Outline Cof Christian Training Course, 2 cents 
each, or 25 cents in lots of twenty-five ; Our Sixty-six Sacred 
Books (Edwin W. Rice), 40 cents; The Church of Scotland 
(P. M. Muir), 30 cents; The Church at Home and 
Abroad, one year, $1.00; by cash, money order or check. 
Enclose two-cent stamp for circular. WRITE TO THE 


Chicago, 111. 

The children not only attend Campbell Park 
Church in large numbers, but are encouraged to 
take part in the services. On a recent Sunday 
morning, after the choir had chanted the Lord's 
Prayer, the children sang softly "Peace, Peace, 
Sweet Peace." 

The young people of Olivet Memorial Church 
recently gave a missionary entertainment, the pur- 
pose being to instruct and interest the congrega- 
tion in missions. To secure full attendance and to 
give variety to the young people's meetings, one 
evening service a month is given up to the young 
people who take the entire responsibility, providing 
a special programme and inviting speech and 
prayer from the audience. We expect to continue 
this arrangement so long as its profit is evident. — 
K B. B. 

La Porte, Ind. 

The Missionary Committee is always responsible 
for the meeting on the third Sunday evening of the 
month. The topics given in The Church at 
Home and Abroad are used, and an offering is 
made for missions. The members of our Endea- 
vor society are thus becoming acquainted with the 
great work on the different mission fields. — 
A. K. F. 

Storm Lake, la. 

The eight young men in Buena Vista College, at 
Storm Lake, who are preparing for the ministry 
have supplied preaching regularly during the past 
year at a schoolhouse four miles distant, and have 
assisted in Sunday-school work. Occasional ser- 
vice of this kind has been rendered at other points, 
where the professors have also preached. The in- 
fluence of the school is sounding out through all 
this region. — J. Mae A. 

Detroit, Mich. 

The young people of Immanuel Church have a 
new interest in Huguenot College at Wellington, 
Cape Colony. Miss Jennie S. Clark, the pastor's 
daughter, sailed July 24, for London, on her way 
to South Africa. She is to be a teacher in this in- 
stitution founded by the Rev. Andrew Murray. 
Readers of The Church at Home and Abroad 
will remember the very interesting article in our 
April issue by Miss Anna M. Cummings, who 
wrote of the college as an evangelizing agency. 

Binghamton Presbytery. 

The popular meetings in connection with the fall 
meeting have been put in charge of the Committee 
on Young People's Societies. They are planning 
for a rally of the societies in the presbytery, and a 
program is in preparation that will surely be help- 
ful. The meeting is to be at Nichols, Tioga county, 
N. Y. ( D. L. & W. R.R. ), September 21, afternoon 
and evening. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Christian Endeavorers in the Church of the 
Covenant manifest a glad willingness to keep the 
pledge they have taken. They are deeply inter- 
ested in all the work of the church, from beau- 
tifying the house of worship with flowers from the 




Christian Endeavor garden to the sending of the 
fruits of Christianity to the mission field. This 
fruit is in the form of silver given by the members 
every month. It is always accompanied with 
prayer for the laborers. — A. W. A. 

New York Presbytery. 

The two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
adoption of the Westminster Standards will be cel- 
ebrated November 8 and 9 by the young people of 
this presbytery. One evening is to be devoted to a 
consideration, in the First Church, of the history, 
the doctrines and the usefulness of the Shorter Cat- 
echism. The Committee on Sabbath-schools and 
Young People's Societies offer a prize to the school 
in which the largest number of scholars are able to 
answer all the questions. 

Nichols, N. Y. 

The Juniors at Nichols, N. Y., made a number of 
scrapbooks, and the older ones helped them to fit 
Bible verses to the pictures. Then the books were 
sent to the hospital for children. The pictures 
were not those of Bible lands or scenes, but the hit- 
or-miss pictures of our every-day life. For ex- 
ample : a picture of a yacht race had under it, 
"There go the ships. Ps. 104 : 26." The pic- 
ture of a man sowing grain, you can easily guess 
what went with that. The picture of a locomo- 
tive, "Many shall run to and fro and knowledge 
shall be increased." Dan. 12 : 4.— W. J. G. 

VVooster, 0. 

The Young People's Society of Christian Endea- 
vor of the First Church is large and of inestimable 
benefit to pastor and people. The pastor can al- 
ways count on its members making up a large, in- 
terested and sympathetic portion of his Sabbath 
evening congregation. They are diligent workers 
in the Sabbath-school, and their presence and sing- 
ing add much to the interest of the church prayer- 
meeting. In their own services the Missionary 
Committee secures an admirable missionary meet- 
ing once a month, with a carefully prepared and 
deeply interesting program. The Personal Work 
and Prayer Meeting Committees hold neighbor- 
hood prayer-meetings in the homes of the old and 
poor, bed-ridden and lone members of the congre- 
gation. The monthly consecration hour is nearly 
always too short for the full calling of the roll of 
members. As a new form of work the Christian 
Endeavorers, under the direction of the session, 
took charge of the congregational prayer-meeting 
during the pastor's vacation. — 0. A. H. 

Ballston, Ya. 

The Juniors of the Presbyterian Church in Balls- 
ton are much interested in a study of the life of 
Christ, which they are pursuing under the direction 
of their pastor. In five lessons they have taken up 
a comparative study of the four gospels, covering 
the life of our Lord prior to his public ministry. 
They are guided in this work by suggestive ques- 
tions prepared by the pastor, of which they receive 
hektograph copies. Juniors are interested in any- 
thing in the nature of Biblical study, and only need 
wise, careful direction. — F. E. A. 
New Italy, Pa. 

In this Italian village, near Bangor, Pa., there 
is an Italian Christian Endeavor society with 

twenty-two members. It is part of the working 
force of the Italian Presbyterian Church, of which 
the Rev. Albert Treichler is the newly installed 

Fkomthe "Golden Rule." 

Systematic giving was considered by the Presby- 
terian Endeavorers of San Diego, Cal., at a 
special meeting. As a result a Tenth Legion was 
organized with sixteen members. 

The monthly business meeting is one of the most 
helpful gatherings of the Presbyterian Endeavor 
society in Littleton, Col. 

Believing that the interest of the members of the 
Christian Endeavor society in the midweek prayer 
meeting could be increased, even though two- 
thirds of the present attendants are Endeavorers, 
the Lookout Committee of the Roxbury, Mass., 
Presbyterian society have arranged with the 
church officials to plan the prayer-meeting topics 
several weeks in advance, so that they may be an- 
nounced to the Endeavorers. The Lookout Com- 
mittee distributes references on each week's topic 
to members of the Christian Endeavor society, 
who read the verse indicated or speak along the 
lines suggested. 

The Presbyterian pastor of Cloquet, Minn., 
keeps a record of participation in the Endeavor 
meetings, marking the manner in which each 
member takes part, and noting an absence and its 
excuse, if any. At the close of every six months 
each member's record is mailed to him, and serves 
the purpose of improving individual effort. 

The members of a committee appointed by the 
Presbyterian society in Fergus Falls, Minn., 

take turns in giving a report each Sunday evening 
of information gleaned from the Golden Rule. 

In one month the Presbyterian Juniors of Lex= 
ington, Neb., raised sixty-five dollars to purchase 
a car-load of corn for famine-stricken India. 

The incidental expenses of Westminster Presby- 
terian Church, Auburn, N. Y., for the coming 
year have been pledged by the Endeavor society. 

The many features of the work of the First 
Presbyterian society at Franklinville, N. Y., are 

given expression in a Christian Endeavor column 
in the local paper, edited by the president of the 
society. The society, which believes in the use of 
printer's ink, also uses a neat letter-head in its 

A new interest in Christian Endeavor work was 
aroused among the members of the Presbyterian 
Church at Grand Forks, N. D., by having the 
new officers of the society installed at a regular 
prayer- meeting of the church. An interesting 
program, including an address by the pastor on 
the officers' duties and privileges, was followed by 
the pledge, repeated by all. 

The two societies in the Presbyterian Church of 
Fagg's Manor, Pa., enjoyed a picnic in the 
woods six miles from the church, ending in the af- 
ternoon with a prayer-meeting, an earnest, wide- 
awake service. 





"The Seven Chief Justices of the United 
States," by William Eleroy Curtis, occupies the 
place of honor in the July Chautauquan. 

This is the secret of the power of the president 
of the South African Republic. He is one of the 
people — a representative Boer, a typical Dutch far- 
mer, with all the limitations and all the sturdiness, 
conservatism, strong religious feeling, and native 
common sense of his race developed in an unusual 
degree. — F. E. Clark, D.D., in Review of Reviews. 

Mr. John Jay Chapman, in the Atlantic Monthly, 
says of Emerson that his works are all one sin- 
gle attack on the vice of the age, moral cowardice. 
He assails it not by railings and scorn, but by posi- 
tive and stimulating suggestions. The imagination 
of the reader is touched by every device which can 
awake the admiration for heroism, the conscious- 
ness of moral courage. 

In the July Biblical World, President William 
R. Harper writes of Isaiah as writer and speaker, 
as a statesman, as a teacher of morality, as a 
preacher of divine truth, and concludes that he is 
the most wonderful character of Old Testament 
history. This number contains also an illustrated 
article on "Milestones in Religious History ; or, 
Tent, Temple, Tabernacle, Synagogue and 

Mr. Julian Hawthorne, who was sent to India 
by the Cosmopolitan to secure facts regarding the 
condition of famine sufferers, says in his article in 
that magazine : The only persons who know what 
is actually going on in that land of misery are the 
missionaries, for they go about everywhere, see 
every thing, and cannot be deceived or put off the 
scent by the native subordinates. It was my great 
good fortune to be thrown with the missionaries 
from the start, and I was able to compare their 
methods and knowledge with those of the govern- 
ment people. 

Literature, instead of being for Mrs. Oliphant 
the joy of a happy leisure, became the unfailing 
solace of a life that knew many and bitter sorrows. 
But no grief could avail to quench her sunny 
optimism and invariable youthfulness of spirit. 
Though strongly imbued with the literary tradi- 
tions of the past, she was ever sympathetic with 
change and progress, so long as the progress seemed 
to her to betoken good. In high and lofty example 
of perfect womanliness, Mrs. Oliphant has been to 
the England of letters what the Queen has been to 
English society as a whole. — The Living Age. 

Gifted with discernment of character, rare sym- 
pathy with the moods and ideals of young men, 
and a will-compelling magnetism, Drummond 
could seize and hold the attention of students. 
Whatever he said had the charm of literary fresh- 
ness as well as of spiritual power. He was a con- 
summate artist in words, and his art was all the 
more striking because it appeared to be so artless. 
His best and most enduring memorial will be, 
not the books he wrote with his pen, but the in- 
fluence he carved on the hearts and lives of the 
students. — Rev. D. Sutherland, in The Treasury. 

The statesman or philanthropist who will write 
his name on the grateful memories of posterity will 
be the one who proves, that even for this world — 
to say nothing of the next — it is more profitable to 
plant a human being in the soil than to grow a 
potato or a beet ; that the machinery of willing 
hands and thinking brains and tender heart is 
worth more than the most wonderful discoveries of 
science ; that the measure of a nation's prosperity 
is the happiness of its poor ; and that the removal 
of pauperism is the true measure of the success of 
its Christian statesmanship. — Commander Booth 
Tucker in the August Forum. 

Presbyterian ism, with its various wings and 
branches, ranks the third among all the evangel- 
ical denominations in America, writes Dr. T. L. 
Cuyler in Tlie Treasury, and if we add all those 
who adopt the same faith and form of government 
in Europe, then the Presbyterian is not out- 
numbered by any Protestant denomination in 
Christendom. Of its history, we, its loyal sons, 
may well be proud. It has always stood for the 
sovereignty of God, for the authority of consci- 
ence, for civil liberty and the majesty of law. Its 
stiffly vertebrated theology has imparted back- 
bone to the popular conscience, and its iron has 
entered into the nation's heart. 

Simon Pokagon, last chief of the Pottawattamie 
Pokagon Band, writes in the August Forum of "The 
Future of the Red Man." It is claimed, he says, 
that the United States have paid out five hundred 
million dollars in trying to subdue the red man by 
military force. But now, through the influence of 
good men and women who have thrown the search- 
light of the golden rule into the great heart of the 
nation, her policy is changed. Where hundreds of 
thousands of dollars were paid out annually to fight 
him, like sums are now being paid yearly to educate 
him in citizenship and self-support, that his chil- 
dren may not grow up a race of savages to be again 
fought and cared for at the expense of the nation. 
This policy, if not perfect, is certainly on the right 
trail to success. 

I sometimes think, writes President Thwing in 
the August Forum, that in our quest for a man to 
sit in our chairs of instruction and to convey knowl- 
edge, we are prone to think more of the chair of 
instruction than of the man who sits in it and who 
gives the instruction. We inquire with care into 
the academic biography of the academic candidate ; 
but do we inquire with sufficient care into the vital, 
formative, ethical, manly and man-making power 
of the soul which teaches and inspires? The 
college was made to make men — to make men 
through scholarship and personal association. Let 
us therefore have scholars ; but let us also have 
each scholar a man ; let us have both a man who is 
a scholar and a scholar who is a man ; let us have 
a scholar who was a man before he became a scholar 
and who is a man after he becomes a scholar. 

General O. O. Howard has noted a constant im- 
provement in the army since he entered that body 
in 1850. The average enlisted man now is not 
more loyal to the flag, but he is more intelligent 
than formerly. Of late his education has been 
well provided for ; while discipline, which is vastly 
more needed in a republic than in a monarchy, has 




not been relaxed. The enlistment is for three years 
only ; and during that time the young men in our 
garrisons are simply at school : hence there can be 
no excuse for looseness of morals. Officers are 
proud of the intelligence and uprightness of their 
men. More immorality is brought into the army 
than is generated there. The recruiting officers re- 
ject fully as many applicants as they accept ; and, 
if possible, they keep out a drunkard, a deserter, a 
debauchee, or a criminal. These statements are 
made in General Howard's " Plea for the Army," 
in the August Forum. 

The god of Mohammedanism is an ideal Oriental 
despot magnified to infinity. Whatever he does or 
commands is right because he wills it. What he 
hates is not sin, but rebellion. He may or may not 
punish other offenses, for he is all-merciful, but to 
deny his unity or his prophet is unpardonable. 
For this there is nothing but eternal fire. As there 
is no right or wrong except as he wills it, there is 
no true sense in which he can be called holy. 
Nor can it be said that he loves righteousness. 
What he loves is submission to his will, and this is 
the highest virtue known to Mohammedanism. It 
is what gives it its name — Islam, which means sub- 
mission. Between God and man there is no kin- 
ship, nothing in common. He is not our Father and 
we are not his children. The idea of the incarna- 
tion of God in Jesus Christ is absurd and incompre- 
hensible. — Rev. George Washburn, D.D., presi- 
dent of Robert College, Constantinople, in The 

Less than half a century has sufficed for a com- 
paratively small number of farmers to convert the 
western prairies into one of the most productive re- 
gions of the globe, and to create and build up as 
flourishing a community as can be found to-day in 
either of the hemispheres. This is the instructive 
lesson contained in one of the tables given by 
Michael G. Mulhall in the August North American 
Review. The foreign settlers in the twelve Prairie 
States, he shows, are of a superior class to those in 
the eastern, the former being mostly farmers from 
northern Europe, while the bulk of the latter con- 
sists of factory hands and unskilled laborers. The 
ratio of instruction for the whole population is 
higher than in any other part of the Union. In 
many respects these Prairie States surpass in im- 
portance five or six European empires and king- 
doms rolled into one ; and yet men still living can 

remember when their population did not exceed 
that of the Island of Sardinia. 

If we take Zangwill for a witness of the truth, 
there is a real element of hopefulness in the tend- 
ency to appropriate the ethical teaching of Chris- 
tianity ; there is hope in the admiration and rec- 
ognition, however imperfect, of the Christ of his- 
tory, in the wistful yearning of one soul and 
another towards his spiritual law of love, though 
they deem it too lofty. If these pictures of edu- 
cated English Israelites and their ways of thought 
can at all be trusted, then is there a movement 
going on in the best Anglo - Jewish minds, 
strangely corresponding to the growing passion 
for rendering true obedience to the law of the 
Master, now visibly working among the best and 
purest English Christian believers ; and we might 
well recognize one mighty influence from above, 
drawing Jew and Christian together in spiritual 
aspiration so powerfully that they must at last 
coalesce, and the recognition by Israel of her dis- 
owned Lord begin. — From " Jews in English Fic- 
tion," in Tfte Living Age, July 3, 1897. 

That the Church has an interest in various 
phases of the social movement — the land question, 
the distribution of wealth and the hours and condi- 
tions of labor — is clearly pointed out by Walter 
Raushenbusch in the American Journal of Sociology 
for July. The future welfare of the Church is im- 
paired by social deterioration and advanced by true 
social progress. A period of financial depression, 
like the devastating floods of the Mississippi, 
sweeps away what the Church has erected with in- 
finite labor. There is a snapping of moral re- 
straints, and men are pushed across the line drawn 
by their own conscience. Anything that impairs 
the morals of church members also impairs the 
reputation of the Church for moral superiority, 
weakens its efficacy and frustrates its work. The 
spiritual life of the Church, its trust in God and 
fellowship with him, must also suffer in the midst 
of social decay. In the great city where modern 
industrialism has set up its smoking and flaring 
altars of mammon, religion struggles for its life 
like a flower growing among the cobble-stones of 
the street. As the social life of the people grows 
sordid, as the home and family life are contracted 
and crushed, and as the future looms up in dreary 
uncertainty and hopelessness, the religious sense of 
the people is choked and the natural basis for the 
religious life dwindles. Has the Church no stake 
in the social movement ? 

[Answers may be found in the preceding pages.] 


1. What proportion of our churches are aided by 
the Board of Home Missions? Page 205. 

2. How does the cost of home mission work com- 
pare with the whole contributions of the Church ? 
Page 205. 

3. Repeat some incidents from the feminine side 
of home missionary experience. Page 206. 

4. Describe a common-sense plan of developing 
church beneficence. Page 207. 

5. When and how was a Presbyterian Church 
first organized in Montana ? Page 208. 

6. Trace the growth of the Church in Helena, 
Mont., during the twenty-five years of its existence. 
Pages 209, 210. 

7. On what basis are appropriations made by 
the Board of Home Missions? Page 211. 

8. Name 3ome of the encouragements and hope- 
ful signs in the home mission outlook. Page 212. 




9. What are the conditions and needs of the Klon- 
dyke region ? Page 212. 

10. What has our Board of Home Missions done 
to supply the need ? Page 160. 

11. Describe the conditions and difficulties of a 
portion of the Seneca Indian mission. Page 213. 

12. What improvement has been made in the 
government's method of treating the Indians? 
Page 225. 

13. What is the practical purpose of Kallying 
Day in our Sabbath-schools? Page 173. 

14. How have some parents in Nebraska pro- 
vided for the education of their children for the 
gospel ministry ? Page 175. 

15. What is said of the value of Christian educa- 
tion for the Negroes ? Page 186. 

16. How have the pupils of Ingleside Seminary 
shown their interest in the Shorter Catechism? 
Page 186. 

17. How many students are there in the thirty 
institutions aided by the College Board ? Page 180. 

18. Trace some of the former struggles of Puri- 
tans with Presbyterian tendencies at Cambridge 
University. Pages 182-185. 

19. What new interest have English Presbyte- 
rians in Cambridge ? Page 182. 

20. What are some of the difficulties in the way 
of carrying on the benevolent work of our Church ? 
Page 178. 

21. For what purpose was Mercer Home estab- 
lished ? Page 176. 


22. State some facts about Presbyterian mission- 
ary educational institutions. Page 202. 

23. How many pupils are there in these schools, 
and how are they distributed ? Page 203. 

24. What five considerations are presented to 
show that the college is the ideal missionary school ? 
Pages 200, 201. 

25. What is Mr. Mott's opinion of educational 
missions in India ? Page 193. 

26. The educated classes in India are how nu- 
merous and influential ? Page 194. 

27. What is one of the vital needs of educational 
work in India to-day ? Page 194. 

28. Missionaries in China stand in what relation 
to the higher educational work of the empire ? 
Pages 194, 195. 

29. What has been accomplished by the Canton 
Seminary? Page 187. 

30. What is the outlook for Tungchow College ? 
Page 190. 

31. How many institutions of higher learning 
are there in Japan, and what is their influence ? 
Page 196. 

32. Why are these schools regarded as a great 
peril to Japan ? Page 196. 

33. What historic event took place in connection 
with the beginning of Miss Fiske's educational 
work in Persia ? Page 196. 

34. How many pupils have been instructed in 

the missionary schools of Persia during sixty years ? 
Page 197. 

35. Name some of the results of educational 
work in Persia? Pages 197, 198. 

36. What has been the policy of the Presbyterian 
mission in Brazil as to the establishment of schools ? 
Page 198. 

37. Describe the beginnings and growth of the 
Protestant college at Sao Paulo, Brazil ? Page 198. 

38. In what three respects is this college a direct 
Christianizing agency ? Page 200. 

39. What was the result of the life influence of 
one of the pupils? Page 189. 

40. Learn elsewhere something about the Hakka 
custom mentioned on page 189. 

41. Repeat the incidents from Benito, Africa, 
showing the transforming influence of the gospel ? 
Page 188. 

42. What new move is Russia making in Persia ? 
Page 187. 

43. How is the romance of missions illustrated 
by recent developments of the Livingstonia Mis- 
sion ? Page 170. 

44. How is the Bible a missionary ? Page 171. 


V. F. P. 

1. What do the Roman Catholics say about 
teaching the very young ? 

2. Why should children be carefully trained ? 

3. What is the basis of true education 7 

4. What are our missionaries doing for the 
young people ? 

5. How many boarding-schools has our F. M. 
Board ? 

6. How many day-schools ? 

7. Why must boys and girls in most of our mis- 
sion lands have separate schools ? 

8. Describe the schools at Wei Hien, China. 

9. What is the position of the Bible in the mis- 
sion schools ? 

10. Describe how the children memorize the 

11. What have our schools done for the boys of 

12. What have boarding-schools done for Bra- 
zilian girls at Sao Paulo and Curityba ? 

13. How have Syrian women and girls been 
affected by our schools ? 

14. What has our education done for Persians? 

15. How many boys' colleges and seminaries for 
girls have we? 

16. Why is Tungchow College so famous all 
over China among all denominations ? 

17. What is Beirut College doing? 

18. What medical classes are being trained ? 

19. Is industrial training a feature of any of our 
missions ? 

20. What is industrial training accomplishing ? 





[Tear ending April 30, 1897.] 




Place of Death. 




Adams, William, D.D, 



Philadelphia, Pa., 

June 7, 1896, 


Andrews. John K., 



New Castle. Pa., 

Dec. 1, 1896, 


Austin, William Lucien, 



Baltimore, Md., 

Sept. 11, 1896, 


Axline, Andrew, 



Arlington, Kans., 

Mar. 4, 1897, 


Axinann, Hermann A., 

P , 


Cincinnati, 0., 

Aug. 5, 1896, 


Bartholomew, Thomas D., 

W. C, 


Highland Sta., Mich., 

Mar. 12, 1897, 


Beach, William H., 


New York, 

Perth Amboy, N. J., 

July 2, 1895, 


Belden, William H., 


West Jersey, 

Clifton Springs, N. Y., 

July 31, 1896, 


Bentley, Richard, 

w. c, 

Jersey City, 

Tenafly, N. J., 

July 6, 1896, 


Bierce, Daniel E., 



Cleveland, , 

Mar. 2, 1897, 


Blackford, Robert Allen, 

w. c, 


Middletown, N. Y.. 

Aug. 17, 1896, 


Blumenfeld, David, 


Morris & Orange, 

Pleasant Valley, N. J., 

Feb. 6, 1897, 


Brengle, Jas, P., 


Des Moines, 

Corydon, la., 

Feb. 7, 1897, 


Brookes, James H , D.D., 


St Louis, 

St. Louis, Mo., 

April 18, 1897, 


Burr, Alexander, M.A., 

w. c, 


Bottineau, N. D , 

May 5,1897, 


Bush, Stephen, D.D., 

H. R., 


Waterford, N. Y., 

July 15, 1895, 


Caldwell, James, 

s. s.. 


Decker's Point, Pa., 

Jan. 8, 1897, 


Cameron, Leroy Learned, 

W. C, 

St. Paul, 

Albany, N. Y„ 

Aug. 4, 1896, 


Carruth, James H., 

H. R., 


Van Buren, Ark., 

Sept. 15,1896, 


Clark, Nathaniel, 

W. C, 

Sioux City, 

Toronto, Can., 

Sept. 7, 1896, 


Colmery. Robert C , 



Upper Sandusky, 

Aug. 21, 1896, 


Conde, Daniel T., D.D., 

H. R., 


Beloit. Wis., 

Mar. 8, 1897, 


Cone, Augustus, 

H. R., 


N. Madison. 0., 

May 4, 1896, 


Conrad, Jacob E., D.D., 



Blue Earth City. 

May 6, 1896, 


Corss, Charles C, 

H. R., 


E. Smithfleld, Pa., 

May 20, 1896, 


Cort, William C, 



Goodland, Ind., 

July 27, 1896, 


Cox, George W., 

W. C, 


Philadelphia, Pa., 

Sept. 7,1896, 


Craighead, Richard, D.D., 

H. R., 


Meadville, Pa., 

Sept. 5, 1896, 


Crane. Oliver, D.D. , LL.D., 

H. R., 

Morris A Orange, 

Boston, Mass., 

Nov. 29, 1896, 


Crawford, James M., 

S. S., 

Los Angeles, 

Los Angeles, Cal., 

Oct. 14, 1896, 


Currer, John, 



Le Sneur, Minn., 

July 28, 1896, 


Davis, J. Scott, 

H. R., 


Chicago, 111., 

July 26. 1896, 


Delamater, Thomas Henry, 

H. R., 


Meadville, Pa., 

Mar. 5, 1897, 


Dimond, David, D.D., 

P. Em., 


Brighton, 111., 

Nov. 22,1896, 


Dodge, Henry A., 

w. c, 


Evansville, Ind., 

July 14, 1896, 


Downs. Caleb B., 

S. 8., 


New Comerstown, 0., 

May 6, 1896, 


Eells, Edward, 


Washington City 

Washington, D. C, 

Mar. 11, 1897, 


Elder, James S., D.D., 



Clarion, Pa , 

Dec. 1, 1896, 


English, John D.. 

W. C, 


Detroit, Mich.. 

April 7, 1897, 


Faris, John McDonald, 

H. R., 


Elm Grove, W. Va., 

Aug. 17, 1896, 


Forbes, Hugh Williamson, 

H. R., 

Sioux City, 

Fonda, la., 

June 4, 1896, 


Galloway, Oliver P., Ph.D., 

W. C. 

Council Bluffs, 

Bowling Green, Ky., 

Dec. 2, 1896, 


Garcia, Santiago, 



San Luis Potosi, Mex., 

Nov. 8, 1896, 


Gilpin, Richard, 

8. Chap. 


Gt. Yarmouth, England, 


Green, S. J., 

P , 


Campbellsville, Ky., 

Sept. 22, 1896, 


Halsey.LeRoy J , D.D , LL D. 



Chicago, 111., 

June 16, 1896, 


Hamilton, Wm E., D.D., 



Ambler, Pa., 

Oct. 17, 1896, 


Hay, Lawrence Gano, D.D., 



Minneapolis, Minn., 

July 27, 1896, 


Hebard, Fred , 

w. c, 


Syracuse, N. Y., 

May 20, 1897, 


Holliday, Samuel H., 

P. E., 


Allegheny, Pa., 

Jan 11, 1897, 


Houghtby, John, 



Cecil, 0., 

Nov. 26, 1896, 


Howe, Charles M., 

H. R., 


Pasadena, Cal., 

Mar. 2, 1897, 


Hutchinson. Aaron F., 


New Brunswick, 

Trenton, N. J., 

June SO, 1896, 


Hyde, William L., 



Jamestown, N. Y., 

July 31, 1896, 


Irvin, George A., 

H. R., 

Los Angeles, 

Anaheim. Cal., 

Oct. 8, 1896, 


Johnson, John M , 

H. R., 


Neoga, 111 , 

Jan. 20, 1897, 


Kellogg, Erastus M., 

H. R., 


Walcott, Conn., 

Mar. 1, 1897, 


l.ane, William, 



Bardsdale, Cal., 

Jan. 14, 1896, 





Atlanta, Ga., 

Feb. 25, 1897, 


Leonard, Stephen C, D.D., 

H. R., 

Morris & Orange, 

Orange, N J., 

Feb. 10, 1897, 


Lestrade, Joseph Paul, 

W. C, 

New York, 

Bloomfleld. N. J., 

June 16, 1896, 


Lord, Nathan L., 



Rochester. Ind., 

April 21, 1897, 


Loughran, Joshua, 


Southern Dakota 

White Lake, S. D., 

Jan. 7,1897, 


McCauley, James M., D.D., 

F. M., 

Tokyo, Japan, 

Feb. 10, 1897, 


McClung. John N.. 



Springfield, Mo., 

Dec. 6, 1896, 


McCoy, Theodore W., 

W. C, 

New Albany, 

Hanover. Ind., 

Aug. 1,1896, 


Macdonald, Peter M., D D., 



Boston, Mass., 

Julv 13, 1896, 


McFarland. Samuel G..D.D., 

F. M., 


Bangkok, Siam, 

April 25, 1897, 


McGiffert, Joseph N., D.D., 



Ashtabula, , 

June 21, 1S96, 


Mcllvaine, Joshua Hall, 


New Brunswick, 

Princeton, N. J., 

Jan. 29, 1897, 


McKinney, Sabin, 



Binghamton, N. Y., 

July 10, 1896, 


Marcellns, Algernon, 

South Oregon, 

Oakland, Ore., 

Nov. 25, 1896, 


Marling, Arthur Wodehouse 

F. M., 


Angora, W. Africa, 

Oct. 12, 1896, 


Marshall, James, D.D., 


New York, 

Cedar Rapids, la., 

Sept. 11, 1896, 


Marshall, John, 



Knoxville, Tenn., 

Mar. 13, 1897, 


Mechlin, Geo. Washington, D.D., 

H. R., 


Dayton, Pa , 

Oct. 26, 1896, 


Meuaul, James A., 

S. Miss. 

Rio Grande, 

Albuquerque, N. M., 

Mar. 14, 1897, 


Millar, Andrew M., 

S. S., 


Malone. N. Y., 

Aug. 28, 1896, 


Mitchell, John, 



Lakeville, N. Y , 

May 30, 1896, 


Moore, Josiah. 



Lake Forest, 111., 

Feb. 10, 1897, 


Moses, John C, 

H. R., 

Cedar Rapids, 

Clinton, la., 

Mar. 7, 1897, 


Muldrow, Irwin M., 



Cheraw, 8. C, 

July 6, 1896, 








Place of Death. 




Nellis, John Van C, 



Walton, N. Y., 

Dec. 31, 1896, 


Newhouse, E. B., 

L. Ev. 


Fayette, 0., 

Peloubet, Alexander 0., 



Mecklenburgh, N. Y., 

Max. 8, 1897, 


Phrauer, Stanley K., 


North Laos, 


Jan. 15, 1895, 


Proudfit, Alexander, D D., 



Springfield, 0., 

April 2, 1S97, 


Kankin, John G., 

H. R., 


Quincy, 111., 

May 7, 1897, 


Reid, John, 

W. C, 


Warsaw, N. Y., 

Jan. 2, 1897, 


Richardson, Willard, 

H. R., 

New Castle, 

Houston, Del., 

Mar. 19, 1897, 


Ritchie, Andrew, D.D., 



Wyoming, 0., 

April 3, 1897, 


Robinson, James, M.D., 

W. C, 


Philadelphia, Pa., 

Dec. 12, 1S96, 


Robinson, William H., 



Cambridge, N. Y., 

July 11, 1896, 


Rnliffson, Albert C, 


New York, 

Perth Amboy, N. J., 

May 2, 1897, 


Sackett, Milton A., 

H. R., 


Clevelaod, 0., 

Aug. 21, 1896, 


Sayre, William N. 

H. R., 

North River, 

Pine Plains, N. Y., 

Nov. 26, 1896, 


Scott, John Preston, D.D., 



Monticello, N. Y., 

Jan. 8, 1897, 


Shaiffer, George W., 

H. R., 

Los Angeles, 

Alhambra, Cal , 

April 17, 1896, 


Sloan, David Harvey, D.D , 



Blairsville, Pa., 

Jan. 16, 1897, 


Smith, Nathan S., D.D., 



Hamdeu Junction, 0., 

Jan. 7, 1897, 


Speer, Nathaniel, 

H. R., 


Bloomsburg, Pa., 

April 26, 1896, 


Spilman, Jonathan E., D.D., 

H. R , 


Flora, 111., 

May 23, 1896, 


Sprague, Isaac N., D D., 

H. R., 


Poultney, Vt.. 

Sept. 9, 1896, 


Stevenson, John M., B.D., 


New York, 

Hawthorne, N. J., 

Aug. 22, 1896, 


Stull, William C, 



Forest Hill, Md., 

April 29, 1897, 


Thompson, Alex., 

W. C, 


Pittsburgh, Pa., 

Dec. 19, 1896, 


Todd, George T., 

H.R ., 


Aberdeen, S. D., 

Feb. 13, 1897, 


Ullman, Julius F., 

F. M., 


Dehra, India, 

Aug. 10, 1S96, 

Vance, Joseph, 

H. R., 


Erie, Pa., 

April 26, 1897, 


Veeder, Peter V., D.D., 

H. R., 


Berkeley, Cal., 

Aug. 29, 1896, 


Waggoner, David, 

H. R., 


Stamford, Neb , 

June 26, 1896, 

Wallace, Robert Mack, D.D., 

S. S., 


Lewistown, Pa , 

June 15, 1896, 


Wallace, Samuel H., D.D., 



New Egypt, N. J., 

Feb. 2, 1897, 


Wait, Ransom, 



Tracy, Minn., 

Mar. IS, 1897, 

Ward, Josiah Jerome, 

H. R., 


Wooster, 0., 

Feb. 6, 1897, 


Wells, Delos E., 



Minneapolis, Minn., 

July 18, 1896, 


Wells, Samuel T., 

H. R., 

Los Angeles, 

Ventura, Cal., 

May 29, 1896, 


Westcott, Robert Raikes, 



Clarinda, la., 

Jan. 11, 1897, 


Whitney, Joseph C, 



Minneapolis, Minn., 

May 1, 1896, 


Wickes, Henry, 



Rochester, N. Y., 

Mar. 23, 1897, 


Williams, Robert, 

P , 

Walla Walla, 

Kamiah, Idaho, 

April 14, 1896, 


Wilson, Henry Boswell, 

S. S. M., 


Limerick, Ga., 

April 14, 1896, 


Woodhull, George E., 

F. M., 

New York, 

Tokio, Japan, 

Oct. 11,1895, 


Wortman, Martin L., 

W. (',., 


Allegheny, Pa., 

Mar. 7, 1897, 


Wyckoff, Samuel, 

w. c, 

La Crosse, 

Madison, Wis., 

April 24, 1897, 


Wylie, Thomas Alex. H , 



Bedford, la , 

July 11, 1896, 


Tates, Rudolph C, 

s. s, 


Callery, Pa , 

Aug. 3, 1896, 


Young, W. C. D.D, LL.D., 



Danville, Ky., 

Sept, 16, 1896, 



WM. HENRY ROBERTS, Stated Clerk. 

Of the one hundred and twenty-eight ministers 
whose decease was thus reported to the last General 
Assembly, fifty-seven had lived seventy years or 
more ; twenty-seven had lived eighty years or 
more ; and four had passed their ninetieth birth- 

Ministerial Necrology. 

.*S~We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible m the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 

Bradnack, Isaac Robinson. — Born in Bedford, 
Eng., January 3, 1813 ; ordained by the Pres- 
bytery of Oswego, April 18, 1858 ; pastor of 
the church in Volney, Oswego county, N. Y. , 
1858-60 ; Sandy Creek, Oswego county, N. Y., 
1860-63 ; Cambria, Niagara county, N. Y., 
1863-70; Bridgewater, Oneida county, N. Y., 
1870-72 ; Rutland, Jefferson county, N. Y., 
1872-75 ; stated supply at South Wales, N. Y., 
Black Creek, N. Y., Little Valley, N. Y., 

day. This necrological roll is an interesting study. 
For lo ! we stand on Jordan's strand, 

Our friends are passing over, 
And, just before, the shining shore 

We may almost discover. 

Riga, N. Y., Brookton, Tompkins county, 
N. Y. , Panama, Chaut. county, 1887-97. Died 
at Panama, N. Y., June 11. 1897. 

Married Miss Mary Anne Fowler, October 10, 
1839, who died October 26, 1874. Eight chil- 
dren were born to them — -one son and seven 
daughters. In 1891 his only son, Dr. Fowler 
Bradnack, died in Buffalo, N. Y. Two daugh- 
terssurvivehim, Mrs. Agnes B. Earl, of Buffalo, 
and Mrs. Elizabeth B. Wilkinson, of Panama, 
N. Y., also three grandchildren and one great- 

Corss, Charles C. — Born May 22, 1803, at 
Greenfield, Mass. ; graduated from Amherst 
College, 1830, and from Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1834 ; ordained by Susquehanna 
Presbytery, 1836 ; pastor of Presbyterian 
churches of Athens and East Smith field, Pa., 




1838-47 ; in East Smithfield until 1869 ; sup- 
plied Moores Hill, 1871-87. Died, May 20, 
1896, at East Smithfield. 

Married, September 1, 1836, Miss Ann Hoyt, 
Kingston, Pa., who died August 7, 1851 — five 
children. Married June 6, 1866, Miss Lucelia 
Phelps, East Smithfield, who died six weeks 
before him. 

Craig, William P. — Born at Keokuk, la., Octo- 
ber 6, 1862 ; graduated from Parsons College, 
1881, and from McCormick Theological Sem- 
inary, 1885 ; ordained by the Presbytery of 
Southern Dakota, 1886 ; pastor, Sioux Falls, 
Dakota, 1885-88 ; Princeton Seminary, 1888- 
89 ; Caro, Mich., 1890-91 ; Pomona, 1891-95 ; 
supplied Missoula, Mont. , July to December, 
1896. Died at Chicago, July 14, 1897. 

Married Jean Hill Pinkerton, daughter of 
Rev. John Pinkerton, D.D., at San Diego, 
Cal., October, 1891. She died July 5, 1894, 
leaving one son. 

Crocker, James N., D.D. — Born at Cambridge, 
N. Y., May 13, 1827 ; graduated from Union 
College, 1849, and Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1852 ; ordained by the Presbytery 
of Albany, 1852 ; pastor at Carlisle, N. Y., 
June, 1852; Carlton, N. Y., 1855; superin- 
tendent of public schools, Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., 1868 ; pastor Newland Chapel, Sara- 
toga, which became the Second Presbyterian 
Church, August 21, 1871. Died June 20, 

Married, in Albany, June 17, 1852, Mary 
A. Dillon, who survives him. 

Fulton, Robert H, D.D. — Born in Washington, 
county, Pa., April 10, 1843; graduated from 
Washington and Jefferson College, 1866, and 
Western Theological Seminary, 1872 ; ordained 
by the Presbytery of Baltimore, 1872 ; pastor of 
Second Church of Baltimore, 1872-83 ; and of 
Northminster Church, Philadelphia, 1883-97 ; 
from 1866 to 1872 he spent as principal of 
Logan Academy and of the Brownsville public 
school. Died, July 12, 1897, at his home, 
3420 Hamilton street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Married, Caroline R. Gibbons, daughter of 
J. V. and Maria Oliphant Gibbons, at Browns- 
ville, Pa., 1872. The widow and the only 
child, Louise, age twenty-two, survive. 

Hawkins, John Laird. — Born near Chambers- 
burg, Pa., August 4, 1800; graduated from 
Washington College, 1818 ; teacher in New- 
ark, N. J., 1818-1820 ; studied theology with 
Dr. John Anderson, Buffalo, Pa.; licensed, 
April 21, 1825; ordained, October, 1827, by 
the Presbytery of Washington ; ministerial 
work, Connelsville, Pa., 1828-43 ; Sharon and 
Carmi, 111., 1843-48; Cincinnati, O., 1849- 
50 ; Mt. Carmel, 111., 1850-54 ; Lebanon, 
Ind., 1854-57 ; Toulon and West Jersey, 111., 
1858-61 ; W. C. (upon his father's death, 
with his sister — Washington, Pa.), 1862-66 ; 
Baxter Springs, Kans., 1867-71; Carbon- 
dale, 111., 1873-82; H. R, 1883-97. Died, 
June 14, 1897. 

Married, September 30, 1834, Miss Eliza S, 
Fuller, who died October, 1836. Her son 

died at the age of six months. Married Miss 
Mary C. Silliman, daughter of Rev. John 
Silliman, January 6, 1848, who died July 24, 
1850. Her son died at the age of three 

Howe, Franklin Shumway. — Born at Spring- 
field, Vt., August 26, 1809 ; graduated from 
Rochester Institute and taught in the Canan- 
daigua Academy, and entered Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1838 ; remained two years 
there : ordained by the Presbytery of Tran- 
sylvania in 1840 ; secretary of the American 
S. S. Union, 1840-41 ; pastor of the church of 
Chilicothe, 1846-50; West Hoboken, 6th 
Street, N. Y, 122d Street, N. Y., 1851-54; 
Phelps, N. Y., 1855-59 ; Watkins, N. Y., 
1859-71 ; supplied the churches of Southport, 
Burdett, Franklin Street, Elmira, and Hector. 
A very laborious and successful minister. Died 
at Burdett, July 13, 1897, and was buried 
in the beautiful cemetery at Watkins, beside 
his second wife, July 15, 1897. 

Married, Miss Clara Pierson, of New York, 
March, 1844, and Miss Martha R. Stewart, of 
Brooklyn, September 4, 1856. He died child- 

Millard, Edward N. B. — Born at Vienna, 
Austria, June 29, 1851 ; graduated from There- 
sianum Academy, Vienna, Austria, and 
Bristol College, England ; chaplain in her 
majesty's service for twelve years ; pastor at 
Kingston, Jamacia, West Indies, 1874 ; pastor 
at Lansdowne, Ontario, Can., 1885-89 ; pastor 
at Los Animas, Cal., 1891-92 ; pastor at 
Socorro, N. M., 1892-93 ; pastor at Moran, 
Kans., 1894-95 ; pastor at Dodge City, Kans., 
1895, where he was obliged to give up preach- 
ing on account of illness. Died in Iola, Allen 
county, Kans., September 17, 1896. 

Married, October 30, 1873, Mary King, who 
died April 20, 1891. Three sons were born to 
them, two sons still living. Second marriage, 
December 24, 1894, to Miss Carrie Strong. 
By this marriage no children. 

Pollock, William G. — Born in Ohio county, 
W. Va., January 10, 1849 ; graduated from 
"Washington and Jefferson College, 1878, and 
Western Theological Seminary, 1881 ; or- 
dained by the Presbytery of Washington, 
June, 1881 ; home missionary at Wicks, 
Mont., 1881, and afterward at Fort Concho, 
Texas; teacher at Princeton, Ky., 1882; 
teacher, West Pennsylvania, 1882-84 ; stated 
supply, Colton, Cal., 1885-86 ; stated supply, 
Monument, Colo., 1887. Died May 18, 
1897, at Redlands, Cal. 

Married, October 5, 1887, Miss Minnie 
Repp, who survives him. 

Rosseel, Joseph Alex. — Born at Ogdensburg, 
N. Y., June 7, 1817 ; graduated from Am- 
herst College, 1839, and Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1843 ; ordained by the Presbytery 
of Ogdensburg, January 8, 1845 ; he supplied 
Evans Mills, N. Y., for eight years ; Neenah, 
Wis. ; returned East and supplied Orwell and 
Rome churches in Pennsylvania, and later 
Warren and Little Meadows, Pa. Died in 
Towanda, Pa., April 29, 1897. 


Synods in small capitals ; Presbyteries in italics ; Churches in Roman. 

8®° It is of great importance to the treasurers of all the boards that when money is sent to them, the 
name of the church from whence it comes, and of the presbytery to which the church belongs, should be 
distinctly written, and that the person sending should sign his or her name distinctly, with proper title, 
e.g., Paxtor, 'Treasurer, Miss or Mrs., as the case may be. Careful attention to this will save much trouble 
and perhaps prevent serious mistakes. 


Note.— Contributions marked f are Thank Offerings from Christian Endeavor Societies for the Debt. 

Atlantic— East Florida— Palatka 2d, 1 ; St Augustine, 
108.33. Fairfield— Sumter 2d, 1. McClelland— Tit. Pisgah, 
1. South Florida — Altooua, 3 : Kissimmee sab.-sch. birthday 
offering, 1.21 ; Paola, 8.80; Titusville (C. E., 4), 27.50. 

151 84 

Baltimore— Baltimore— Annapolis (sab.-sch., 10), 20.79' 
Baltimore 1st, 50; — 2d (sab.-sch., 50), 100 • — Aisquith 
Street, 5.55; — Bohemian and Moravian sab.-sch., 2; — 
Boundary Avenue sab.-sch. Mis. Soc, 31.10 ;— Brown Me- 
morial, 242.90 ; — Light Street C. E., 6 ; Cumberland (sab.- 
sch., 10; lurdebt, 10), 20 ; Fallston, 2; Lonaconing sab.-sch., 
10; Mount Paran sab.-sch., 3.55 ; Taneytown ladies, 15; The 
Grove, 21.84. New Castle— Head of Christiana, 4.40 ; Lewes, 
10.95; Port Penn sab.-sch., 6.84; Smyrna sab.-sch., 14.92 ; 
Wicomico sab -sch., 5; Wilmington West, 94. Washing- 
ton City— Hyattsville, 6.62. 673 46 

California— Benicia— Point Arena, for sustentatiou, 1 ; 
Vellejo, 20. Los Angeles— El Monte, 9.90; Los Angeles 3d, 
22 ; — ( entral, 12 ; — Grand View C E., f 3.75 ; — Knox, 5 ; 
San Bernardino, 6 ; San Fernando (sab.-sch., 2), 13; Santa 
Monica, 22c. Oakland— Fruitvale, 3.50. Sacramento— Ander- 
son, Mrs. Carrie Frisbie, 1; Carson City Jr. C. E., 2.50; 
Redding, a member, 1.50; Tremont Westminster, 1. San 
Francisco— San Francisco Calvarv, (sustentation, 6.51), 
74.03; — Welsh, 6.20. San Jose— Monterey, 1.50. Stock- 
ton— Columbia, 1 ; Sonora (sab.-sch. ,3), 5. Santa Barbara- 
Santa Barbara 1st, 130 ; Santa Maria, 10 ; Ventura 1st, 47.70. 

377 80 

Catawba— Cape Fear— Simpson Mission, 2.56; Sloan's 
Chapel sab.-sch., 1. Catawba— Charlotte Seventh Street, 1. 
Yadkin— Lloyd, sustentatiou, 1. 5 56 

Colorado— Boulder— Boulder, sustentation, 15 ; Fort Col- 
lins. 35; Fort Morgan, 3.41; Fossil Creek, 3.60. Denver— 
Denver South Broadway C. E., 2; Westminster University, 
2.50. Pueblo— I inicero, 1 ; La Sauses, 1 ; Mesa (sab.-sch., 
17.87; C. E., 2.65), 61.12; Pueblo Fountain and sab.-sch., 
5 -i°- 130 13 

Illinois— Blooming/on— Chamuaign C. E., f 67c. Cairo- 
Anna sab.-sch., 5.33; Richland, 2.80. Chicago— Chicago 
Lake View, sustentation, 17.33; Oak Park sab.-sch., 17.24; 
River Forest, 10.50; Various churches, 393.26. Peoria— 
Altoona (sustentation, 2), 7. Bock Biver— Rock Island Broad- 
way sab.-sch., 21.84; Sterling W. H. MS., 150. Schuyler— 
Montebello, 2.28. Springfield— Jacksonville 2d Portuguese, 
5.25 ; —Westminster, gift of Mrs. E. L. C. Moore for debt, 10 • 
Winchester, 2.10. 645 60 

Indiana — Crawfordsville — Crawfordsville Centre, 37 20- 
Rossville, 2. New Albang— Walnut Ridge C. E., 1. Vin- 
eennes— Evansville Grace C. E., 13.50 ; Petersburg, for debt, 3. 
White Water— Mount Carmel C. E., f70c. 57 40 

Indian Territory— Cima/ron— Purcell, 21. Oklahoma— 
Oklahoma City sab.-sch., 2.<J0. Sequoyah— Muscogee, 45.72. 

69 62 

InWA— Cedar Rapids— Watkins, 2; Wyoming, 5. Corn- 
ing — Randolph, 2.63. Council Bluffs — Missouri Valley 
for debt, 6. Des Moines — Colfax L. M. Circle, 3- 
Dallas Centre, 30.54; Des Moines, Highland Park C. 
E.,t5.05 ; Laurel, 3: Monlton, 12; Osceola C. E., + 5. 
Fort Dodge— Coon Rapids, 50ft Iowa— Birmingham, 8 ; 1'air- 
fleld, 60.77. Iowa City— Crawfordsville, 5; Davenport 2d 
Bab .-sch., 3 ; Fairview sab.-sch., 4; Scott, 3.50; Tipton C.E., 
t 5. Sioux Gift/— Ashton German, 12: Auburn, 2; Early C. 
I ., 2; MartIey.(C. E., 1.50), 8.50; Schaller sab.-sch., 4 ; Union 
Township, 6.25; Wall Lake, 10; Zoar, 4.52. Waterloo— 
Eldora, 2.48; Owasa, 3.65; Point Pleasant, 4; Salem, 5- 
Toledo sab.-sch., 5.30. 233 69 

Kansas— Emporia— Emporia 1st. 32.95: Maple City, 2.74 • 
Oxford, 2.35; Hose Valley 1 ; Salem Welsh, 3; Sedan, 5- 
Walnut Valley, 4.01; Wichita Endeavor, 5; Wiulield, 26.26.' 
Highland— Bailey ville, additional, 1; EHinghani, 5; High- 
land C. E., f 18.20 ; Holton C.E., 7.31; Huron, 2.50. Lamed— 
McPherson, sustentation, 2.75. Neosho— Independence, 15.29; 
Miami. 4.11; Pleasanton. 4. .W,> ww ,_i> e lphos sah.-s«h. 
Easter offering, 5; Lincoln, sustentatiou, 1. Topeka— Sey- 
mour, 5 ; Stanley, 1.75. 150 25 

Kentucky — Ebenezer — Ludlow C.E., f "; New Concord, 6; 
Newport, 6.50. Louisville — New Castle, 1 ; Pewee Valley, 
sustentatiou, 3. Transylrania— Harrodsburg 1st, 25 ; Lan- 
caster (sustentatiou, 5), 10. 58 50 
Michigan— Detroit— Birmingham C. E., tl-'o; Brighton 
(sab.-sch., 86c), 2.36; Detroit Forest Avenue (sab.-sch., for 
debt, 10.30; sab.-sch., Washington's birthday offering, 14.19), 
41.12; —Memorial, 44.22 ; Howell, 9; Northville, 21.09; Ply- 
mouth, 5.14; White Lake, 75c; Ypsilanti sab.-sch., 8.6 - 7. 
Flint— Gaiues, 5 ; Hayes, 1 ; Marlette 1st, 8. Grand Rapids — 
Grand Rapids 1st, 2 ; — Westminster, 141.60 ; Ionia, 68.01. 
Kalamazoo— Paw Paw C. E., f 1.50; Schoolcraft (C. E.,1). 
6. Lake. Superior — Eseanaba Jr. C. E., 2; Ford River ('. 
E., 3; Ishpeming, 6.26; Red Jacket (sab.-sch., 13 28), 72. 
Lansing— Battle Creek, 31 ; Concord, 13.95 ; Windsor, 5. 
Monroe— Cold water (sab.-sch., 5), 10; Deerfield, 3; Tecuraseh, 
20. Peloskei/ — Cadillac, 15 ; Mackinaw City, 1.25. Saginau- — 
Bay City, 1st, 50 ; Tawas, 3. 602 67 
Minnesota— Duluth—TslcSair Memorial, 3. Mankulo— 
Hardwick, 1.39; Jackson, 5 ; Pipestone C. E., 1.50; Red- 
wood Falls, 7; Worthington Westminster sal) -sch., 5.23. 
Minneapolis — Minneapolis Grace (sab.-sch., Washington's 
birthday offering, 3), 13;— Highland Park, 16.31. Red 
Ricer — Alliance sab.-sch., 2.95. St. Cloud— Lakeside, 2.75 ; 
St. Cloud, 4; Wheaton, 1.80 ; Willmar (C. E., 5.99; sab.-sch., 
1.73), 7.72. St. Paul— Shakopee, 5; St. Paul, Arlington 
Hills, 7 ; — Central, 45.47 ; — Dayton Avenue (C. K., 6.25 1, 
31 .25 ; — House of Hope, 350. Winona— Albert Lea, 25 ; < an- 
ton C. E., 2. 537 37 
Missouri — Kansas City— Appleton City, 55c. ; Kansas City 
4th C. E. , 2; Salt Springs,'2.28. Ozark— Monett, 26. Palmyra— 
Hannibal, 10; Louisiana, 4 ; New Providence sab.-sch., 1 ; 
Shelbyville, 4.90 ; James B. McKay, 3. Platte— Albany, 1 ; 
Craig, 27; King City, 4.75; St. Joseph Westminster, 30. 
St. Louis — Emmanuel, 11.25, Pacific, 5.80; St. Louis 1st, 
145.51;— Cote Brilliante C. E.,2.07; — North, 31 ; Wash- 
ington, 55c; White Water, 3.05; Zoar, 10.75; Mrs. W. 
Williams, 3. 329 46 
Montana — Butte— Deer Lodge, 7.35. Helena— Bozeman 
sab.-sch., 62.66 ; Manhattan 1st Holland, 2. 72 01 
Nebraska — Box Butte — Bodarc, 50c. ; Norden, 9.75. Hust- 
ings — Aurora (C. E., 2.65), 7.65; Hansen. 4; Hastings 1st, 
8. Kearnei/ — Cherry Creek, 4; Cozad, 2; Sumner, 2. Ne- 
braska City— Lincoln 1st Jr. C. E.,7. Niobrara— Bethesda, 1 ; 
Norfolk, 3. Omaha— Bethany sab.-sch., 16c; Florence, 2; 
Marietta, 3; Omaha Bedford Place sab.-sch., 2.17; — " 
Blackbird Hills, 2 ; Omaha Agency Bethlehem, 1 ; Schuyler 
(C. E., 5), 10. 69 23 
New Jersey — Elizabeth — C\arVsvi\\c, 2; Elizabeth 3d 
(Youths' Mis. Soc, 20), 70; Lower Valley, 2.50. Jersey 
City— Hackensack sab.-sch., 11 ; Hoboken sab.-sch., 17.17 ; 
Jersey City Claremont. 5; Passaic C. E., f 3; Paterson 
3d, 9; Rutherford C. E., f 7.55 ; West Hoboken, 20. Man- 
month— Barncgat, 5 j Bordentowu, 7.75; Burlington, 113.90; 
Delanco, 13.47; Forked River, 5; South River German, 
2. Morris and Orange — Chester, 27.50; Dover sab.-sch. Mis. 
Soc, 50 ; Fast Orange Brick, 105.02 ; Hanover, for debt (Mrs. 
Stephen N. Peck, 5), 30; Mine Hill C. E., 2.50; Morrislowu 
South St. sab.-sch. Mis. Soc, 87.50; Parsippany , 7; Itockaway 
[C.E. (f4.2S) 6.81), 15.19. Arifarfc-Bloomtield 1st sab..scu., 
75 ; Montclair 1st ('. E., 12.50 ; — Grace, 11.31 : Newark North 
Park sab.-sch., 10; — Wicklitfe, 36.92. New Brunswick— 
New Brunswick 2d. 27.67; Princeton Witherspoon St., 1. 
Newton — Franklin Furnace (('. E., 7.09), 18.04; Harmony 
sac -sch., 1.10; Newtnu, additional, 45; North Hardistou 
sab.-sch. Faster offering, 7.77 ; Yellow Frame, Levi Canning 
legacy, 100. West Jersey— Atco C. E., 1.60: Bridgeton 2d 
C K., 27.50 j —4th, 5; — West, 70; Camden 1st, 27.48; 
CapeMay.5; Clayton, 30; Haddonfield (sab.-sch., 9 ; Jr. C. 
E., 2), 273.80; Hammontou, 5; Millville sab.-sch., 45.66; 
Woodbury sab.-sch., 75.63. 1532 33 
New Mexico— Arizona— Phoenix 1st, 30. Santa Fe— 

Santa Fe 1st, 1. :i\ 

Nr.w York— Albany— Albany 2d, 84.98; — Rensselaer St. 

Mission Jr. C. E., 3; Gloversville 1st 156.75 ; New Scotland, 





13.24; Saratoga Springs 2d, 13; Schenectady 1st (for debt, 
6.94), 131.52. Binghamton— Binghamton, 1st C. E., + 10; 
Freetown, 3; Nichols, "M.," 3; Nineveh (C. E., 5.53), 
55.68. Boston— Holyoke, 6 ; West Bedford C. E., 4.29. 
Brooklyn— Brooklyn 1st City Park Branch C. E., f 50c. ; — 2d 
sab.-sch. Mis. Soc, 65; — Central C. E., 10; — Hopkins 
Street, 10; — Lafayette Ave., 27.36; — Memorial C. E., 
12.50 ; Mt. Olivet, 3 ; — Ross St., 112 ; — South Third St. C.E., 
10; — Throop Ave., 42. Buffalo— Buffalo Bethany. 64; — Cen- 
tral, 45.22 ; — West Ave. sab.-sch., 6.76 ; Franklinville, 2.50 ; 
Portville, 160. Cayuga — Sennett, 2.25. Champlain — Child- 
wold, 4. Columbia — Durham 1st sab.-sch., 1.50 ; Hudson, 
6.38; Livingstonville, 2.17; Valatie, 3.16. Geneva— Bellona 
C. E., f 1 ; Ovid sab.-sch., 10; Penn Yan (sab.-sch., 8), 10; 
Seneca Falls sab.-sch., 50; Waterloo C. E., 20. Hudson — 
Hopewell C. E., 6.05; Otisville, 7; Rockland 1st, 2. Long 
Island — Bellport, 5 ; Bridgehampton, 17.31 ; Moriches, 25.86; 
South Haven C. E., t 4. Lyons— East Palmyra (C. E., 3.10), 
9.65; Wolcott 1st, 9.97. Nassau — Brentwood, 4 ; Comae, 3 ; 
Glen Cove C. E., 15; Newtown, 1; Ocean Side, 3; White- 
stone, 8.35. New York— New York 1st, for debt, 10 ; — 
Madison Ave. C. E, 24 ; — North C. E., 15 ; — Park, 62.45 ; 

— Tremont, 10; —University Place, 1211.60; —Westmin- 
ster West Twenty-third St. sab.-sch., 10. Niagara — Holley, 
10 ; Wilson sab.-sch., 5. North River — Kingston, 10; Marl- 
borough, 10; Poughkeepsie, 30.45; Rondout sab.-sch., 16.59. 
Otsego —Richfield Springs sab.-sch., 4.61. Rochester — Chili, 
10.80 ; Groveland C. E., 5.26 ; Ogden, 8.02 ; Rochester Brick, 
200 ; — Central, 300 ; Sweden C. E, 5. St. Lawrence— Cape 
Vincent, 4.65 ; Chaumont C. E., 3 ; Ox Bow C. E, 5 ; Water- 
town Hope sab.-sch., 15.50. Steuben— Addison, 100 ; Camp- 
bell, 39.75. Syracuse— Chittenango, Easter offering, 50; 
Syracuse 1st, 181.84; —East Genesee C. E., + 85c. Troy— 
Johnsonville, 7.40; Malta, 3; Schaghticoke, 10; Waterford 
sab.-sch., 15. Utica— Dolgeville C. E., 5; Little Falls, 129; 
Lowville, 45.44; Turin, 19.40; Utica Bethany (sab.-sch., 
10.45), 17.83; Verona (sab.-sch., 6.95), 16.95; Waterville, 
45.68; Wilriainstown, 7.17. Westchester— Bridgeport 1st, 5; 
Hartford, 45; Rye sab.-sch., 70; Youkers 1st, monthly con- 
cert, 10.27. 4098 46 

North Dakota — Fargo — Enderlin, 3. Minnewaukon — 
Bottineau Peabody Branch, 1. Pembina — Grand Forks, 
25. 29 

Ohio— Athens— Cutler, 2.45; Decatur, 1 ; Tupper's Plains, 
1. Chillicothe— French, 2. Cincinnati— Cincinnati 5th, 
" The Widow's Mite," 250. Cleveland— Cleveland Bethany 
(Jr. C. E., 1), 6.25 ; —Calvary, 107.50 ; Independence, 5; 
Milton sab.-sch., 5. Dayton— Dayton Riverdale Jr. C. E., 
1.50; Eaton, 3.50; Troy sab.-sch., 16.50. Huron— Genoa 
sab.-sch., 12. Mahoning— Lisbon 1st, 20 ; Vienna, 19; Ells- 
worth sab.-sch., 26; Rev. R. Buell Love and wife, Warren, O., 
23. Marion— Iberia C. E., 2.35. Maumee— Bowling Green, 
16.75; Toledo 5th, 5. St. Clairsville— Antrim, 2; Barnes- 
ville sab.-sch., 18.47; Bellaire 1st, for debt, 5 ; Birmingham, 1; 
West Brooklyn, 5. Steubenville— Beech Spring, sab.-sch. , 11 ; 
Bethel sab.-sch., 7; Buchanan Chapel C. E, 1 ; Carrollton 
(sab.-sch., 15), 23 : Toronto, 9.97; Through Home Mission- 
ary Committee, 92.43. Wooster— Olivesburgh ( Robert Hous- 
ton for debt, 100; Rev. J. T. Houston for debt, 25), 125; 
Wooster 1st C. E. 7.26. Zanesville—'Sew Lexington, 2. 

835 93 

Oregon— East Oregon— Elgin, 3 ; Enterprise sab.-sch., 1.20; 
Sunimerville, 12. Portland— Bethel, 2 ; Clackamas 1st, 1 ; 
Damascus Trinity German, 3.20 ; Portland 3d, additional, 
3. 25 40 

Pennsylvania— Allegheny— Beaver C. E., 10 ; Glenshaw 
sab.-sch., 40.44. .BtaimuMe— Braddoek 1st, 13.40 ; Congruity, 
20; Irwin, 8.70; Johnstown sab.-sch., 13.30; Pleasant 
Grove, 6. Butler— Fairview, 8.90 ; Millbrook, 15 ; Petrolia, 
15.57. Carlisle— Dickinson, 10 ; Harrisburg Covenant, 15 ; 

— Pine St., 62.20 ; Mechanicsburgh C. E., 10 ; Millerstown 
sab.-sch., 4; Presbyterial. 6.70. Chester— Bethany, 4 ; Bryn 
MawrC. E., 15; Forks of Brandy wine C. E., 6.50; Ridley 
Park sab.-sch., 40 ; Swarthmore, 4. Clarion — Academia, 4; 
Brookville, 20.50. Erie— Edinboro sab.-sch., 5.52; Girard 
C. E, t 3 ; North Clarendon Jr. C. E. ; 10 j Titusville, E O. 
Emerson, 225; Waterloo, 3: Westminster sab.-sch., 8.77. 
Huntingdon— Altoona 3d C. E, 4.93; Birmingham, 40.49; 
Bradford, 1.75; Houtzdale, 7.75; Lewistown C. E, 8.11; 
Mapleton C. E., 2.50; Middle Tuscarora Academia C. E., 1 ; 
Moshannon and Snow Shoe sab.-sch., for debt, 2 ; Osceola, 
Jr. C. E., 5 ; Port Matilda sab.-sch. Easter offering, 3.11; Port 
Royal, 15; Sherman's Valley, 2; State College C. E.,+ 10; 
Williamsburgh, 4. Kiltanning— Appleby Manor, 6 ; Brady's 
Bend, 1.10; Clierry Tree, 3.06; Indiana, 79.25; Mahoning, 1.36; 
Mechanicsburgh, 1; Midway, 2; Whitesburg C. E., 2.60. 
Lackawanna— Canton, additional, 1 ; Carbondale, 58.65 ; 
Greenwood, 1 ; Kingston sab.-sch., 15; UiugcliffeC. E., 37.50; 
Lime Hill, 1; Nanlicoke sab.-sch., 4.24; Plains (sab.-sch., 
2) 7- Rushville, 6.77; Scrantou 1st, for debt, 12.50; Tunk- 
ha'nn'ock sab.-sch., 12.32; West Pittston, 229.56 ; Wilkesbarre 
Memorial, 162.08 ; Wyalusing 2d (Jr. C. E., 5), 14. Lehigh— 
Ashland (L. M. S., 5 ; C. E., 5 ; Jr. C. E, 3), 28 ; Freeland, 4 ; 

Lansford 1st sab.-sch., 5; Middle Smithfield, Rev. Alvin 
Blackwell, 10; New Italy, 5; Slatington, 7.50; South Beth- 
lehem, 50 ; Summit Hill, 120 ; Tamaqua, 6 ; Upper Lehigh, 6 ; 
Weatherly, 16. Northumberland — Mahoning sab.-sch., 20.17 ; 
Montoursville (sab.-sch., 3.69), 6.69; Orangeville, 14; Wash- 
ington Allenwood sab.-sch., 13.50. Parkersburg — Buck- 
hannon C. E. +3; Sistersville C. E., t 5- Philadelphia'' 
Philadelphia 1st, for debt, 5 ; — 3d S. S. Miss'y Soc, 81.63; 
— Arch Street C. E., 8.50 ; —Atonement (C. E., 5 ; Jr. C. E., 
1), 6 ; — Gaston C. E., t 8.65 ; — Harper Memorial, 17.65 ; — 
Hope, 14; — North, 37.34; — North Broad Street, 120; — 
North Tenth Street, 1.25; — South (C. E., +2.25), 12.25; — 
Tabor (sab.-sch. Birthday Fund, 20), 121.68 ; — Temple C.E., 
+ 6; —Trinity, 70.03; —Walnut Street sab.-sch., 86.18; — 
West Tioga Chapel sab.-sch., 3. Philadelphia North— Chest- 
nut Hill Trinity sab.-sch., 10; Huntingdon Valley sab.sch., 
15; Leverington, 30; Lower Providence sab.-sch., 8.55; 
Pottstown, 20.39 ; " In Memory of a Mother," 50. Pitts- 
burg— Courtney and Coal Bluff, 1 ; Moon Run Mission C. 
E., 15.22; Pittsburg 43d Street sab.-sch., 50; —Park 
Avenue (for debt, 5), 45; — Point Breeze, 1100; —Shady 
Side (sab.-sch., 51.77), 120.08. Redstone— Belle Vernon, 
10.21 ; Greensboro, 2.50 ; Mount Pleasant, 37 ; Scottdale (C. 
E., 13 ; Jr.C.E., 8), 28. Shenango— Beaver Falls, 15 : Pulaski, 
3; Slippery Rock sab.-sch., 1.70. Washington — Allen Grove 
C. E., f6; Mill Creek C. E., +19; Moundsville, 3.12; Mount 
Olivet sab -sen., 5; Mount Pleasant, 3.50; Washington 1st, 
226.51. Wellsboro — Knoxville sab.-sch., 2. Westminster — 
Lancaster 1st C. E., 8 ; Little Britain, 15. 4144 93 

South Dakota. — Aberdeen— Aberdeen C.E.,7; Roscoe, 5. 
Southern Dakota — Bridgewater sab.-sch., 4; Brule Co. 1st 
Bohemian C. E., + 3.20 ; Tyndall, 10. 29 20 

Tennessee.— Holston— College Hill, 8; Jeroldstown, 11; 
Mount Olivet, 1; St. Marks, 3. Union— Bearden C. E.,5; 
Erin, 5; Knoxville 4th (Sustentation, 5), 15.30; —Lincoln 
Park, 3 ; New Providence C. E., 2. 53 30 

Texas.— Austin— El Paso, 17.25. North Texas— Jacksboro 
sab.-sch., 1.25; Throckmorton, 6.25. Trinity— Albany, 24. 

48 75 

Utah.— Boise— Boise City C.E., 7.05. 7 05 

Washington. — Olympia — Aberdeen, 1; Cosmopolis C.E., 
1 ; Ridgefield, 5.25. Puget Sound— Bethany, 1 ; Clearbrook, 
2 ; Nooksack, 7 ; Nooksack City, 2 ; Seattle Westminster 
(sab.-sch., 5), 16. Spokane— Bonner's Ferry, 5; Cully Mem- 
orial, 2 ; Davenport sab-scb., 3 ; Presbytery of Spokane, 20 ; 
Walla Walla— North Fork, 5. 70 25 

Wisconsin.— Chippewa— Ashland 1st, 11.75; Bessemer, 6. 
La Crosse — Galesville Mission Bible sab.-sch., 4. Madison— 
Brodhead, 20; Cambria, 9; Eden, 3; Janesville, 52.15; Madi- 
son Christ, 50 ; Marion, 5 ; Muscoda, 2 ; Prairie du Sac (sab.- 
sch., 8.40), 17.76 ; Reedsburgh, 3.69 ; Returned by a mission- 
ary, 18.75. Milwaukee— Melnik Bohemian, 6 ; Milwaukee 
Immanuel (sab.-sch., 19.26), 42.51; —Perseverance, 1.08; 
Waukesha sab.-sch., Easter offering, 14. Winnebago— Mari- 
nette, 49.90 ; Oxford (C. E., 5), 20. 336 59 

Total received from churches 315,406 78 

Woman's Executive Committee 9,439 51 

Total 524,846 29 


James L. Parent, late of Niles, Mich , additional, 
17.91 ; Joseph S. Brewster, late of Philadelphia, 
Pa., 4107.88 ; David S. Ingalls, late of Springville, 
N. Y., 48; Legacy in part of Mrs. A. C. Dunlap, 
late of Marion, O., 60 ; Joseph P. Dunlap, late of 
Syracuse, N. Y., 502.60 4,736 39 


Mrs. Thomas Morrison, for debt. 5; "J. L. B.," 
for debt, 5 ; "A. M. P.," 10 ; W. M. Wallace, 2.50 ; 
George W. Wallace, 2.50 ; G. L. Kedzie, Yellow 
Springs, O., 200; I. B. Kedzie, Yellow Springs, 
O., 2.00; J. W. Parks, So. Haven, Kans., 25; 
J. B. Davidson, Newville, Pa., 10; Joseph C. 
Piatt, Waterford, N. Y., 25; "Fort Covington 
Friend," 200 ; Miss Jennie McElroy, N. Y., for 
debt, 5; Society of Missionary Inquiry, Auburn 
Theological Seminary, 85 ; A Friend, 5 ; Charlie 
Man warren, Windsor, N. Y., for debt, 50 ; Rev. 
Thomas Marshall, Chicago, 111., 10; "A Reader 
of Herald and Presbyter," 14 ; Mrs. Calista Ben- 
choof, 20 ; Mrs. Mary L. Baldwin Peele, 65 ; Rev. 
Charles Herron, Troy, O., for debt, 10; G. P. 
Reers, Yonkers, N. Y., 50 ; M. D. McMillan, Wil- 
mington, O., 5 ; J. E. Bond, Marseilles, 111., 11.20 ; 
Miss E. S. McCreight. Barrv, UK, 10; A Friend, 
100 ; Mr. and Mrs. T. S. Day, 9 ; A Sincere Friend, 
Germantown, Pa., 10 ; H. M. Wilson, Vinton, la., 
5- Miss Isabella A. Griffin, St. Louis, Mo., HI; 
C. C. Savage, Philadelphia, Pa., 25; Mildred W. 




Packard, Brooklyn, N. Y., 20 ; Elisa D. Woolf, 
Carthage, 111., 2 ; "Thank Offering," 25; John 
C. Wick, Youngstowu, 0., 500; E. F. Foley and 
family, 1 ; Kev. J. H. Freeman, Cheungmai, 12; 
Rev. William Harris, Jr., Cheungmai, 12; Mrs. 
T. B. and Nellie Niles, Lyndon, Kans.,70 cents; 
" C. B., for deDt, 10 ; Richard S. Watson, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., lor deht, 5 ; II., Winchester, Va., for 
debt, 2 ; James Crockett, Brookline, Mass., for 
debt, 10 ; W. S. Kellogg, New York City, for debt, 
10; "Alexandria," for debt, 1.30; M. S. McM., 
Vin eland, N. J., for debt, 5; W. W. Dewey, 1 ; 
Rev. and Mrs. II. Campbell, 26. C7 ; N. C. Whit- 
temore, Korea, 10; Mrs. Nunemacher, 6 ; D. S. 
Coe, Brooklyn, N. Y., 12.50; Rev. T. C.Winn 
and wife, 100 ; Joseph Earhart, 35 ; Ladies' Mis- 
sionary Society, McCormick Seminary, 5; "A 
Friend of Missions," 10; Interest on John C. 
Green Fund, 525 $2,531 37 

Total received for Home Missions, April, 1897 $32,114 05 

Amount received during same period last year 33,889 68 

H. C. Olin, Treasurer, 
Madison Square Branch P. O., Box 156, 
New York City. 


From a ladv in Dr. Scott F. Hersey's church $5 00 

Rochester Presbytery, Rochester Memorial Church 20 00 

Grand Rapids Presbytery, Grand Rapids 1st sab.-sch... 11 00 

Total $36 00 

H. C. Olin, Treasurer, 
Madison Square Branch P. O., Box 156, 
New York City. 

APRIL, 1897. 

Albany — Gloversville Kingsboro Ave., 40; Green- 
bush, 10; New Scotland, 35 ; Jefferson, 8; Stephen- 
town 1st, 15; Gloversville 1st, 125; Johnston, 
125; Saratoga Springs 2d, 20.41. Binghamlon — 
Union 1st, 5.70. Brooklyn — Brooklyn Noble 
Street (C. E., 4), 10. Champlain — Champlain, 
3.02. Chemung — Watkins 1st, 11.40. Genesee — 
Batavia 1st, 30.94. Hudson— Ridgebury, 7 ; Otis- 
ville, 1. New York — New York, University Place, 
200 ; — Woodstock, 2 ; — Park, 30.30. Niagara— 
Niagara Falls 1st, 10. North River— Salisbury 
Mills Bethlehem, 1 ; Highland Falls, 3.50; New- 
burg Calvary, 1.75 Otsego— Stamford, 10; One- 
onta, 16.45. Rochester— Victor 1st, 9.63; Fow- 
lerville, 1 ; Rochester Emmanuel, 94 cts. St. 
Lawrence — Hammond, 5 ; Chaumont, 2 ; Wad- 
dington Scotch, 16.17. Steuben — Canisteo 1st, 
16; Campbell 1st, 10. Syracuse — Syracuse 1st, 
33. Troy— Troy Oakwooil Ave., 7: Malta, 3; 
Troy Second street, 75. Utica— Little Falls, 20 ; 
Waterville, 12.18; Williamstown, 5.71. West- 
chester — Bridgeport 1st, 5; South Salem, 9.47. 

Total receipts for N.Y. Synodical Aid Fund, April, 
1897 $953 57 

Amount received during same period last year 1195 86 

H. C. Olin, Treasurer, 
Madison Square Branch P. O., Box 156, 
New York City. 


Atlantic — East Florida— Candler, 5 ; Cocoanut Grove, 
1.91 ; Cutler, 1.17 ; Miami, 43.12 ; Weirsdale, 3. 54 20 

Baltimore. — Baltimore— Baltimore Hampden, 11.68. New 
Castle— Dover, 45.51. Washington Citi/— Taeoma Park, 26.05; 
Washington City 6th, 2 ; — Eckingt'on, 5.62. 90 86 

California.— Benicia — Blue Lake C. E., fl-50 ; San Rafael 
(sab.-sch., 26.85), 76.80. Los Angeles— Monrovia, 12.40; 
Ojai, 8 ; Santa Paula, 41. Sacramento— Kirkwood, 17.50. ; 
Tehama, 5. Santa Barbara — Santa Maria C. E., 1.75. Stock- 
ton— Woodbridge, 2.50. 166 45 

Catawba. — Cape Fear — Haymount, 1. 1 00 

Colorado. — Denver — Georgetown, 4.50; Otis, 17.25. 
Pueblo— Colorado Springs 1st, 5. 26 75 

Illinois. — Bloom ington—Phi\o C. E., f7. Chicago — Lake 
Forest, Harriet Gorton Benevolent Society, 218. Peoria— 
Limestone, 5; Salem, 2. Springfield — Lincoln C. E., f4.25. 

236 25 

Indiana.— Indianapolis— Hopewell sab.-sch., 11.00. Lo- 
gansport— Mishawaka, 6.08 ; Pulaski sab.-sch., 2. New 
Albany— yew Philadelphia, 1.41. White Water — Richmond 
2d C. E.,+3. 23 49 

Indian Territory.— Choc/an — Spring Hill, 1. Oklahoma 
— Aughey, 2; Hopewell, 2; McKinley, 2; Shawnee, 6.25. 

13 25 

Iowa. — Cedar Rapids — Pleasant Hill, 2.25. Corning — 
Essex, 10. Council Bluffs— Casey, 5 50 ; Woodbine, 2.50. 
Des Moines— Colfax Jr. C. E., 1; Newton sab.-sch. (Easter 
offering for debt, 4.35), 8.50. Dubuque— Farley, 10. Fort 
Dodge — (Hidden, 4.05; Irvington C. E., f4.12 ; Lake City, 
26.50; Plover, 2.65. Jo«a-Burlington 1st, 14.53; Mt. 
Pleasant 1st, 84.41 ; Mt. Zion, 7 ; Ottumwa West End, 4.50. 
Iowa City— Atalissa, 5.30. Sioux City— Elliott Creek, 3.96 ; 
Westminster, 8 31. Waterloo— Ackley C. E., 5; East Fries- 
land, Gei, 32.02. 247 10 

Kansas.— Rnporii— Burlingame Jr. C. E., 1.70 ; El Paso, 
3.60; Emporia Arundel Ave. sab.-sch., 1; Mulvane, 6,72; 
(Juenemo, 17.50; Waco, 2.72. Lamed— Meade Center, 2.17. 
Neosho— Fort Scott 1st C. E., 10 ; Humboldt 1st, 7.77 ; New 
Albany 1st, 2; Presbyterial, 4. Osborne — Hays City, 3; 
Long Island 1st, 5 ; Wakeenv, 12 ; Zion, 1. Solomon— Salina 
C. E.,5. 7tyeita-OakHill.'3. 88 18 

Kentucky.— Louisville— Louisville Central, 108.28. Tran- 
sylvania— Greensburgh, 12; Manchester, 1.75. 122 03 

Michigan. — Detroit— Detroit Calvary (Sustentation, 5), 
25; — Central (sab.-sch., 12.80; Mission sab.-sch., 9; C. E., 
50.91; Floral Circle, 5), 155.71; —Covenant, 4.32. Flint— 
Croswell lst,7 ; Fair Grove C. E., 2.40. Lake Superior —Iron 
Mountain C. E.,5; Marquette 1st, 52.63; Negaunee, 26.70. 
Monroe— Petersburg (C. E., 1.75), 19.15. Saginaw — Omer, 4. 

301 91 

Minnesota.— .Duiu/A -Cloquet, 5. Mankalo — Eden, 2; 
Evan 1st (Mission Station), 1 ; Morgan, 5. St. Paul— At. 

Paul Carroll St. Chapel C. E. thank offering, 2 ; — House of 
Hope C. E. thank offering, 10 ; — Macalester C. E. thank 
offering, 1; — Westminster C. E., 5. Winona— Chatfield, 
10.89. 41 89 

Missouri. — Ozark — Springfield Calvary sab.-sch., 5.45. 
Palmyra— Hannibal 1st C. E., 9.25. Platte— Roekport, 2 ; St. 
Joseph Westminster, 77.75; Tini, 5. St. Louis— Ironton, 1. 

100 45 

Montana. — Butte— Butte Immauuel C. E. thank offering, 
3.75. Helena— Manhattan 2d Holland (sab.-sch., 1.70), 7.58. 
Great Falls— Havre, 14.42 ; Stanford, 15. 40 75 

Nebraska. — Hastings— Champion, 1.56 ; Lysinger, 3 -Ox- 
ford 1st, 3.90; Stockhani, 1.50; Verona, 1; Kearney— Berg, 
4. Nebraska City — Alexandria, 5 ; Fairmont, 3.78 ; Hebron, 
3; Utica, 1.70. Niobrara— Oakdale, 2.28; O'Neill, 3.50. 
Omaha— Omaha 1st C. E. thank offering, 17.60 ; Zion Bohe- 
mian, 1. * 47 82 

New Jersey. — Elizabeth— Elizabeth Greystone (for debt), 
100; Lamington sab.-sch., 5.13; Railway 1st, 87.15. Jersey 
City— Passaic Dundee sab.-sch., 10.20; Kingsland C. E, 5. 
Monmouth— Asbury Parklst,51 cts.; Beverly C.E., 10. Morris 
and Orange— Madison sab.-sch. Missionary Society, 100 ; 
Orange 1st, 800; South Orange 1st C. E., 50 ; Summit Central, 
271.77. Newark— Caldwell sab.-sch., 7.80 ; Newark Calvary, 
25; — Central sab.-sch., 8; — Forest Hill, 25; — Park, 
63.57 ; — Roseville, 277.17. New Brunswick — Trenton 1st, 
13.50; — Bethany, 5. Newton— Andover C. E., 3; Newton 
C. E., 18.47. West Jersey— Haddontield 1st C. E., 6. 1892 27 

New Mexico.— Arizona — Peoria sab.-sch., 2.73; Sacaton 
Pima Indian, 5. Rio Grande— Albuquerque 1st, 28.77; So- 
corro 1st C. E. thank offering, 4. Santa Fe — Taos, 1. 41 50 

New York. — Albany — Albany 2d, 19; Mariaville, 6; 
Schenectady 1st Sr. Dept. sab.-sch., 6.50 ; West Galwav, 3 ; 
West Troy 1st, 9.98. Binghamlon— Afton, 12.72; Mason- 
ville, 14 ; Windsor C. E., 2.98. Boston— South Boston 4th, 
6.89. Brooklyn— Brooklyn 1st (City Park Branch, 20), 920; 
— Cumberland St. Chapel, 12.50 ; — Greene Ave. C. E., 13 38 ; 
— Lafayette Ave. M. C, 25.85. Cayuga — Auburn 2d, 11.84; — 
Calvary, 16.26; — Central (for debt), 11. Champlain — 
Champlain Jr. C. E., 9; Keeseville, 17.11. Chemung— Elmira 
Lake St., 103. Genesee — Castile, 6.35. Long Island — Bridge- 
hampton, 16.50; Remsenburg, 13; Southampton sab. -sen., 
67.99. Lyons— Fairville C. E., 1 ; Williamson C. E. thank 
offering, 5. Nassau — Glen Wood, 2 ; Hempstead Christ 
Church C. E., 5. New York— New York 1st, 4 ; — 4th Ave. 
Y. P. Prayer Meeting Association, 6 ; — Covenant Willing 
Workers' Bank, 10 ; — Lenox W. II. and F. M. Society i for 
debt), 6.05; — Sea and Land, 11.87; — Washington 
Heights C. E., 12.50; — West Y. W. Asso., 33.10; 
West End C. E , 5. Niagara— Lyndonville 1st C. E. 
thank offering, 6. North River—Sew Hamburg C. E., 3.84; 
Newburg Calvary, 73.54. Rochester — Charlotte (5 members 


47S Riverside Drive New York 97 N V 




of sab.-seh. b'day offering, 1) (Jr. C. E., 2.58) 3.58 ; Lima C. 
E., 5; Livonia (C. E., 50 cts.), 8.78; Parma Center, 2.25; 
Rochester Brick (sab.-seh. Easter 'offering, 38.30), 50.80. 
St. Lawrence— Hammond Chippewa Bay C. E., 2. Steuben — 
Almond, 4; Corning sab.-seh., 16. Syracuse— Camillus, 1.25; 
Fayetteville (sab.-seh., 9.62), 14.68 ; Oswego Grace sab.-seh., 
2.">, Syracuse 1st C. E., 30.55; — Park Central, 115.57. Tray 
— Cambridge, 13.20. Utica— Little Falls sab.-seh., 34.50; 
Old Forge, 3; West Camden C. E. thank offering, 2.50. 
Westchester— Bridgeport 1st, 5; Irvington C. E., 25; Mt. 
Vernon 1st, 250 ; New Rochelle 2d, 20.89. 2143 30 

North Dakota. — Bismarck— Mandan, 4. Fargo— Edge- 
ley Dorcas Society, 6.50. 10 50 
Ohio. — Dayton — Franklin, 2; Oxford sab.-seh., 12.82. 
IAma— Ottawa C. E., 2.50. Mahoning— Clarkson (sab.-seh., 
2.63), 5 ; Youngstown 1st, 27.52. St. ClairsviUe— Concord, 9 ; 
Powhatan, 2.42. Steubenville— East Liverpool 1st, 127.17; 
^2d, 9.90; Unionport, 2. Wooster— Belleville C. E., 3. 

203 33 
Oregon.— East Oregon— Cleveland sab.-seh., 4.10; Joseph, 
1.50 ; Union, 4.16. Southern Oregon— Grant's Pass Bethany, 
85. Willamette — Woodburn, 7. 101 76 

Pennsylvania.— A llegheny — Allegheny Central, 37.33; 
Aspinwall, 1.50. Blairsville— Couemaugh,3.26 ; New Flor- 
ence, 6.39. Butler — Harrisville, 5; Pleasant Valley, 1. 
Chester— New London, 10. Clarion— Marionville C. E., 10. 
Erie— Sand; Lake, 3.25; Tideoute Mission Band, 5. Hunt- 
ingdon— -Bedford sab.-seh., 9; Sinking Creek, 8; Spring 
Mills, 6. Kittanning— Ebenezer, amember, 5; Marion, 15; 
Saltsburgh sab.-seh., 30. Lackawanna— Franklin, 4; Har- 
mony, 65 ; Wyoming S. S., 6. Lehigh— South Bethlehem 1st, 
12; White. Haven Young Folks' Mission Auxiliary, 1.15. 
Northumberland— Emporium, 15; Pennsdale, 1 ; Trout Run, 
2. Philadelphia— Philadelphia 1st, 75; — 9th, 63 ; — Prince- 
ton, Mr. F. H. Beeder, 2.50 ; — West Park, 20. Philadelphia 
North— Falls of Schuylkill (sab.-seh , 12.50), 29; Morrisville 
sab.-seh., C.19; Pottstown 1st Jr. C. E., 3; Reading 1st, 25. 
Pittsburgh— Pittsburgh East Liberty, 83.86; — Mt. Washing- 
ton sab.-seh., 16.25. Redstone— Tent, 10.53. Shenango — 
West Middlesex, 4.50. Washington— East Buffalo sab.-seh., 
6; Fairview, 10; Washington 1st sab.-seh., 80.70; West 
Union, 5. Wellsboro — Kane sab.-seh., 4.50. Westminster- 
Chestnut Level, 2.62; Lancaster 1st, 20.40; New Harmony, 
16. 745 93 

South Dakota.— ^46erdeen— Sisseton, 1.25. Central Da- 
kota—Artesian W. M. S., 15 ; Endeavor C. E., 2.50 ; Huron 
sab,-sch., 15; Onida C. E., 50 cts. Dakota— Flandreau, 2. 
Southern Dakota— Kimball (C. E., 3), 6; White Lake (sab.- 
seh., 2.50), 4. 46 25 
Tennessee.— Kingston— Bethel, 9.62. Union— Knoxville 
1st, 10; Shannondal'e, 50. 69 62 
Texas. — Austin — Austin 1st, 85 ; Houston Westminster, 10. 
North Texas— Jacksboro, 8.60. Trinity— Albany, 32.85 ; Dal- 
las Exposition Park (L M. S., 35.75), 46.20. 182 65 
Utah — Boise — Bellevue, 5.50. Utah — Evanston, 7; 
Franklin, 1 ; Monroe C. E. (for debt), 5: Richmond, 25 cts.; 
Salt Lake City 3d, 25 ; Spanish Fork Assembly's, 1. 44 75 
Washington.— ^asia— Hvdah, 5; Jackson, 4; Sitka 1st 
(C. E., 7.50), 15.60. Otym/Jia-Ridgefield, 10. Puget Sound 
— Bellingham Bay, 4.44. Walla Walla— Kendrick sab.-seh. 
Easter offering, 2. 41 04 
Wisconsin.— Chippewa— Bessemer, 18. La Crosse— Beth- 
lehem, 3. Milwaukee — Racine 1st, 65.50; — Bohemian, 5. 
Winnebago— Coullairdville, 4; Little River, 2.25; Merrill 
2d sab.-seh., 2. 99 75 

Total received from churches $7,225 03 

Woman's Executive Committee 4,534 47 

Total 911,759 50 


David S. Ingalls, late of Springville, N. Y., 8.50 ; 
.Mrs. Charlotte Morris Spence, Baltimore, Md., 
975; Estate of Eliza Danforth, Binghamton, 

N. Y., 248.40 ; Estate of Mary K. Black, late of 
Cadiz,*)., 290; Dr. Jacob M. Gemniell, late of 
Philadelphia, Pa., 237.50; M. Henrietta Cady, 
late of Sing Sing, N. Y., 750: Estate of William 
McCrea, late of Cloverport, Ky., 137.12 $2,646 52 


R. P. Hall, Mitchell, S. D., 1 ; "Cash, Chicago," 
200; Mrs. Harvey's box, 1.60; Rebecca Beau, 
Crandall, Kans.. 1 ; Charles Peterson, Delphos, 
Kans., 40; Presbyterian Relief Association of 
Nebraska, 107.03 : Rev. T. L. Sexton, Seward, 
Neb., 5; J. D. T. Hersey, New York, 25; A 
Friend, Toledo, O., per R. M. B., 1 ; Raymond 
H. Hughes, A